Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was causing rapid change in North America by 1800?
The movement of people.
How did Jefferson's actions reflect the concerns of mostly southerner and westerners?
He focused on bringing new lands to the US.
Which groups were found off the Northwest coast of the US?
Makah Indians (fishing)
Russian ships (furs)
Spanish (worried about Russians)
British (looking for NW passage)
American traders
What caused Spain to start colonizing their lands on the west coast?
Fear that the Russians from Alaska would start settling their.
Who were Father Junipero Serra and the San Diego Mission?
Father serra headed the religious part of Spain's colonization in California - converting Indians and setting up settlements.
Why was the San Diego mission eventually burned?
Non-mission Indians revolted against the Spanish authorities and burned the mission.
How many missions did the Spanish set up by 1800?
Who was the first white person to travel all the way across North America to the Pacific?
British Canadian explorer Alexander Mackenzie.
Who first laid claim to the lands in the Pacific northwest?
The British, following Mackenzie's trip.
How did the Americans get to the Pacific northwest and why did they want to be there?
They sailed around the tip of South America, coming to the Pacific northwest for furs.
Who was Captain Robert Gray?
He sailed his ship Columbia into a river between Washington and Oregon, naming the river Columbia River after his ship.
Why did Indians call all white men "Bostons"?
Because there were so many New Englanders there that they thought all white men were from Boston.
How did the horse cause an economic and social revolution for the Indians?
It enabled them to TRAVEL long distances between watering places, hunting BUFFULO across the mid-west.
Why was the US westward movement in direct collision with the Indian's new way of life?
Jefferson was pressuring Congress to sell pioneers the same land for a very cheap price.
Toward where did the US trading policy shift when Jefferson was president?
To the Carribean, particular Hispaniola, as it was by far the largest source of trade.
Who owned the western half of Hispanola and who lived there?
France owned it and it was populated with African slaves who did the work.
What was the name of the French half of the island then? What is it today?
Then: Sainte Domingue
Now: Haiti
What crops did the French grow on Hispaniola?
Sugar, coffee, indigo and coffee - 2/3 of all of France's trade.
Who owned the eastern side of Hispanola?
What started the slave rebellion against France?
The French Revolution reached the island and threw it into chaos.
Who led the rebellion and declared the colony independent?
Pierre Toussanit L'Ouverture, the "black Napoleon."
Who supported the newly independent colony?
Northern merchants depended on trade with Hispanola so Adams and the Federalists sent military aid to L'Ouverture.
What was L'Ouverture able to do with the additional military support?
Conquer the eastern side of the island from Spain.
How did Jefferson treat L'Ouverture when he became president?
Southerners were nervous about former slaves ruling the island. Jefferson promised Napolean he'd help put down the rebellion.
Why didn't Jefferson have to make good on his promise to help Napolean?
The majority of Napolean's soldiers were killed by disease (30,000 out of 34,000) and Napolean had to withdraw.
How did the Americans end up cut off from New Orleans?
Spain cancelled their "rights of deposit" (right deliver goods to New Orleans for shipping?).
Why did New Orleans end up in French hands again?
Napolean controlled most of Spain and Europe so made a secret treaty with Spain to force them to give back New Orleans.
What did Jefferson do in response to the furious Americans who wanted to go to war with France and Spain over New Orleans?
He sent Robert Livingston, ambassador to France, to make Napolean an offer of $10 million for New Orleans.
Why did Napolean accept the offer and sell the land for $15 million?
After being forced to withdraw from Hispanola, he had to give up his hope to conquer North America.
What was the final deal between Jefferson and Napolean?
France sold the whole territory of Lousianna to the US for $15 million to make sure the British didn't get any of it.
Why was Jefferson reluctant about the purchase?
As a "strict constructionist" he wasn't sure he had the Constitutional power to buy land.
How did Thomas Paine finally convince him it was OK?
Madison said Jefferson wasn't adding powers to the Constitution, but just spreading the powers that already existed over a larger area of land.
How did Jefferson justify his actions to the Senate so that they would ratify the treaty?
He cited his "implied powers to protect the nation." (GEORGE BUSH!!!)
Who was Tecumseh?
Chief of the Shawnee nation - wrote to President Madison telling him land belonged to Indians.
What was the Corps of Discovery?
Lewis and Clark, two explorers sent by Jefferson to explore the west.
What were Jefferson's instructions for Lewis and Clark's expedition?
1. Explore the Mississippi
2. Find a water route across the continent for trade.
3. Good relations with Indians
4. Gather scientific descriptions of the topography and plant/animal life.
Who was York?
Clark's African slave and assistant on the trip.
When did the expedition start and where did the group winter?
They started in the summer of 1803 and they wintered in St. Louis.
What was St. Louis called "the gateway to the west"?
It was a hub of trading and was at the intersection of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.
Which river did the expedition start out from St. Louis?
Why did they enforce strict martial discipline on the boats?
The trip was so difficult they flogged anyone who slacked off.
What was Fort Mandan?
They built a fort near the Mandan Indian Villages (N. Dakota) to spend the second winter.
Who was Sacajawea?
A Shoshone Indian married to a French trapper - joined the group to translate.
Who was the Shoshone Chief and how did he help Lewis and Clark?
Sacajawea's brother. He traded horses with them so they could continue over land.
Where did the expedition finally reach the Pacific?
Through the Columbia River which empties into the Pacific.
What was Fort Fort Clatsop?
The fort the expedition built for the winter when no trade ship appeared to take them home.
How did the expedition finally get home?
They split into two groups and traveled overland, reuniting at Fort Union.
What were the results of the expedition?
1. dispelled people's fears of the unknown West.
2. Helped US claim [then] Oregon.
What happened to Lewis after the expedition?
He was depressed and killed himself (maybe murdered).
What happened to Clark?
Became influential in Indian Affairs.
What happened to Sacajawea?
Died at age 28.
Who was Zebulon Pike?
Explorer - set out to explore the southern part of the Lousiana Purchase.
What was Pike specifically looking for?
The headwaters of the Red River because it was the boundary between Louisianna and New Spain.
What did the Ute Indians believe about Pike's Peak?
That the Great Spirit descended from the sky there and created all life.
What were the two results of Pike's expedition?
Didn't find the headwaters but got a lot of good information.
Described the Great Plains as a desert, misleading Americans for years.
What was Stephan Long's expedition?
He set out to map the Great Plains and find the source of the Red River.
Did Long succeed in accomplishing his goals?
No because he was mistakenly following the Canadian River rather than the Red River.
What were the results of these several expeditions in general?
1. Accurate maps
2. growth of trade (John Jacob Astor)
3. US thought Indians should be moved to the "worthless" Great Plains.
What started the tension with England that led up to the War of 1812.
British seized US ships and sailors ("impressment") headed for any of England's enemies.
What was the Chesapeake Incident?
British fired on the US ship Chesapeake when it refused to submit to a search. 3 Americans dead.
Why did Jefferson respond to the English aggression with the Embargo Act of 1807 instead of declaring war?
He strongly believed internation LAW should settle disputes between nations, not war.
What did the Embargo Act of 1807 include?
No US ships to foreign ports, no foreign ships allowed in US ports.
Was the embargo effective?
No - it hurt the American and British merchants and British slaves, not the British government.
Who were the two candidates for President in 1808?
Republicans: Jefferson
Federalists: Pinckney
Who won the election and what effect did that have on the Embargo Act?
Jefferson won and he was forced to repeal the Embargo Act because Americans had been hit so hard by it financially.
Who was Tecumsah and what was his effect on Indian tribes?
Shawnee Indian Chief who vowed to stop loss of Indian lands. He united the tribes.
Who was "the Prophet"?
Tecumseh's brother and a shaman (holy man).
What was Tecumseh's reaction when Governor Harrison got the Indians to sell him the heart of the Indian Territory?
Tecumseh said the treaty was not valid because it was not made by ALL of the Indians.
What was the Battle of Tippicanoe?
Governor Harrison surprise attacked the Indians, slaughtered most, drove Tippicanoe to Canada.
How did Tippicanoe and the British get along in Canada?
Tippicanoe because allies with Britain, making US furious.
What were people who called for war with Britain called?
War hawks
Who was Henry Clay?
Congressman and war hawk who wanted to go to war and remove England from Canada permanently.
What reasons did the US give for declaring war on Britain in 1812?
1. impressment of American sailors;
2. Violations of US rights at sea;
British support of Indian resistance against Americans.
What did England do the US in the first phase of the war?
Set up a blockade stopping US ships from going in or out of US ports. (They couldn't do more because they were busy fighting France)
How well was the US prepared for war?
Not well - army was too small, state militias tried to help defend.
The Navy had the fastest ships anywhere and dedicated volunteers so they were strong.
What was the most important battle of the war?
The Battle of Lake Erie - winter of 1812 -13.
Who commanded the American navy in the battle?
Oliver Hazzard Perry.
What started the battle?
Perry's men were building ships on Lake Erie and the British attacked trying to destroy the ships.
What did Perry's banner say?
How did Perry win the battle?
When his ship was sunk used a rowboat to get to another ship (with his banner!) and sunk two more British ships.
What happened at the Battle of Thames?
Governor Harrison chased the Brits into Canada, fought them and won. Tecumseh was killed.
What happened during the second phase of the war?
The Brits burned the Capital.
Who was Dolly Madison?
James Madison's wife, First Lady. Fled the capital during the fire with important documents and Washington's portrait.
What battle was the Star Spangled Banner written for?
The battle of Fort McHenry - the flag was still standing in the morning after the Brit's attack on the fort.
What was the Battle of Lack Champlain?
The Brits were attacking from the north, but were defeated there.
What happened at the Battle of New Orleans?
The Americans defeated the Brits - Brits lost 2030 but US only lost 21.
Who was Andrew Jackson?
American general who won the Battle of New Orleans and became a huge hero.
Why wasn't the battle of New Orleans necessary?
The soldiers didn't know that the Treaty of Ghent, ending the war, had been signed two days earlier.
What did the war accomplish?
Nothing. It ended with no territory exchanging hands.