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116 Cards in this Set

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Middle Ages
aka medieval period. The era that followed the fall of the Roman Empire.
Effects of Germanic Invasions
1. Disruption of Trade (businesses collapsed, cities destroyed) 2. Downfall of Cities (were abadoned) 3. Population Shifts (nobels moved to rural areas).
Franks
Germanic people who held power in Gaul. Were led by Clovis.
Clovis
leader of Franks. Brought Christianity to region. After winning a battle "because of God" he and his troops were baptized. Clovis united the Franks into one kingdom.
Spread of Christianity
Politics help spread Christianity because they converted many people. Missionaries also aided.
monasteries
religious communities where monks and nuns (lived in convents) gave up their private possessions and devoted their lives to God. Became best-educated communities.
Benedict
an Italian monk who wrote a book on rules for monasteries. He believed there should be a balance between work and study.
Scholastica
Benedict's sister who adapted the same rules for women.
Gregory I
aka Gregory the Great. Was pope and broadened the pope's authority. The papacy became secular. He used church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help poor. He strengthened Christendom.
secular
wordly, power involved in politics.
Christendom
a spiritual kingdom fanning out from Rome to the most distant churches. Strengthened by Gregory I.
Charles Mantel
became most powerful in Frankish kingdom as major domo. Held more power than the king and extended the Franks reign. He defeated Muslims at the Battle of Tours which made him a Christian hero.
Pepin the Short
son and successor of Charles Mantel. Cooperated w/ pope and agreed to fight Lombards and he was appointed "ing by the grace of God." He began the Carolingian Dynasty.
Carolingian Dynasty
created by Pepin the Short. A family that would rule that Franks for more than 200 years.
Charlemagne
aka Charles the Great. Son and successor of Pepin the Short. Built the greatest empire since ancient Rome. He expanded the empire, spread Christianity, and united W Europe. Was crowned emperor by Leo III. Strengthened his power by limiting noble power and sent out royal agents. Greatest accomplishment--the encouragement of learning.
Louis the Pious
son of Charlemagne. Crowned emperor. Was a devoutly religious man but poor ruler. Left land to 3 sons.
Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German
son of Louis the Pious. Fought 2 brothers for land. Signed Treaty of Verdun, dividing empire into 3 kingdoms. Led to decline of Carolingian Dynasty.
Vikings
a Germanic people. AKA Northmen/Norsemen. Came from Scandinavia and attacked with great speed and beautiful ships. Were warriors, trader, farmers and explorers. Attacked W. Europe from North.
Leif Ericson
Viking leader who reached North America before Columbus.
Magyars
a group of nomadic people who were superb horsemen. Attacked W. Europe from East.
Muslims
attacked W. Europe from South. Goal- plunder and to conquer and settle in Europe.
Rollo and Charles the Simple
Rollo-head of Viking army. Charles-king of France. Charles have Rollo large land in return for loyalty. They set the basis of feudalism--based on mutual obligations.
lord
a landowner who in the feudal system granted a fief to a vassal.
fief
the land granted from a lord to a vassal.
vassal
the person who received a fief from his lord.
Feudal Pyramid
1. King 2. Church officials and nobles 3. Knights 4. Peasants
knights
mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords' lands in exchange for fiefs.
Feudalism Classes of People
1. those who fought (nobles/knights) 2. those who prayed (clergy) 3. those who worked (peasants)
serfs
people who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born.
manor
a lord's estate that consisted of the lord's house, a church, peasant cottages, and workshops.
tithe
a church tax.
chivalry
a complex set of ideals and a code of behavior for knights stressing ideals such as courage, devotion, and loyalty.
tournaments
mock battles that combined recreation with combat training.
The Song of Roland
most famous medieval epic poem that praises a band of French soldiers who perished in battle under Charlemagne.
troubadours
traveling poet-musicians at the castles and courts of Europe.
noblewomen
could inherit an estate from her husband, could send knights to battle, could act as military commander, and helped defend castles. Held little property and usually remained at home.
peasant women
performed endless labor, bore children, took care of family, and taught daughters household skills. Were poor and powerless.
Pope Gelasius I
was pope who recognized arising conflicts between state and Church. He said God created 2 swords, one was religious, one was political. He believed to let emperors deal w/ politics and popes w/ religion.
clergy
men and women of the church.
sacraments
important religious ceremonies.
canon law
the body of laws governing the religious practices of the Christian church. Two harsh punishments- excommunication (denial of salvation and banishment from Church) and interdict (no salvation--doomed to hell, no services in king's lands)
Otto I
aka Otto the Great. Most effective ruler of medieval Germany who followed policies of Charlemagne. He allied w/ the Church and increased power by achieving Church support. Created the Holy Roman Empire.
Holy Roman Empire
aka Roman Empire of the German Nation. Created by Otto I. Was the strongest European empire.
lay investiture
a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed clergy. Angered the Church, banned by Pope Gregory VII.
Pope Gregory VII
banned lay investiture. Ordered to step down and was excommunicated by Henry. Eventually forgave Henry.
Henry IV
angered by Gregory's ban of lay investiture. Ordered him to step down and excommunicated him. He then tried to win the pope's forgiveness and was kept waiting in the snow for 3 days and then was forgiven.
Concordat of Worms
representatives of the Church and emperor met at Worms and reached this compromise. It gave the Church the right to appoint a bishop, but the emperor could veto this.
Frederick I
aka Barbarossa. Elected to rule Germany. Was the 1st to call his lands the Holy Roman Empire. He had a forceful personality and was a miltary genius. Angered the pope. His army was defeated by the Lombard League.
Lombard League
an alliance formed by merchants and the pope because of anger towards Frederick. Attacked Frederick's army in the Battle of Legnano and defeated his army.
Church problems
1. priests married/had families 2. simony 3. lay investiture
simony
the selling of Church positions by bishops
papal Curia
the pope's group of advisors who acted as a court and developed the canon law.
Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII
enforced church laws against simony and the marriage of priests.
friars
people who traveled to preach and spread the Church's ideas. They took vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience. They owned nothing and lived by begging. Women friars were restricted from traveling.
Dominic
a Spanish priest who founded the Dommicans (early order of friars).
Francis of Assisi
an Italin who founded another order of friars, the Franciscans.
Clare
with Francis of Assisi formed the Franciscan order for women--aka Poor Clares.
Hildegard of Bingen
a mystic and musician who founded a Benedictine convent.
cathedral
large churchs that were viewed as thr representation of the City of God.
Gothic
a new style of architecture that evolved during the Middle Ages that featured ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, and pointed arches. Gothic cathedrals thrust upwards---reaching heaven.
Alexius Comnenus
sent an appeal to Robert, Count of Flanders, asking for help against Muslim Turks.
Pope Urban II
read the letter from Alexius Comnenus. He called for a "holy war"--Crusade--to gain control of the Holy Land.
Crusade
one of the expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. aka "holy war." They had economic, political, social and religious goals.
Goals of Crusades
1. to regain the Holy Land 2. to reclaim Palestine and reunite Christendom 3. to rid of quarrelsome knights 4. to look for land
1st Crusade
Pope Urban II's army attacked at Jerusalem and eventually captured the city and won a narrow strip of land.
2nd Crusade
The 2nd Crusade was to recapture the city. Jerusalem was won by Saladin.
Saladin
a Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader who won Jerusalem during the 2nd Crusade.
3rd Crusade
launched by Philip II (Augustus), Frederick I, and Richard the Lion-Hearted to recapture Jerusalem. Richard and Saladin signed a truce---Jerusalem remained under Muslim rule and Saladin promised that Christian pilgrims could visit Jerusalem's holy places.
Richard the Lion-Hearted
1 of 3 rulers to launch the 3rd Crusade. He was an English king who signed a truce with Saladin during the 3rd Crusade.
Children's Crusade
thousands of children went to conquer Jerusalem. Split into 2 groups. 1st group- all children starved, drowned, or were sold into slavery. 2nd group-many died, some reached the pope who told them to go home.
Stephen of Cloyes
headed the 1st group in the Children's Crusade. His armed starved, drowned, or were sold into slavery.
Nicholas of Cologne
headed the 2nd group in the Children's Crusade. Many of his army died, some reached the pope who told them to go home.
Reconquista
a long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain.
Inquisition
created by Isabella and Ferdinand. Was a court held by the Church to suppress heresy (heretics-people who believed differently).
Effects of the Crusades
1. Opened opportunities for women and others who did not go to battle to manage affairs, operate shops, etc. 2. Trade expanded 3.Lessened power of pope and of feudal nobles 4. Increased king's power 5. Left a legacy of hatred
three-field system
a system in which farmers could grow crops on 2/3 of their land each year, opposed to 1/2.
guild
an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve economic and social conditions.
Commercial Revolution
the expansion of trade and business that changed European life. Trade became very successful. Cloth was the most common trade item. More goods became available and trade routes became more spread out. Also exchange rates were set between different coinage systems. Letters of credit were created to replace carrying cash. Serfs moved from manors to town and began to work there. Borrowing money also became common. Towns also grew into cities.
burghers
merchant-class town dwellers who resented the lords interference in their trade and commerce. They eventually received freedom from certain tolls and taxes.
Revival of Learning
learning flourished after the Crusades because of contact with new people. Jews translated Aristotle's and other's work into Latin. Universities were also created. Students also could now receive degrees. Poets began using vernacular which enhanced education.
vernacular
the everyday language of one's homeland.
Dante Alighieri
wrote The Divine Comedy in Italian.
Geoffrey Chaucer
wrote The Canterbury Tales in English.
Christine de Pisan
wrote The Book of The City of Ladies in French.
Thomas Aquinas
a Christian scholar who argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument. Wrote the Summa Theologicae.
scholastics
schoolmen who use their knowledge (of Aristotle) to debate many issues.
Alfred the Great
an Anglo-Saxon king who was the only one to manage to turn back the Viking invasions.
Canute
a Danish king who conquered England and moled the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into 1 people.
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy who was king Edward's son. He claimed the English crown and then invaded England with a Norman army. Declared all of England his personal property. He unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for an English centralizied government.
Battle of Hastings
battle between William the Conqueror (Norman army) and Harold Godwinson (Anglo-Saxon). Normans won.
Henry II
an English king who added land by marriying Eleanor of Aqutaine from France. He strengthened royal courts and introduced a jury.
common law
the unified body of law formed by the rulings of the English royal judges.
Magna Carta
the most celebrated document in English history drawn up by nobles and approved by King John. It guarenteed certain political rights, no taxation without representation, a jury trial, and the protection of law.
John Softsword
son of Henry II who failed as a military leader. He lost lots of land. He was cruel to his subjects, alienated the Church, and raised taxes to a new high. He agreed on the Magna Carta.
parliament
a legislative group that makes laws for a nation, called together by Edward I. Provided a check on government officials.
House of Commons
an assembly formed by the knights and burgesses.
House of Lords
am assembly formed by novles at bishops.
Hugh Capet
an undistinguished duke from France who succeeded Louis the Sluggard. He began the Capetian dynasty. Was a weak ruler, survived due to geography.
Philip II
one of the most powerful Capetian kings. He was crafty and did whatever it took to achieve his goals. AKA Augustus. Seized Normandy from King John. Tripled his landmass. Established a strong government and establish bailiffs.
Louis IX
Philip's grandson who further strengthened the central government. Known as the ideal king. He created a French appeals court. He was made a saint.
Estates-General
a French assembly of 3 Estates: 1st- Church leaders 2nd- great lords 3rd- commoners, wealthy landowners and merchants. As a whole it helped increase royal power against nobility.
Philip IV
king of France who persuaded the College of Cardinals to choose a Frenchman as the new pope.
Clement V
the newly selected pope who moved from Rome to Avignon.
Avignon
a city in France in which Clement V (pope) moved. Moving weakened the Church.
Pope Urban VI
Roman who was elected pope. He was arrogant and had a passion for reform, which caused a 2nd pope.
Robert of Geneva
chosen as 2nd pope. Spoke French and took name-Clement VII.
Great Schism
the two popes excommunicated each other and the Church began to split (=Great Schism).
Martin V
the Council forced 3 popes to resign and hired Martin as the new pope, ending the Great Schism.
John Wycliffe
an Englishman who preached that Jesus Christ was the true head of the Church. He was offended by the clergy. He taught that the Bible was the final authority-not the pope. He translated the New Testament into English.
Jan Hus
a professor in Bohemia who taught that the Bible's authority was higher than the pope's.
bubonic plague
the deadly disease that swept through Europe and killed 1/3 of the pop. It was spread through trade, both on land and sea.
Effects of Plague
1. populations fell 2. trade declined 3. serfs left manor 4. nobles resisted peasant demands 5. Jews blamed for bringing plague 6. Church lost prestige.
Hundred Years' War
the war launched by Edward III (English) for the French throne. He fought back and forth w/ France and France won and drove the English out a France entirely, except in Calais.
Warfare in Hundred Years' War
the longbow was created which changed war.
Joan of Arc
a teenage French peasant girl who felt moved by God to rescue France from the English. She led an army into battle at Orleans and they restreated. Then they charged back and defeated the English.
Impact of 100 Years' War
1. French and English nationalism 2. increase in prestige and power of French monarch 3. English suffered a period of internal turmoil (War of the Roses).