Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what led to the rise of feudalism?
Gothic invasions ended roman empire, trade replaced with agriculture, kingdoms fell apart
how did feudalism meet people's needs?
it provided a way for people to live off the land and be self-sufficient
what led to the decline of feudalism?
invasions ended, middle class started, resulting in the lords losing power
what sprung up to replace feudal lords?
kings and queens, strong governments (with large armies)
who controlled trade during the middle ages?
who were the two groups that invaded europe?
the Norsemen (Vikings), Germanic people
how were the serfs and the middle class different?
1. serfs farmed and middle class were artisans and merchants
2. middle class lived in villages, serfs lived on manor
3. middle class had more freedom.
what ended roman empire?
gothic invasions by Odoacer in 476 ce
who established the largest empire since Rome?
Charlemagne, leader of the Franks (Germanic people)
Who established Britain?
the Angles and Saxons (German people)
What were Norsemen notorious for?
Hit-and-run raids that devastated the land and people
who was Leif Erickson
viking, discovered New Foundland in North America 500 years before Columbus
What caused the Roman Catholic Church to grow in power during t he Middle Ages?
It was a unifying force during a time of great disunity.
How did the Church expand its power?
1. took over lots of jobs previously done by governments.
2. became the largest landholder in Western Europe because Kings and noblemen paid for the Church's services with land.
Which group had more power: the Roman Catholic Bishop or the Lords?
The Bishop - lords had to obey the Bishop or be excommunicated.
What important roles did nuns and monks play during the middle ages?
1)They continued the work of learning and the arts and 2)were the only ones to help the poor, sick or homeless.
What caused the revival of towns and trade?
1. Viking attacks grew scarcer because Europe now had Knights to defend them.
2. New farming methods increased the food supply which tripled the population.
How was life in the town different from life on the feudal manor?
People in the towns were much freer than the serfs on the manor.
What caused the middle class to develop in Europe?
People in the towns worked as merchants and artisans and had their own money. Many were self-employed.
What did the many Gothic cathedrals built in the towns symbolize?
The people were tired of centuries of warfare and they had taken faith in Christianity. The cathedrals' tall spires reached toward heaven and symbolized their hope that the next life would better than this one.
Which European city state was the leader in trade with Asia? Why?
Since it maintained its contact with Constantinople (capital of Turkey,now called Istanbul) it was in a position to profit when the Crusades increased contact with the Middle East.
What were the Crusades?
A series of wars begun by Pope Urban II. They were military expeditions to recover Christian Holy Land from the Muslims.
What is the Muslims' version of the Crusades?
Jihad - a war in the name of Islam, to protect Islam
What do the terms "Crusade" and "Deus lo volt" mean?
Crusade = to mark with a cross
Deus lo volt = God wills it
Who fought in the Crusades?
Christian Knights from all over Europe
What was the "Children's Crusade"?
1212 - thousands of children involved, most died or were sold into slavery. None reached Palestine.
What was the result of the battle to take back the Holy Land during the Crusades?
The Christians never could reclaim the Holy Land but the Crusades opened up trade with the East and made Europeans aware of the advanced ways of life in the East, including luxury goods.
What kinds of things did Europeans want from the East and what did they trade for them?
They wanted China, silks and dyes, and MOST importantly spices. They traded leather,tin, swords and wool cloth.
Who was Marco Polo?
One of Italy’s most famous merchants (“The Merchant of Venice” by Shakespear). He lived in China for 24 years.
What was Marco Polo
s contribution to Europe?
Marco Polo's book "The Travels of Marco Polo" introduced Europeans to things they had never heard of before like precious stones, carpets, silk, coal, etc.
What caused the decline of feudalism?
1. Serfs ran away to the towns so lords had to pay serfs to stay and work; 2.lords became more dependent on the goods they could buy in towns; 3. strong rulers (Kings and Queens) emerged, and formed kingdoms that were the beginnings of modern countries.
What was the first Kingdom to unite under a strong monarchy?
England under the kings of Wessex. They held out against the Vikings and the Danes and preserved their Anglo-Saxon ways of life.
Who was William the Conqueror?
He became King of England in the Battle of Hastings, 1066. He had been the conqueror of Normandy (now France) previously.
Who was King Henry II?
The most powerful English monarch. Set up the Great Council, established Common Law and trial by jury. 1154
What was the Magna Carta?
In 1215 English nobles rebelled against King John. The Magna Carta created special council that had to “agree” to all taxes before they could be implemented, and also guaranteed a fair trial.
Who was King John?
King Henry II's son who was unpopular because he taxed so heavily. He also lost his lands to the French. (a loser...)
How were France and Portugal able to build strong governments and become independent nations?
They raised large enough armies to enforce order.Order was extrememly important to the people because it brought security (after centuries of war).
How were the countries of France and Germany created?
In 843 the Treaty of Verdun had divided up Charlemagne’s Empire into France and Germany.
Who was the King Otto?
King of Germany, conquered part of Italy.
How and where did the Renaissance begin?
In Italy when scholars returned to "classical learning" by studying the works of Ancient Greece and Rome (remind you of anything? that's right - BLS's classical curriculum)
Where did Europeans find the classical texts and advanced scientific knowledge during the Renaissance?
The Muslims had preserved the ancient texts and developed extensive scientific and medical knowledge.
How did Renaissance people view life differently from people in the Dark Ages?
In the Dark Ages (Medieval), life sucked and you looked forward to heaven. In the Renaissance, people had a renewed sense of human possibility and potential during this life.
Who invented the printing press?
Gutenberg in 1454 (German goldsmith)
What was the effect of the printing press on Europeans?
Fast production of books allowed ideas to spread rapidly. Knowledge of common people increased dramatically.
what caused columbus to go to Portugal
when he was 25 (in 1476) he was on a ship that sunk and he swam to the coast of Portugal
how did the shipwreck change columbus's life?
in lisbon he learned map-making from his brother and studied math and geography
what excited columbus?
marco polo's description of japan
what did sailing with the portuguese fleet teach columbus?
deep sea navigation, how to sail a caravel, and that winter winds off or north africa blew from the east.
what resulted from columbus's marriage to a sea captain's daughter?
he was able to work in her father's map rooms and gained access to closely guarded navigation secrets
how was columbus's visions different than most peoples?
although people agreed that if you sailed across the world that you would reach india, they also thought that it was too far for anyone to actually be able to sail it
where did columbus get his idea that the ocean was smaller than people thought?
from the bible where it said that the world was made up of 6 part land and 1 part water (the actual land to water ration is 3:1)
where did columbus go next to find support for his idea?
what was happening at the time that made king ferdinand and queen isabella put him off for 6 years?
the Reconquist: part of the crusades in which Spain kicked out the muslims)
what were isabellas goals for the voyage?
to spread christianity
what were columbus's goals for the journey?
personal wealth, power, and trade
what happened on august 2, 1492 in spain?
isabella kicked out the jews and took their land and property and never re-paid them for it
what was the date of columbus's departure?
august 3, 1492
how did columbus prevent a mutiny?
he faked the ship's log entries to make it look like they were closer to spain than the actually were
where did columbus land?
in the bahamas (possibly samana cay)
where did he think he was and what did he name the place he landed?
he thought it was Asia and he named it san salvador
where else did columbus explore to?
cuba, haiti, and the doiminican republic (which he called hispaniola)
what was la navidad?
a fort built by the wood from his wrecked ship the santa maria
Who did Columbus encounter on his one stop on his way home and what happened?
The Taino Indians, about 200 miles offshore. In the process of bartering for the Indians' weapons, Columbus' men misunderstood the Taino's movements and attacked them.
What very important discovery did Columbus make as a result of being blown off course on the trip home?
He managed to catch the westerly winds that blew off of the American coast towards Europe. This led to the knowledge of the clockwise circulation of the Atlantic winds and currents.
What did Columbus report to the king and queen that made them enthusiastic about funding another voyage?
That he had arrived in Asia and that it was filled with many spices and great mines of gold.
What did Columbus encounter when he returned to the West Indies on his second voyage?
The fort was in ruins as a result of the Taino Indians' revenge for their very poor treatment from Columbus' men.
How did Columbus respond to the ruin of his fort?
He captured all of the Taino Indians and shipped them to Spain with instructions that they should be made slaves because they were cannibals (which they weren't but Isabella would only allow cannibals to become slaves).
What happened as a result of Columbus' continued brutality to the Indians?
On his third voyage Isabella ordered him to be brought home in leg irons and stripped him of his powers to govern the new lands.
What led to Columbus' loss of all support by Spain?
On his fourth voyage he continued the slave raiding and obsessive search for gold so Spain withdrew all support and Columbus died bitter and humiliated in 1506, still believing he had reached Asia.
What were two significant results of Columbus' voyages across the Atlantic that led to great changes?
1)The Atlantic replaced the Mediterranean as the focus of European trading and 2) he contributed valuable geographic knowledge.