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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Early middle ages
decentrilized government, warefare, cultural isolation, famine, sparse trade, agriculture inefficient- main European economy
High Middle ages
monarchs- strong central governemnt, agriculutral improvements and larger crop yields,increased,population, towns and increased trade, chruch powerful over people, new civilization in wester europe, fear of assult diminished, europeans agressors,
Jeruslaem- Holy land, holy wars, military expeditions, "crux"- cross- vow to take up cross, gain holy land, request of assistance from Christaian, turks prevent pilrims from ientering, exaggerated, prejudice, believed that infedils controlled holy territory,
Jews- Zion gods own city- Site of Solomon/s temple, Christians- place where Jesus was crusified and reserected, Muslims- 3rd holiest city- place where muhammad ascended to the heavens
Arab invaders 600's
mostly muslims, tolerated other religions, pay taxes and follow regulations, CHristians and Jews
Seljuk turks 1100's
Muslim central asia, took jerusalem, choas, threat to the Byzantine empire, Constantinople, Defeated byzantines at battle of MAnzikert, exaggerated, prejudice, infidels,
First Crusade Causes
threat to Byzanitnes, Emperoro Alexius sent letter aksing for money for mercinaries, pope Urban II saw as oppurtunity to expand church power, Speech- Clarimont France, to frech nobles, as for voulnteer army, take jerusalem from turks, Deus Vult, God wills it,
Reasons for going on crusades
knights- always fighting with each other, nothing elses to do, choas, chance to employ fighting skills, peasants free from feudal bonds, youngest sons nothing to lose only gain wealth and power, wealth and adventure, immediate salvation and went to heaven if killed, glory, reputation, opportunity for land owners, honor, debters- canceled debts, criminal escape punishment, religious zeal
First Crusade 1099
wore red crosses of cloth, three armies, killed and massacred jews, led by french nobels, met in constatninople, reach jerusalem, 2 month siege, massacre, led by Robert of normandy, ill prepraed, knew nothing, no grand starategy, didnt\'t speak language, argued, no supplies, alexius not pleased, not looking for soldiers, didn't trust them, met in ANtioch, defeated muslim,
sucess of first crusade
reinforced hte authority of the church, strengthenedself confidence, feudal states in Syriua and Palestine, contact b/w crusaders and Byzantines, Prinicpaloity of Antioch,, COunty of Edessa, Kingdom of jerusalem, County of tirpoli, always on defensive, vulnerable
Second Crusade
Seljuk Turks, crusader states in Palestine, Pope Eugenius IV alled it, Bernard of Clarivox- monk who convinced kings to fight, Louis VII and HRE Conrad III, lead armies to palestine, always quarreling, easily defeated
Third Crusade-"Crusade of the Kings"
Saladin- leader of Muslims, united muslim forces, captured jerusalem, HRE frecderick barbossa of Germany, Phillip Augustus of France, and Richard I of England, assembled warriors, Barbossa drowned in river, Phillip turned back because of concerns in homeland, Richard reached jerusalem, even match, 3 years- truce, neither give up, christian pilgrims allowed to go to jerusalem, RIchard never entered city,
other crusades
no permamant control over palestine, loss religious goal, political and economic gain,
Fourth Crusade
Pope Innocent III, venice trading city, competition wiht constantiople , agreement with crusaders, take out constantinople, sacked for three days, pope publicly condemned crusaders, weakened Byzantine empire, drove easter and western churches farther apart, no recovery
Effects of Crusades
speed up changes in west europe, help break down feudalism, increased authority of kings, sold estates- money, serfs buy freedom, broadened european views of world, increase demand of rluxury goods, increased trade- Venice and Genoa, Muslims- united agaist one enemy, technological advances, knights aided pilgrimages
council of CLairmont
chruch meeting, volunteers, where made speech, french nobels, nulsims look bad, instant salvation, used peoploes faith, bible versus, ancestors heritage, weak and feeble not come, certain people need consent, gods will
Peasants Crusade
before the nobels of first crusade, peter the hermit- self appointed leader, peasants takeup cause, no military skill of weapons, looted for food and supplies, caused probelsm with jews and non western christians, emperor Alexius not pleased, shipped across bosphorous, massacred by turks,
Childrens crusade
popes messade motivated children as awell as adults, rescue jesus home, pure pople. leave form france and germany, killed and ensalved, famine and disease, medittereanean didn't part, went home, origin of legend of pied piper,
fitfth crusade
muslim power in egypt treid to destroy, failed
sixth crusade
no fighting at all, treaty, restore acess routes to jerusalem, CHristians still couldn't hold onto them
seventh crusade
Louis IX fought for jerusalem, he was captured and randsomed, freed eventually
Eight crusade
Louis IX tries again, mosrt of army dies form plague
cultural effects crus.
anceint greek and roman knowledge, self confidence, unknown knowledge, paved for renaissance, increased translating of greek and arabic
technological efffects crus.
geography- information about east, maps, magnetic compass, gunpowder, cannons,
political effects crus.
both poeps and kings impose direct taxes, Saladin Tithe- finance thrid crusade, national taxation, weakened fuedal nobility, castles- defensive, design- overhanging paraper, east and west combination,
military religous orders
cannons- end of knights, sefe ascort to pilgrims going to palestine,
Knights of the temple
knights templar, poverty chastity, and obedicane, safe routes b/w europe and crusader states, safeguarded money, financial institution,
Knights of the hospital of St'John of Jerusalem,
hospitalers, helped with medicine, moved to malta, knights of malta, still exist as charitable organization
teutonic knights
forcibly conqiered groups and converted them to christiantiy
commerce, trade, venice and Genoa- dominate trade, prosperity, banking tec hniques, loans, new ideas, trade- taxes and tolls navigation- safer and chaeaper, rewards,
Marco Polo
China, stories, Merchant, peper money coal, Decription of the World, European couldn't imagine, Prienc of Liarsbestseller, inspired exploration
very religious, earlier not populaar- schism, refoms, confidecne in chruch , respected and church took vows , entering monasters and new orders of monks
negative effects
people question power of chruch, reunited east and west chruch, anti- sematism,still seen in [probelsm today, decline of Byzanitne empire, god wants you to kill- controversial, religious ferver over feudalisma nd chivalry, holy war,