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95 Cards in this Set

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Arabian Peninsula
crossroads of Africa, Europe, and Asia. Most is desert and um-farmable land.
Bedouins
Arab nomads living in the desert who lived in clans. Held ideals of courage, loyalty, and warrior skills which became part of Islamic way of life.
Mecca
A city in western Arabia. Caravans would stop there during holy months bringing religious pilgrims.
Ka'aba
An ancient shrine in Mecca. Associated with Abraham and it contained over 360 idols.
Allah
the one God worshipped by Muslims. Original Islamic source of authority, expressed his will through Gabriel. Muslims believed this was the same God worshipped by Jews and Christians.
Muhammad
Born into a powerful Meccan clan. Raised by grandfather and uncle. Little schooling, worked in caravan trade when very young. Married Khadijah, wealthy businessman. Was a trader and business manager. Great interest in religion, prayed and meditated often. A voice called to him while meditating in a Meccan cave. Was angel Gabriel who told him he was messenger of Allah. He believed the Lord who spoke to him was Allah. Began teaching that Allah was the only God. Began forming religion of Islam. Began public preaching in Mecca. Meccans feared Mecca would lose its position as a pilgrimage if people accepted Islam. Then moved to Yathrib, migration known as Hijrah. Displayed impressive leadership skills. Made an agreement to join Arabs and Jews. Groups accepted him as political leader. Was a political, religious, and military leader.
Islam
means "submission to the will of Allah". Monotheistic religion worshipping Allah. Founded by Muhammad, worship the Qur'an. All practices and beliefs stem from "there is good and evil and each individual is responsible for their own actions." Cannot eat pork or drink alcohol. No clergy.
Muslim
"one who has submitted". Name for followers of Islam. Ancestry traced to Abraham.
Hijrah
The migration from Mecca to Yathrib. Done by Muhammad, over 200 miles.
Umma
the Muslim religious community that coverts joined.
Five Pillars
the five duties carried out by all Muslims. They are 1. Faith- there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah 2. Prayer- pray five times a day facing Mecca and assemble at a mosque to pray 3. Alms- most giving alms (money for the poor) through taxes 4. Fasting- fast during month of Ramadan 5. Pilgrimage- must perform a hajj, pilgrimage, to Mecca.
Mosque
Islamic house of worship, facing Mecca
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca, part of 5 Pillars, all Muslims must perform this at least once.
Ulama
a scholar class that includes religious teachers who apply the words and deeds of Muhammad to everyday life.
Qur'an.
holy book of Muslims. Collection of Muhammad's revelations. Written in Arabic. The standard for all Muslim literature.
Sunna
Muhammad's example. Muslims believe that it is the best model for proper living.
Shari'a
a body of law that contains the guidance of the Qur'an and Sunna. Regulates family life, moral conduct, and community life. Requires that Muslim leaders extend religious tolerance to Jews and Christians.
Jews and Christians
Muslims believed they worshipped same God (Allah). Referred to as "the people of the book." Muslims must extend religious tolerance to them.
Abu-Bakr
elected by Muslim community as successor of Muhammad. Was a loyal friend of Muhammad. Became the 1st caliph. Known as a rightly guided caliph and his rule was called a caliphate. Promised to uphold Muhammad's principles. Invoked jihad
caliph
A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government. Means "successor" or "deputy".
Umar
2nd caliph, had known Muhammad. Known as a rightly guided caliph and his rule was called a caliphate. Conquered Syria and Lower Egypt and parts of Sassanid Empire.
Uthman
Known as a rightly guided caliph and his rule was called a caliphate. Continued to expand empire. Was murdered and started a civil war.
Ali
Known as a rightly guided caliph and his rule was called a caliphate. Continued to expand empire. Muhammads cousin and son-in-law. Was assassinated and with that the system of choosing a caliph died.
jihad
means "striving." Invoked by Abu-Bakr. Is the inner struggle against evil.
Muawiya
a governor of Syria who challenged Ali's right to rule after Uthman's death.
Umayyads
family who came to power after Ali's death. Moved capital from Mecca to Damascus. Made control easier. Surrounded themselves with wealth. Lead to division of Muslim community.
Shi'a
a group that viewed that the caliph needed to be a descendant of the Prophet. Means the "party of Ali." Members called Shi'ites.
Sunni
group who did not outwardly resist Umayyad rule. Means "followers of Muhammad's example."
Sufi
rejected luxurious life of Umayyads. Pursued a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path.
Abbasids
took control of Muslim Empire after the overthrow of the Umayyads. Murdered remaining Umayyads. Moved captial to Baghdad. Developed a strong bureaucracy. Increased authority by consulting religious leaders. Failed to keep political control.
Abd al-Rahman
escaped Abbasid slaughter and fled to Spain. Set up an Umayyad caliphate in Spain.
Berbers
Muslims who had conquered and settled in Spain. Helped form al-Andalus.
al-Andalus
the extraordinary Muslim state in southern Spain formed by the Berbers.
Baghdad
Abbasids moved the capital from Damascus to Baghdad. Baghdad gave the caliph access to trade goods, gold, and info. Impressed all. Had a circular design, protective walls, marble palaces, and a grand mosque.
Fatimid
a caliphate fromed by Shi'a Muslims who claimed descent from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter. Still somewhat connected to Abbasid caliphate.
Sakk
Letters of credit offered by banks set up by Muslim money changers. Pronounced "check" and could be exchanged for chas at a bank in any city within the empire.
Muslim social classes
1. Muslims at birth 2. converts to Islam 3. "protected people" including Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians 4. Slaves
Muslim women
men and women are equal, "women are obedient and men are managers of women"
House of Wisdom
a combination library, academy, and translation center created by al-Ma'mum. Located in Baghdad. Scholars included researchers, editors, and technologists.
The Thousand and One Nights
a collection of fairy tales and legends. Linked to India and Persia. Based on Qur'an.
calligraphy
the art of beautiful handwriting. Many Muslim artists turned to calligraphy because they believed that Allah was the only one who could create life so pictures of living things were discouraged.
al-Razi
aka Rhazes. A Persian scholar who was the greatest physician of the Muslim world. Wrote an encyclopedia (Comprehensive Book) and Treatise on Smallpox and Measles. He believed patients would recover more quickly if exposed to clean air.
al-Khwarizmi
mathematician born in Baghdad who studied Indian sources and wrote a textbook explaining how to bring together unknowns to math a known. He called this al-jabr (algebra).
Ibn al-Haytham
aka Alhazen. Brilliant mathematician who produced a book, Optics, that revolutionized ideas about vision.
Ibn Rushd
aka Averroes. Muslim philosopher who was criticized for trying to blend Aristotle's and Plato's views with those of Islam. Argued that Greek philosophy was the same as Islam and they both tried to find truth.
Moses Ben Maimon
aka Maimonides. A Jewish physician and philosopher and was known as the greatest Jewish philosopher in history. He wrote a book, The Guide for the Perplexed, blending philosophy, religion, and science.
"Ideal Man"
should have Persian, Arabic, Iraqi, Hebrew, Christian, Greek, Indian, and Sufi traits.
Justinian
succeeded his uncle to the throne of the Eastern Empire. Sent Belisarius to recover N. Africa from Germans and succeeded. Called himself the new Caesar. Ruled with absolute power. Headed state and church and was brutal with his politics. Set up a panel of legal experts to regulate Byzantium's society. Created Justinian Code. Rebuilt crumbling fortifications of Constantinople. Greates passion was church building (ex. Hagia Sophia). Enlarged his empire and glorified it.
Belisarius
Justinian's best soldier who was sent to recover N. Africa from Germans and succeeded. Then attacked Rome and seized it from Ostrogoths.
Justinian Code
a single, uniform code created by Justinian and his panel. Consisted of 4 works: 1. The Code- contained 5,000 Roman laws 2. The Digest- quoted and summarized opinions of great Roman legal thinkers 3. The Institutes- a textbook teaching how to use laws 4. The Novellae (New Laws)- legislation passed after 534. Helped decide legal questions.
Hagia Sophia
crowning glory of Justinians reign. Means "Holy Wisdom," he rebuilt the original Hagia Sophia and it was hailed as the most splendid church in Christian world.
Mese
means "Middle Way." It was the main street running through Constantinople. Merchant stalls lined the streets.
Hippodrome
where citizens could enjoy free entertainment (ex. chariot races and acts). It held 60,000 people. Fans formed rowdy gangs there.
Nika Rebellion
Screamed Nika (Victory). Two groups from Hippodrome sparked riots. Rebelled because they were angry with the government and demanded Justinian's overthrow. Belisarius broke in and slaughtered rebels.
Theodora
Justinian's wife. Urged Justinian to stay in Constantinople during Nika Rebellion. She had immense power and was one of his advisers. Eventually became empress and restored icons.
Bubonic plague
Hit Constantinople during Justinian's last few years. Brought from India in ships infested with rats and destroyed most of the Byzantine population.
Heraclius
Byzatine emperor who reorganized the empire along military lines. Provinces became themes (military districts) and were run by generals.
Saint Basil
wrote rules for the life of monks. Said that Christians should not be showy and should wear cheap clothes. Stated that money should not matter to Christians.
Saint John Chrysostom
bishop of Constantinople and was the patriarch.
patriarch
the leading bishop of the East (Orthodox).
Leo III
banned use of icons and viewed them as idol worship.
icons
religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions, banned by Leo III.
pope
the religious leader of the West (Roman Catholic).
excommunication
the outcasting of an emperor from the Church. Pope and patriarch eventually excommunicated each other and this is when Christianity officially split.
Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril
two of the most successful Eastern missionaries. They invented an alphabet for Slavic languages so Slavs could read the Bible.
Cyrillic alphabet
the alphabet created by Methodius and Cyril. Is the written Slavic language. Created so Slavs could read the Bible. Most Slavic languages are now written in this.
Slavs
people from the forests north of the Black Sea. They are ancestors of many peoples in modern Eastern Europe.
What are the three interconnecting rivers that aid Russian trade and transportation?
Dnieper, Don, and Volga.
Varangians
aka Rus. Slavic farmers and traders who lived in forests and were most likley Vikings.
Rurik
Viking chief who was invited by Slavs to be their king. Founded Novgorod.
Novgorod
Russia's 1st important city.
Kiev
a city on the Dnieper that nobleman Oleg moved to in order to help trade. Was a principality, a small state ruled by a prince.
Princess Olga
a member of Kievan nobility who visited Constantinople and publicly coverted to Christianity. Governed Kiev until her son was old enough.
Vladimir
Olga's grandson who considered conversion to Christianity. Set out teams to observe Western Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Convinced Vladimir to conver to Byzantine Christianity and to make all subjects convert also. Expanded empire and fought of rebellions.
Yaroslav the Wise
Vladimir's son, led Kiev to greater glory. Married his sisters and daughters off to Western Europe which helped him forge alliances. Created a legal code and built Kiev's library. Christianity prospered. Divided realm among sons, instead of giving it to eldest. Sons fought over land which led to crumbling and the Crusades aided this as well by disrupting trade.
Mongols
ferocious group of horsemen from central Asia. Exploded under Genghis Khan. Left Asia and rode into Europe. Known for ruthless brutality. Demolished Kiev and "no eye remained to weep." Ruled Russia for 200 years. There empire was called: Khanate of the Golden Horde. Demanded 2 things: 1. absolute obedience 2. massive amounts of tribute
Genghis Khan
ruled Mongol, was one of the most feared warriors ever.He was known for his ruthless brutality.
Alexander Nevsky
Novgorod's prince and military hero. Advised his fellow princes to cooperate with Mongols.
Ivan I
prince of newly created Moscow. Earned Mongol's gratitude by helping crush a Russian revolt. Was appointed as tax collector of all Slavic lands and given title "Grand Prince." Most powerful of all Russian princes. aka Ivan Moneybag. Convinced Patriarch of Kiev to move to Moscow. Improved Moscow's prestige.
Ivan III
challenged Mongol rule. Took name czar and claimed to make Russia the "3rd Rome." Broke from Mongols by refusing to pay rulers tribute. Russian and Mongol armies met, both turned around and Russians considered this a victory. Marked Russian liberation.
czar
Russian version of Caesar, made official during rule of Ivan III (1st czar)
Tu-Kiu
people living west of Chinese borders. Most likely were the Turks.
Turks
nomads who rode horses, herded goats and sheeps, lived in tents, and used camals. The Turks had get military skills and were loyal and skillful. Another group began converting to Islam and migrating to Abbasid Empire.
Mamelukes
Turkish military slaves.
Seljuks
one of the first migrating Turkish groups. Attacked and captured Baghdad from Persians. Captured most of Byzantine Empire. Honored Persians and they were loyal to them.
Rum
from "Rome," the near conquest of the New Rome (Constantinople/Byzantine Empire)
Toghril Beg
founder of the Seljuk Dynasty, chose Persian city Isfahan as capital.
Nizam al-Mulk
a Persian who served a vizier of Malik Shah
vizier
prime minister
Malik Shah
the most famous Seljuk sultan. Supported Persian literature, art, and architecture. Beautified Isfahan by building mosques. Was last strong Seljuk leader (shah).
Crusades
1st Crusade- Pope Urban II called on Christians to drive Turks out of Anatolia and recover Jerusalem. Were successful. Established a Latin Christian kingdom. Next, Seljuks rebelled and undedr Saladin they recovered Jerusalem. A truce was signed giving Muslims Jerusalem and gave Western pilgrims access to Christian holy places.
Pope Urban II
launched the 1st Crusade. Called on Christians to drive Turks out of Anatolia and recover Jerusalem. Were successful.
Saladin
famous Kurdish captain who rebelled against Christians and won back Jerusalem and eventually signed a truce with King Richard I.
King Richard I
Western king who lost Jerusalem to Saladin but signed a trice with him giving him access to Christian holy places.
Hulagu
Genghis Khan's grandson and Mongol leader who attacked Seljuks. He burned down Baghdad and killed tens of thousands of people. Executed the last Abbasid caliph.