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77 Cards in this Set

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steppe peoples
nomadic groups, roamed central asia, depended on animals, powerful chiefs- protection, provide for growing population, calvalry units, military threate to neighboring people who were more culturally developed, invasions
calns
groups based on family ties,
Seljuk Turks
first to engage in conquest, overthrew weak abbasid rulers, Baghdad- hired turkish warriors, poewrful, control abbasid government,
Muslim turks (seljuk Turks)
to middle east, settlements, restored sunni caliphate, gained control over trade routes, wealth to build an empire, invaded plaisn of asia minor, defeated byzanitnes- Battle fo Manzikert, Alexius I, fear of turks, Crusades, skillled warriors
Seljuk Turk gov.
skilled warriors, no well organized, lacked traditions of governemnt, difficult to hold empire togther, local officials- act independant rulers, fihgt, internal fueds weakened them
mongols
dominant nomadic group, Mongolia- northwest China, herders, animals, small communities where fertile land, little possesions, trade for hwat needed, few large cities, clans, warriors on horses with bows and arrows
yurts
traveling tents
genghis Khan- 1206-1227
Temujin, organized one governent, plan military campagines- triabl chiefs meet, organized military wiht cavalry, officers chosen for abilities, most skilled fighting force, khan-absolute ruler, "universal Ruler", large empire
yasa
law code developed under Ghesgis Khan
mongol conquests
ghen Khan armies, conquered turks, tribute moneyu and new recruits, invaded china, learn chinse things, all china under land, mongol dynasty all country, terror, destroy and kill, halted by Egyptian Mamluks
Batu
commander, conquered east slavic lands
Helagu
commander, capture baghdad nad enslaved inhabitants, 1258, setback to isalmic civilization,
Mongol empire
largest land empire in history, great trade routes, peace in region, respect conquered groups, chinses ideas and practices, converted to Islam, turkish principal language, Russian mongol tradtions and customs, controlled slavic principalities, allegians to khan in mongolia, local rulers self reliant, independant domains
Timur Lenk
lTurkish- Mongol chief, rose to power, leader small nomadic tribe, extended, spread Islam, descent Ghengis khan, united turk- mongols, establushed centers of civilization, Samarkand, defeat Ottoman and Ankara, effor failed gain mroe terriroty, died, empire collapsed, ottomans regain lost land-began building of their state
Samarkand
most influential city, wealthy trade and craft center,timur buried here
han dynasty
early china, colapsee 220
yan jian
united chin, sui dynasty, Empreor Wen, renewed goasl and traditions fo HAn dynasty, public works projectc, built china canal, rebuilt great wall, built Changan, forced labor, peasnats unhappy, revolt, 618
Li Yuan
rebellious lord, emperor, Tang dyansty 618-907, expansion
tai Cong
military genouis, son of Li Yuan, shrewd admin, storng cdentral government,
tang governemnt
civili service exams, test knowledge of Cofucian concept, any male take test, part in governemnt,peasnants- land to farmers and enforced peace, experimintation
Confuciuansim
obey emperor like son to father,
meritocracy
systme in which people were selected for talent and ability rather than family ties, didn;t meet ideal in practice
foreign influences
roads and waterways, travel easire, increase trade, silk road, camel caravans, new ideas, Buddhism, Changan largest city,
Gaozong
succed Tai Cong, married empress wu, ruled mostly
xuanzang
empress wu grandson, emperor, welcomed artisit, porcelain and pottery- "China", Due Fue and Li Bo- poets,
Tang Scholars
encyclopedias, dictionaries, stories, block printing,
Tang decline
splendor masked military waeknes, turkish revolt sucessful, cut off trade routes, fell 907
Zhao Kuangyin
Song dynasty, military general, peace with north mongols- Khitan- paied with silver, Jurchen- nomadic people, capture capital Kaifeng,
Song dynasty
capital at Kaifeng, roayl court at Hangzhou,tax revenue, public works, irrgaition, new crops, increased trade, Hangzhou became capital, chinese cuisine, porcelain- best ever made, landscape painting,
Song Scholars
resented foreign influence,
Neo- Confuciansim
official state philosophy, combination buddhism confucian and daosim, firmly entrenched civil service system, determing knowledge main focous on tests,
Mandarins
people who passed the test and becamea wealthy elite group, economic growth
Song decline
enemies used tactic agaist them, Mongols-1234, fall in 1279
Yuan Dynasty
Mongol dynasty, first conqueres rule most of country, highest gov. positions to mongols or foreignors, stable order, travel and trade improved, more contacts, weak sucessor Kub. Chinese rebellions, Zhu Yuanzhang- monk, army overthrew dynasty
Kublai Khan
first great mongol emperor, extened rule beyond china, invaded japan- insucessful, complied with chinese traditions, maintain mongol culture, document in mongolian traslated into Chinese, died in 1294, weak sucessor
Marco Polo
cenetian, explorer, traeled on Khans' mission, all over, wealthy, jailed, Rustichello, Description of the world,
Korea
peninsula east coast, bridge b/w chian and japan, descent form Tangun, immigrants form norht asia
Tangun
son of a bear and god who created first korean kingdom
Shamanism
belief that good and evil spirits inhabit both living and inatimate things,
shamans
preists, interced between human and spirit worlds,
Chianses invaastion- 109
controled by Han, after fall regain control
3 kingdoms period
Kogouryo, Silla, Paekche, adopted elemts chinses culture, COfucaisnim, Buddhism, Calligraphy, Silla- Queen Sondok- observatory
Silla conquer- 668
peace, prosperity and creativity, porcelain, mask dances, Buddhism state religon
Tripitaka Koreana
largest collection buddhist scriptures
Yi dynasty- 1392
built Hanyang as captital,avoid contact with outside world, "hermit Kingdom"
Neo Confuciansim Korea
state doctrin, eldest son bound to serve parents until their deaths, women not allowed out until after dark and with permission form husband,
King Sejong
Bronze instrument to measure rain, created Hangul
Hangul
Korean alphabet that uses 14 consanants and 10 vowelsm
Admiral Yi-Sun-Shin
ironcald warships, "turtle ships", war against japan
Japan
archipelego, four larges islands, Honshu, Shikoku, Hokkaido, Kyushu
japan geographhy
isolation form mailand, mountains, little farmland, rely on sea- protection, food, transportation, reverence for nature, natural disasters
japan creation myth
two brothers Izanagai and Izanami- bole into water droplets islands, Amateraus- sun godess, Susanowo- storm god, susa destoryed everything beanished to earth, descendants first inhabitants of japan,
Ninigi
grandson of Amaterasu, govern Hoshu
Jimmu
conquered descendants of susanowo, first emperor of japan, traditon, sword, mirror and jewels, ama descendants except Hirohito- WWII
early people japan
hunter gatherers, easily invade, little technonogly, better methods- agriculture- rice main food, clans- ruled own regions
shito
the way of the gods,k group of families wiht common ancestor, ancestor as kami- spirit, dwelled within paopl and inatimate objects, festivals and ceremonies, performed by hea dof clans
Yamato clan
militayr skill and prestige, desenct from amaterasu, loose rule over most japan, clans continue rule own lands, loyalty to yamaot chief, intially politica pwoer, then went to members of Soga family, emperor still because iterced with gods,
chinese influeces in japan
buddhism national religon, cultural exchange, adopted chises charachters for writing, art medicine astronomy, curiosity
Prince Shotoku
leder sourt offical, programs encourace learnign form chinse, buddhist temples, sent peopleto china, constitution paln for japan- how govenrment offical should act
Fugiwara family
pwoer after Shotoku death, model gov after china, strogn central gov
Taikai reforms
great change, all land under empror not calns, clan leaders oversee work but not assign land or collect taxes, civil service exams not accpeted, throguh family, stil land under clan leaders
Nara period 710
first permant captila at nara, imperial palace, todaiji temple, buddhism peak, not replace shito, different needs, lShito- inked people to homelnad, buddhism spritual rewrds, both, first written litreraturem hitsories
heian period 794
new capitl Heian- Kyoto, no more culturl missions, dwellers among the clouds, pursuit og beauty- calligraphy, fashion, literature, neglected governremnt, warlike provincial leaders, running esates like individual territories, ingnoring emperors, refuse pay taxes, lost cotrol empire
Lady Shikabu Murasaki
wrote the Talke of the Genji, first novel, andout warrior named genji
Taira and Minamoto
powerful court families, fights, minamoto won,
Yoritomo Minamoto
head minamoto family , shogun- general, most real political nad militayr power, Kublai Khan invasion- lost
shogunate
military govenrment from Kamakura, empero stil in kyoto
Kamikaze
divine wind
ashinkaga family
tired to control, failed, japan broke apart,
samuri
powerful land owning warriors, pledge to daimyo , services
daimyo
most powerful samuri, lords
Japan feudalism 1336
samurai to daimyo, taxes to farm land, recived protection,
Bushido
strict code of honor, way of the warrior, braveyr, chivalry, edure suffering and defend honor at all costs, dishonored commit suicide, women too, Talke of the Heike
merchant class japan
workshops, towns, castles, guilds- za, chinses copper coins
Japan religion and arts
buddhism, relegious groups- life in paradise, trust buddah, easy, no use for monks and prieststs, common peopl epaly role, patriotism, japan center of univers
Zen
brought form china, individual life in harmony with nature, rejected book learning and locigal though, free mind, act instinctibley, meditation, zen garden, tea ceremony,
Ikebana
flower aranging