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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Christian humanism
Encourages human freedom and individualism.
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch Renaissance scholar and Roman Catholic theologian who sought to revive classical texts.
Thomas More
Best known as the author of "Utopia."
Being repeatedly absent for your duty.
An endowed church office giving income to its holder.
Martin Luther
German monk who started the Protestant Reformation.
Payment for the pardon of temporal punishment due for sin.
Leo X
Pope who excommunicated Martin Luther.
Diet of Worms
Meeting of the assembly of the Holy Roman Empire at Worms, Ger., where Martin Luther defended the Reformation.
Peasants' War
Peasant uprising in Germany inspired by the Reformation.
HRE Charles V
Holy Roman emperor who summoned the Diet of Worms and the Council of Trent.
Francis I
Holy Roman emperor (1745–65).
Hapsburg-Valois Wars
Series of violent wars for control of Italy.
Schmalkaldic League
Defensive alliance of Protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire.
Peace of Augsburg
Temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation.
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss religious reformer who believed in absolute authority of the Bible.
A member of a radical movement of the Reformation that believed in the separation of church from state.
Henry VIII
King of England (1509–1547).
Thomas Cromwell
English politician who proposed the legislation that established the monarch as head of the church.
Edward VI
King of England and Ireland. The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour.
Mary Tudor
Queen of England and Ireland whose persecution of Protestants earned her the nickname “Bloody Mary.”
John Calvin
Geneva-based leader of the Protestant Reformation.
Predetermined fate.
The Geneva Consistory
An assembly of cardinals presided over by the pope for papal acts, such as the canonization of a saint.
Catholic/Counter Reformation
A reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that arose in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Saint Teresa of Avila
Spanish Carmelite nun, mystic, and saint.
Oratory of Divine Love
The Oratory of Divine Love is an apostolate encouraged by the Confraternity of Penitents.
Ignatius Loyola
Spanish ecclesiastic who founded the Jesuits and was a leader of the Counter Reformation.
Pope Paul III
Pope who initiated the Catholic Reformation and accepted the Jesuit order into the Church.
Council of Trent
19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church.
Catherine de' Medici
Queen of France as the wife of Henry II.
A head of state who puts politics before their religion.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Murder of French Huguenots in Paris by Catholics.
Henry IV
Holy Roman emperor and king of Germany who continually struggled for power with Pope Gregory VII.
Edict of Nantes
Law by Henry IV of France to grant religious liberty and full civil rights to the Protestant Huguenots.
Philip II
King of Spain and Portugal.
Duke of Alva
Spanish general and administrator.
Elizabeth I
The daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
The Spanish Armada
Spanish-controlled fleet which sailed against England in 1588.