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28 Cards in this Set

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How did the Industrial Revolution and the Market Revolution create a new economy?
American merchants and manufacturors increased the output of goods and reorganizing work and building factories. Rapid construction of canals, railroades, and etc, by state governments and private entrepreneurs allowed manufactured goods and farm products from diff. regions to be sold everywhere.
Giving out and using it to build stuff
Division of Labor
The separation of tasks in a larger manufacturing process designed to improve efficiency and productivity but which also eroded the worker's control over the conditions of labor.
Cotton (picking, gin..etc.)
Manufacturing businesses first created in the late eighteenth century that concentrated all the aspects of production under one roof, reorganized production, and divided work into specialized tasks. These made production faster and more efficient, while narrowing the range of worker activities and skills.
Willie Wonka ( making something, efficiently)
Describe the British competition and the textile industry
Brit gov. prohibited the export of textile machinery and emigration of mechanics who knew how to build it to protect its industrial leadership. BUT, many of these mechanics still disiguised themselves and set sail. American manufacturers had an abunsance of naural resources. British producers still easily undersold the Americans. Also they used cheap labor. To challenge these advantages, Congress passed a tarriff in 1816 that gave manufacturers protection from low-cost imports of cotton. But in 1833 Congress began to reduce tarriffs causing American textile firms to go out of business.
Bulls wont let anyone out, but Lakers have talent in location. But Bulls use (torture). Lakers signed contract that protected them from Bulls stealing their spot for cheap money. But, then Lakers began to reduce
What were the changes in technology and women workers?
American producers improved on British technology by "copying" their achievements. Secondly, they found less expensive workers. They recruited many women to the company by providing evening lectures and giving them an earning. This gave them a new sense of freedom and autonomy.
Teddy Geiger copied and found a cheaper label with (whites)
A tax on imports, which has two purposes: raising revenue for the government and protecting domestic products from foreign competition. This became controversial as Republicans, who viewed it as a protective system, and Democrats, who were free traders by tradition, made the tarriff the centerpiece of their political campaigns.
Democrats:free!. Republicans: its protective enough.
t(tax) arr(on)i (imports)
Macys does this to raise own money and prevent Dillards from selling clothes in their store.
Machine tools
American born craftsmen had begun to replace British immigrants at the cutting edge of technological innovation. Machine tools were machines that were used to produce other machines with standardized parts at a low cost. The development of machine tools by American inventors facilitated the rapid spread of the Industrial Revolution.
Class of skilled craftsmen and inventors who built and improved machinary and developed machine tools for industry. They developed a professional identity and established institutes to spread their skills and knowledge.
Professional, plumbers, and (im)proval
How did Unions emerge?
More and more white Americans ceased to be self-employed and took jobs with wages but little security of employment or control over working conditions. Jorneymen, having acquired some of the skills of a traditional artisan craft, formed unions and bargain with the master artisans who employed them, to decrease the length of the workday. Many went on strike. the Working Men's Party campaigned for the abolition of banks, equal taxation, and a univesail system of public education. Some artisans moved to small towns or set up specialized shops to avoid the regimentation of factory work. Now there were two groups: self-employed craftsmen, and wage-earning workers.In 1834, local unions from Boston to Philadelphia combined their resources in the National Trades' Union, the first regional union of different trades.
Will Smith: two groups: writers and teachers
Labor Theory of Value
The belief that the price of a product should reflect the work that went into making it and should be paid mostly to the person who produced it. This was popularized by the National Trades' Union. Also, as prices and profits began to decline, employers reduced worker's wages and imposed more stringent work rules. When conditions did not improve, immigrants took the worker's places. In the 1850's, the supply of manufactures exceeded the demand for them, prompting employers to lay off or dismiss workers. One episode of overproduction preceded the Panic of 1857,a financial crisis resulting in recession.
==== immigrant fear. Panic:
Market Revolution
The combined impact of the rapidly increased production of goods and the development of a transportation network to distribute them. This led to the growth of urban production and distribution centers, western migration, and the construction of a variet of transportation methods including canals, roads, steamboats, and railroads. cds...good distribution....moved to hollywood...and developed links to new bands.
How did migration to the Southwest and the Midwest occur?
Some wanted to acquire enough land to settle their children on nearby farms, others hoped for greater profits from the fertile soil of the western territories. In the South, plantation owners encouraged by the voracious demand for raw cotton moved for more slaves to the Old Southwest (missouri and Arkansas). Small-skale farmers from the Upper South, created a second stream as they crossed the Ohio River into the NW territory, soem fleeing from planter-dominated slave states. A third stream continued to pour out of the overcrowded farming communities of New England. They settled into upstate NY and then the Old Southwest.
same...freeer slave restrictions...for future generations..
Why did Congress reduce the price of federal lands from 2 dollars an acre to just 1.25?
To meet the demand for cheap farmsteads. By 1860, the population center of American society had shifted significantly to the west.
To meet the border issue face on
Whaat did the federal and state governments do to enhance the "common wealth" of their citizens?
They took measures to create a larger market. Beginning in the 1790's , they chartered private companies to build toll-charging turnpikes in well-populated areas and subsidized road construction in the West.
McDonalds ordered Antoien to build one in Florida. this made for a
What was the National Road?
A highway that carried migrants and their heavily loaded wagons to the West, where they passed herds of livestock being driven to eastern markets. Such long distance road travel was too slow and expensive to transport manufactured goods and heavy farm crops.
like the oregon trail
The Eerie Canal.
Canals were made to carry wheat, corn, and manufactured goods to far-flung markets. The NY legislature approved the building of the canal in 1817, The NY project had three things in its favor: support of NY city merchants, backing of NY's governor who persuaded legislature to finance, and the relative gentleness of the terrain west of Albany. The eerie canal altered the ecology and economy of an entire region. It was an instant success. Generated enough revenue to repay its cost. It brought prosperity to central and western NY, carrying wheat and meat from farming communities in the interior to eastern cities and foreign markets. The canal also linked the economies of the North east and the Midwest. The benefits prompted a national canal boom.
chris in marrying: support of manager, fans, and gentleness of gp. but it altered vision forever by using it to change his popularity. linked the two. Prompted a marrige boom.
What did steamboats and other various agencies of the national government do to the creation of the interregional system of transportation?
Steamboats ensured the success of the vast transportation system. The first steamboats consumed a large amount of wood or coal and could not navigate shallow western rivers. During the 1820's, engineers broadened the boats and englarged cargo capacity. Various agencies grew rapidly, uch as the Post Office, amd the SC, headed by John Marshall, encouraged interstate communication and trade by striking down state restrictions on commerce. GIBBONS V. OGDEN the court voided a NY law that created a monopoly on steamboat travel in NY. This meant no local or state monopolies or tariffs would impede the flow of goods and services across the nation.
OG(OC) den ....water...steamboats. little brothers could not interfere with the mamas and the papas.
What happened with railroads and regional ties.
Railroads became the nation's main carriers of freight. This created close ties between the Northeast (NE) and the Midwest (MW). The MW and the NE increasingly resembled each other in ethnic composition, cultural values, and technical skills. The maritime trade that linked northeastern cotton brokers and textile plants with southern planters increased the wealth of these two regions as well but did not produce a similar social economic order. Southern investors continued to concentrate their capial in plantation economy, investing in land and slaves with impressive economic results. Planters did not invest the profits from the cotton trade to local industries but to manufactures in NE and Britain. South did not develop a well-educated workforce. Planters trained most of their slaves as field hands. South remained an agricultural economy that brought higher living standards only to 1/4 of white population who owned plantations and slaves. The national system of commerce had accentuated the agricultural character of the South even as it helped to create a diversified economy in the MW.
Planters in NE and south..soleley rap..raw
How did cities and towns grow?
The expansion of industry and trade led to a dramatic increase in the urban population. The mos trapid growth was in the new industrial towns that sprang up along rivers. Within a few decades, midwestern commercial hubs became manufacturing centers as well. Old Atlantic seaports such as Boston, Philadephlia, Baltimore, Charleston, and Ny remained important for their foreign commerce and increasingly as centers of finance manufacturing. NY's growth stemmed primarily from its dominant position in the foreign trade. It had been the best harbor in the United States, and oceangoing vessels could sail or steam up in the Hudson River to Albany and the Eerie Canal. NY based merchants also took over the cotton trade by offering finance, insurance, and shipping cotton exporters in southern ports.
What are the different classes?
A wealthy industrial and commercial elite, a substantial urban middle class, and a mass of propertyless wage earners. The industria revolution shattered the traditional order and created a society of classes, each with its own culture.
Describe the Business Elite
Government tax policies allowed this accumulation of wealth. The US treasury raised most of its revenue from tariffs, taxes on imported goods. Governments favoured wealthy class. Wealthy families set themselves apart. The desire for greater privacy by priveleged families and the massive flow of immigrants into many cities created fragmented communities, divided geographically along the lines of class, race, and ethnicity.
population favors pop
Describe the Middle Class
Product of the Market Revolution. Made up of farmers, mechanics, manufacturors, etc. Most numerous in the Ne. The size and wealth of this class continued to grow, fueled by a dramatic rise in prosperity. Surge in income along with the availability of inexpensive mass produced goods facilitated the creation of a distinct middle class culture especaially in the NE. They had moral and mental discipline. Benjamin Franklin taught the lesson of the ideal of the "self made man"
NY: struggly
"Self-made man"
Middle class icon based on an ideal tha hard work, temperate habits, and honesty in business was the key to a high standard of living for the nation and social mobility and prosperity for individuals.
Describe the New Urban Poor
Most families sent their families out to work. and the death of one parent often through them in dire need of support. By 1830's, most urban factory workers and unskilled laborers resided in well-defined neighborhoods. As immigrants poured into the nation after 1840, urban populations soared and developers squeezed more buildings on a single lot. Living in such distressing conditions, many wage earners turned to the dubious solace of alcohol.
What is the Benevolent Empire
A broad-ranging campaign of moral and institutional reform inspired by evangelical Christian ideals and created by middle-class men and women in the 1820's. Benevolence became a seminal concept in American spiritual thinking during the second Great Awakeninhg. Promoters of benevolent reform suggested that people who had experienced saving grace should provide charity to the less fortunate.Targeted old evils like drunkenness and prostitution and crime by relying on newer formss of ornaizations with staffs that set out to improve society. Women played an active role in the Benevolent Empire. Not everyone agreed with this program: men who labored twelve to fourteen hours a day for six days refused to spend their one day of leisure in meditation and prayer.
ben (good_moral) evolence (evolution..reform) my middle class
Who was Charles Finney?
Presbyterian minister. Born into a poor family, hoped to join the new middle class, but underwent a conversion to become a minister.He conducted emotional revival meetings that stressed conversion rather than instruction. He accelerated the Second Great Awakening. He became famous for converting the haughty rich.Most spectacular triumph was when he moved his revivals to big cities along the Eerie Canal. These initiatives were not altogether effective.
inside (religion) and outside (conversion)
How did Americans deal with alcohol?
Temperance movement proved to be most effective arena for national evangelical reform.American Temperance Society. Group confession, prayer, focus on family. ...etc. People took the temperance pledge.
Explain the immigration and cultural conflict
Most immigrants avoided the South because they opposed slavery, shunned blacks, or feared competition. Most prosperous immigrants were from Britain. German fimmigrants also could afford to buy land. Irish peasants were poorest. Many Germans and virtually all the Irish were Catholics, and they fueled growth of Catholicism. Owing to the Second Great Awakening, the immigrants' Catholic beliefs stirred up fear. Anti Catholics greeted the Irish by saying that Catholic immigrants would obey the Pope who had condemned republicanism as a false political ideology.Protestants joined against Catholics. Thus: even as economic revolution brought prosperity, it also divided society along the lines of class, and by encouraging the influx of immigrants, created new ethnic and religious tensions.