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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who was the patent owner that became President?
Abraham Lincoln
What did many Americans think was the key to success?
Working
What changes fueled the economic growth?
Many people from farms to cities, the number of americans working in factories grew (producing twice as much labor), the shift of water-power to steam for energy raise productivity, the rise in agriculture productivity.
In 1860, what provided a fifth of the Nations energy consumption?
Coal
What change fueled the MOST economic growth?
Rise of Agriculture
What was the changes in farms, cities, factories, power and transportation called?
Industrial Revolution
Although the industrial revolution did bring on new things,
some of the old stuff stayed the same alongside with the new stuff
Why did trees limit Agricultural productivity?
because farmers had to spend time and energy clearing them to plant
Many people moved to the midwest for agriculture becauseL\:
they did not have to spend time clearing trees!
What state added more people during the 1850's than any other state in the Union?
Illinois
To attract settlers and generate revenue, the federal government:
made most of the land available for purchase
What mostly created the increase in agricultural productivity?
the federal land policy
What became known as the "american system"?
The practice of manufacturing and assembling interchangable parts spread from gun making to other industries
New England led the nation in:
Manufacturing, shipping goods
The south and the west led the nation in:
commodities such as wheat, pork, whiskey, tobacco and cotton
British goods dominated the international market because:
they were cheaper and better than American-made products
Why did U.S Manufacturers support tariffs?
To minimize British compensation
Railroads also increased the economy because:
they linked farmers and factories in new ways
America was the worlds second greatest industrial power behind:
Great Britain
The government granted 20 million acres of federal land for:
turnpike, highway and canal projects
Railroads succeeded because:
they served both farms and cities
Westward moving population expanded because of:
muscles, animals, machines and railroads.
What were two important roles that helped open the west and unite the nation?
railroads and telegraphs
Why were railroads and telegraphs important?
they portrayed speed and efficiency and the ability to overcome vast distances
What jobs did the women have?
seamstresses, laundresses, domestic servants, factory hands, and teachers
In the North and west, slavery was slowly eliminated after:
The American Revolution
Even though slavery was elimiinated after the american revolution,
blacks were regulated to dead end jobs as laborers and servants
What was free labor and who emphasized it?
Free labor was laborers who were not slaves.. The north and the west emphasized it
Free laborers believed that:
Success was not only for the ones who inherited wealth and status, but those who were self-made men such as Abraham Lincoln
What was taught at school?
Lessons about the free labor system: self-reliance, discipline, and hard work
Free labor ideology emphasized :
labor as much as freedom
Most immigrants in the US came from:
Germany and Ireland
Why did the Germans leave Germany?
to escape deteriorating economic conditions
Irish imiigrants, unlike the Germans:
entered the US at the bottom of the free-labor ladder and struggled
German imigrants:
were bakers, beer makers, carpenters, shopkeepers, etc.
Irish immigrants came over because:
Potato blight-- a castasrophic epidemic . they were desperately poor and hungry and diseased
The Irish worked as
laborers or domestic servants. dug canals, loaded ships, etc.
What set the Irish apart from the native born residents?
Irish were catholic, natives were protestant
What did Americans think their superiorty and white culture gave them?
the god-given right to spread their civilation across the continent
The Manifest destiny was a justification for:
white settlers to take the land they wanted
The Manifest Destiny provided an ideological shield for:
conquering the west
What was imporant for the Manifest Destiny?
national pride, racial arrogance, and economic gain
Concentration was:
an Indian policy restricting Native Americans to specific areas that americans promised they would never violate
Oregon was considered:
"one of the greatest countries in the world"
The Mormons fled west to:
find religious freedom and communal security
Mormons practiced:
polygomy (more than one wife). only 1/5 of mormans actually had more than one wife
Americans viewed Mormons as:
a threat to American morality, law and institution
Every spring, Americans treked southwest to the Santa Fe trail and
took inexpensive american goods and returned home with Mexican furs, silvers and mules
Many Americans came to TX bc :
land was offered for 10 cents an acre. Most were southerners who brought slaves and cotton with them
Mexicans were afraid of losing TX to new arrivals, so they:
banned further immigration to Texas from the US and outlawed the intro of additional slaves
Texas settlers rebelled, and took refuge in mission called:
The Alamo
Texans succeeded in establishing the Lone Star Republic, a year later:
US recognized the independence of TX from mexico
In effort to increase mexican migration to CA, mexican govt granted:
ranchos, which were huge estates devoted to cattle raising
Cailfornians raised an independence movement called:
the Bear Flag revolt
Northerners applauded westward expansion, but they:
imagined expansion of liberty, not the expansion of slavery
Congress admitted Texas to the US as:
the 15th slave state
President Polk wanted what mexican Provinces?
California and New Mexico
Mexico did not want to give Polk his desired land, so:
Mexican calvary attacked American soldiers
Who had more soliders? (Mexican/American War)
Mexicans had way more soldiers
What did the Whigs believe in?
Anti-slavery and anti-war
In the Mexican/American war, most people died of:
disease. nearly all who were sick died bc of the lack of medicine. only 2000 americans died from mexican bullets
Despite their heavy loses on the battelfield, Mexico refused to:
trade land for peace
What was the most brutal of the M/A war?
Scott's assault on the Mexican Capital
American and Mexican officials signed the:
Treaty of Guadalipe Hidalgo in Mexico city
The Treat of Guadalupe::
Mexico agreed to give up all claims to TX north of the Rio Grande and to cede the provinces of New Mexico and CA. US agreed to pay Mexico $15 million.
The senate ratified
the treaty of Guadalupe
US claimed the stretch from :
the atlantic to the pacific.. now a two ocean economy
What was a consequence of Mexican Defeat:
California gold poured into the US hands, not mexican
Gold in CA was originally found in
the American river. Marshall discovered it, setting off the CA gold rush
The CA goldrush was :
one of the wildest mining stampedes in the world's history
Marshalls gold discovery transformed:
CA from foreign terriorty to statehood.
Forty-niners were:
miners in CA. Life was nasty, brutish, and often short
Men with gold in their pocket:
only temporarily found relief in saloons, dog fights, etc
San Fransisco depended on gold but suffered from:
overcrowding, fire, crime, and violence
Chinese began living in CA, but Anglos thought:
they were not fit citizens of the Golden state bc of their religion, language and dress
The majority of CHinese came to CA under a Chinese-controlled contract labor where:
each immigrant worked out the cost of his transportation.
The presence of foreeign people shattered the Anglo American dream of:
a racially and ethnicallly homogenous west.
The foreign miners law:
levied high taxes on non-americans to drive them from the goldfields.
Anglo Americans feared the hard working chinese labor because:
They thought it would cut the white labor and drive it out of the country.
Chinese were:
segregated residentially and were made ineligable for citizenship
The gold rush was a catastrophy for:
Native Americans
Indians had to move to remote areas and stay out of the way because
white behavior towards indians was brutal
Evangelical protestants:
struggled to control individuals propensity to sin
Temperance advocates:
tried to exhort drinkers to their urge for alcohol
The Evanelical temprament:
energy, self-disiciple and the faith and the world could be improved
Transcendalists believed that:
people should look within themselves for truth and guidance.
Disagreeing with transcendalists, many reformers tried to change the world by:
organizing utopian communities to prevail social arrangements. these communities never attracted more than a thousand people
Fourierist phalanxes were communities that:
individualism and competition were evils that denied the truth that men are "brothers".
Oneidas believed:
in sexual and economic communalism. thought people could have sex with whoever, and land ownership was not a priority
300 reformers led by Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott gathered IN NY for :
The first National woman's rights convention in the US.
The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments set:
an ambitious agenda to right and wrongs of women and society
The Seneca Falls Declaration of sentiments demanded:
that women have admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the US.
Womens rights conventions
called for suffrage (right to vote) and an end to discrimination against women
Seneca Declaration was not too successful but inspired:
many women to challenge the barriers that limited their opportunities.
Abolitionists:
published newspapers, held conventions and petitioned congress, but they never attracted a mass following among americans
Northerners were convinced that slavery was wrong, BUT..
they still believed blacks were inferior
White southerners and some northerners thought slavery was:
necessary and desirable
What states allowed black men to vote?
Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont
What state integrated its public schools?
Massechusetts
Many reformers focused on:
self control and discipline, while avoiding sin and alcohol. Others focused on womans rights and slavery
Reformers were unable to overcome:
free labor ideology-- based on individualism, racial prejudice and notions of male supremacy.