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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
industrial revolution
The shift from producing goods by hand in the home to manufacturing them by machine
enclosure system
new approach to agriculture
Open-Field System-
Landowners allowed small farmers to plant crops in a part of the owners’ fields
Under the old open field system, small farmers had at least three fields on which to grow crops. They planted two of the fields each year and rested the third
What the farmers planted instead of keeping a field fallow. It returned nutrients to the dirt instead of taking from it. Turnips and clover.grows on a vine.
Charles Townshend-
Argued that none of the fields had to be kept fallow.
Jethro Tull-
An English farmer who invented the seed drill, planted seeds in a row. Also invented the horse drawn hoe to break up the soil between the rows of plants.
Cyrus McCormick
An American who invented the reaper which became one of the most important of the laborsaving devices
John Kay
invented the flying shuttle. The shuttle made it possible for one person instead of two to operate the weaving loom.
James Hargreaves
Invented the spinning Jenny
this machine spun 8x faster than the traditional spinning wheel
Edmund Cartwright
invented a more effective power loom
this created more demand for more and more raw cotton
Eli Whitney
created the cotton gin in 1793
. Also introduced the idea of standard or interchangeable parts. Before this weapons or tools were made by hand.
domestic(cottage) system
goods produced by hand at home
James Watt
Scottish man who improved the steam engine in the late 1700’s, power came from burning coal
Mass Production
to make a good each worker made only one part of it
henry Ford
introduced the assemble line in the United States
The system under which a country's government strictly regulated its economy
Adam Smith
Major economist of the enlightenment Believed that a country's government should allow its businesspeople to compete freely with one another
Laissez Faire
French Phrase that means "leave it alone" economic theory that promoted unregulated competition
New business people who brought diversity to the middle class
disapproved of both the aristocracy and the poor because they believed that neither group worked hard enough
White Collar Workers
Traveling salesmen, bookkeepers, store managers, and office clerks. Term comes from the white shirts they wore to the office
Blue Collar Workers
Factory workers and other laborers. Term comes from the color of the shirts they work often
developed around neighborhoods
epidemics of cholera typhoid fever and tuberculosis broke out increasing the already high death rate among slum dwellers
Robert Fultun
an American who applied the principle of steap power to boats ran his steam boat the CLERMONT up the Hudson River to Albany
George Stephenson-
England demonstrated the first successful steam-powered railroad locomotive.
George Stephenson-
England demonstrated the first successful steam-powered railroad locomotive
Karl Benz-
German man who created the first automobile powered by an internal combustion engine.
Gottlieb Daimler-
Also of Germany, introduced a gasoline-powered engine. It was eventually used to run automobiles.
Orville and Wilbur Wright-
Made the first successful flight in a heavier-than-air plane
Charles Lindbergh-
made a solo, non-stop flight from New York to Paris in 1927.
William Cooke, Samuel F. B. Morse, and Charles Wheatstone-
developed the telegraph
Cyrus Field-
linked North America and Europe through a transatlantic cable.
Alexander Graham Bell-
Successfully developed a telephone in 1876.
Guglielmo Macroni-
Scientist who invented the wireless telegraph that further sped up communication.
John Fleming, and Lee De Forest-
developed the radio
Vladimir Zworykin- .
Russian born American who invented tubes for broadcasting and receiving pictures through radio waves
Edwin Drake-
drilled the first oil well. Tapped into sources in Western Pennsylvania.
Alessandro Volta-
Created the first electric battery.
Thomas Edison-
Developed electric generators and they began to light city streets in London and New York.
Invisible hand-
economics like physics is governed by law
John Dalton-
Stated that atoms are the smallest parts of elements and that each element is made up of one kind of atom. Laid the foundation for modern atomic theory.
Michael Faraday-
Demonstrated that magnetism can produce electricity
Wilhelm Roentgen-
Announced the discovery of x-rays.
Marie Curie-
discovered two radioactive chemical elements, radium polonium.
Charles Darwin-
A British naturalist who changed many people’s ideas about how new forms of plants and animals have come into being
Gregor Mendel-
Greatly influenced the field of genetics in the 20th century
Edward Jenner-
A British Doctor, introduced the practice of vaccination to prevent smallpox.
Louis Pasteur-
French Scientist who explained why the vaccination procedure works
-also invented pasteurization
the heating of milk that kills bacteria.
Robert Koch- .
German Doctor who expanded the knowledge of how germs cause diseases
Joseph Lister-
Began to use strong chemicals kill bacteria in operating rooms.
William T.G. Morton-
An American dentist who developed a way of making surgery safer and easier for patients
Romantic Style-
Romantic paintings were dramatic, emotional, and sometimes fantastic.
Francisco Goya- .
A great Spanish painter who portrayed the struggle of the Spanish people against the armies of Napoleon
Eugene Delacroix-
the greatest of the French Romanticists. Painted the Massacre at Chios.
Gustave Courbet-
French Realist Painter who Tried to show life as it really was.
Honore Daumier-
Another French realist who drew social criticism and political cartoons.
Impressionists who wanted to show the effect of light on the objects or scenes they painted.
Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Edgar Degas-
leading impressionists.
concerned themselves with form, space, and blocks of color rather than with the actual appearance of a subject.
Paul Cezzane, Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, and Georgers Seurat-
Were all among the most important postimpressionistic painters.
Greatest romantic composer
Richard Wagner-
Composed operas featuring heroes and gods from German folklore.
Giuseppe Verdi-
Created great operas. Strong nationalist who supported the Italian struggle for unification under a central government.
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky-
A great Russian composer.
Jean Sibelius and Edvard Grieg-
Wrote important nationalistic music.
Claude Debussy-
Wanted his listeners to react to his compositions as if they were poems without words.
Percy Shelley and John Keats-
Wanted their work to liberate the human spirit and makie it brave, generous and creative.
Samuel Coleridge and William Wordsworth-
Leading British romanticists
Sir Walter Scott and Alfred, Lord Tennyson-
both wrote stories about the middle ages.
Alexandre Dumas-
Created excited and popular adventure novels.
HMS Biegel-
Boat that Charles Darwin was on to sail the Galapagos.
James Cooper-
Wrote novels about the relations between frontier settlers and Indians.
Mary Ann Evans-
Wrote under the name George Eliot. She was a very influential English novelist.
George Shaw-
criticized the social attitudes and customs of his day.
Henrik Ibsen-
Challenged 19th century ideas about how people should behave.
Leo Tolstoy-
One of Russia’s most famous authors. Tried to demonstrate that humans are not really free but act according to a force called “historical necessity.”
Mark Twain-
Real name was Samuel Clemens, used humor to poke fun at American society.
Robert Owen-
Wealthy businessman who had radical ideas about how to make life better for working people.
Tried to establish ideal communities in which the residents contributed to and shared in the economic success equally.
Louis Blanc
a French utopian socialist who owned a news paper. Attacked the French government for giving the industrialists, or capitalists, too much freedom.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels-
published a pamphlet titled Communist Manifesto. The ideas discussed in it came to be called scientific socialism or communism.
the working class
the owners of the businesses
people who worked in the same occupation or industry joined together in organizations to improve their wages and working and living conditions.
Collective Bargaining-
Union members elected representatives to present their requests or demands to an employer
refusal to buy the product and urging others not to buy it until the employer came to an agreement with the union.
Black Listing-
Branded selected workers as undesirable employees. Meant that the selected workers could not get jobs in their usual line of work.
Knights of Labor-
Members included skilled and unskilled workers, woman, and African Americans. Called for and eight-hour working day and the banning of child labor as well as other reforms.
American Federation of Labor-
became the most important national labor union. Joined with the congress of industrial organizations.
Reform Bill-
gave suffrage, or the right to vote, to all males who owned a certain amount of property.
Elementary Education Act-
Made it possible for all children in Great Britain to get an elementary school education.
Michael Sadler-
set up a Select Committee on Child Labor in parliament. The reports made by this committee resulted in a law limiting the working day of children aged 9 to 12 to 8 hours and those 13 to 17 to 12 hours.
Minimum Wage-
lowest amount that employers are allowed to pay their workers.
13th Amendment-
Outlawed slavery.
15th Amendment-
extended suffrage to all men regardless of their race or national origin.
helped reformers win public support for changes.
American social reformers in the early 1900s.
Louis Napoleon-
Was a more repressive dictator then his uncle napoleon Bonaparte.
Paris Commune-
Workers of Paris that set up their own government.
Atlantic Migration.
movement of European emigrants to USA
Thomas Malthus-
In his Essay on the Principle of Population Malthus had pointed out that human populations would always increase faster then the amount of food necessary to feed them.
Iron Law of Wages-
Ricardo stated that as the population got larger, more and more people would need work
Herbert Spencer-
Felt that society progressed the same way that animals had developed from primitive into more complex beings.
Survival of the Fittest-
It ensured that society would eventually consist of only the strongest and most productive people.
Social Darwinism-
Application of the idea of natural selection to society.
Global Economy-
Today almost all the countries of the modern world are interdependent. They rely on each other for goods and services.
The expansion of Western nations into the less industrialized regions of the world during the 19th century set the stage for our global economy