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187 Cards in this Set

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ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights)
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976.Because the Universal Declaration of Human Rights contained both first-generation civil and political rights and second-generation economic, social, and cultural rights, it could not garner the international consensus necessary to become a binding treaty. Particularly, a divide developed between capitalist nations such as the USA, which favored civil and political rights, and communist nations which favored economic, social and cultural rights. To solve this problem, two binding Covenants were created instead of one: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is monitored by the Human Rights Committee, a group of 18 experts who meet three times a year to consider periodic reports submitted by member States on their compliance with the treaty.
UNHCHR (UN High Commission for Human Rights)
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.At the urging of the United States and other nations, the U.N. General Assembly established the office in 1993. Holding the rank of Under-Secretary-General, the High Commissioner coordinates human rights activities throughout the U.N. System and supervises the Human Rights Council in Geneva, Switzerland.
UNHCR (UN High Commission for Refugees)
A United Nations body established in 1951 to replace the International Refugee Organization. The UNHCR has two primary functions: to extend international protection to refugees under the terms of the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, and, specifically, to ensure refugees obtain political asylum and are not forcibly returned to a territory where they fear persecution. The UNHCR also seeks to provide refugees with emergency relief, such as food, shelter, and medical assistance, and, in the long term, to assist in their voluntary repatriation or resettlement and integration into a new community.
UN Human Rights Council
The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. Its stated purpose is to address human rights violations. The Council is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which was often criticised for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens. The United Nations General Assembly passed GA resolution 60/251 on 15 March 2006, which created the new human rights body, with the approval of 170 members of the (then) 191-nation Assembly. Only the United States, the Marshall Islands, Palau, and Israel voted against the Council's creation, claiming that it would have too little power and that there were insufficient safeguards to prevent human rights-abusing nations from taking control.
UN Commission on Human Rights
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. It was a subsidiary body of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and was also assisted in its work by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR). It was the UN’s principal mechanism and international forum concerned with the promotion and protection of human rights. It was often criticized for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens. On 15 March 2006 the UN General Assembly voted overwhelmingly to replace UNCHR with the UN Human Rights Council.
Chapter VII UN Peacekeeping operations
Justifies the use of coercive measures, including economic and military sanctions, against an aggressor when pacific settlement fails. These measures are taken in the name of collective security , whereby the security of each member is assumed by all, and aggression against one would be met by the resistance of all.
Chapter VI Peacekeeping operations
Chapter 6 of the charter provides for the pacific settlement of disputes, through such means as negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and/or judicial decisions.
Third-Generation Solidarity Rights
(international)- Third-generation solidarity rights are the group of rights emphasized at least rhetorically by some contemporary actors, called “third-generation” because they followed the other two clusters and called “solidarity” because they supposedly pertain to collections of persons rather than to individuals later formulations have included claims to a right to peace, development, and a healthy environment as the common heritage of humankind.
Second-Generation Positive Rights
Second-generation positive rights are the socioeconomic rights emphasized, rhetorically at least, most outside the West. They are called “second-generation” because they were associated with various twentieth-century revolutions emphasizing material to ensure minimal food, shelter and health care. As indicated previously, there is considerable debate as to how important they are. In the US, the Democratic Carte rand Clinton administrations accepted them in theory and gave them some rhetorical attention. Republic administrations from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush rejected them as dangerous to individual responsibility and leading to big government.
First-Generation Negative Rights
First-generation negative rights are the civil and political rights that are well-known in the West, called “first-generation” because they were the ones first endorsed in national constitutions and called “negative” because civil rights in particular blocked public authority from interfering with the private person in civil society. These were the rights to freedom of thought, speech, religion, privacy, and assembly- plus the right to participate in the making of public policy. In the view of some observers, these are the only true human rights. In the view of others, these rights are not so important because if one lacks the material basics of life such as food, shelter, health care, and education, civil and political rights become meaningless. Divide between Western and Communist states over these rights.
UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda)
The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) was a relief mission instituted by the United Nations. It lasted from October 1993 to March 1996. UNAMIR's purpose was to aid the implementation of the Arusha Accords, signed August 4, 1993, aimed at easing tensions between the Hutu-dominated Rwandese government and the Tutsi rebels. Its mandate included "ensuring the security of the capital city of Kigali; monitoring the ceasefire agreement, including establishment of an expanded demilitarized zone and demobilization procedures; monitoring the security situation during the final period of the transitional Government's mandate leading up to elections; assisting with mine-clearance; and assisting in the coordination of humanitarian assistance activities in conjunction with relief operations. The UNAMIR has received much attention, and is regarded as a major failure of the United Nations, for the role (or lack thereof due to the limitations of its rules of engagement) it played during the Rwandan Genocide. Non-military intervention, example of failed peacekeeping.
Nuremberg Trials
The Nuremberg Trials were the main avenue for the prosecution of the prominent members of the political, military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, from 1945 to 1949. The Nuremberg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law. The International Law Commission, acting on the request of the United Nations General Assembly, produced in 1950 the report Principles of International Law Recognized in the Charter of the Nürnberg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal. The influence of the tribunal can also be seen in the proposals for a permanent international criminal court, and the drafting of international criminal codes.The Nuremberg trials initiated a movement for the prompt establishment of a permanent international criminal court, eventually leading over fifty years later to the adoption of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. The Conclusions of the Nuremberg trials served to help draft: The Genocide Convention, 1948, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, The Convention on the Abolition of the Statute of Limitations on War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, 1968, The Geneva Convention on the Laws and Customs of War, 1949; its supplementary protocols, 1977.
ICC (International Criminal Court)
Permanent judicial body established by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998) to prosecute individuals accused of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. The court commenced operations on July 1, 2002, after the requisite number of countries (60) ratified the Rome Statute (some 140 countries signed the agreement). The ICC was established as a court of last resort to prosecute the most heinous offenses in cases where national courts fail to act. It is headquartered in The Hague. By 2002 China, Russia, and the U.S. had declined to participate in the ICC, and the U.S. had campaigned actively to have its citizens exempted from the court's jurisdiction. The US has been criticized for putting its own national interest above the values of international law.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
An international declaration, adopted in 1948 by the General Assembly of the UN. It declares that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and are entitled to the rights and freedoms set out in the Declaration without discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, sex, language, political opinion, or religion. The rights enumerated include civil rights, such as freedom of expression, conscience, movement, peaceful assembly, and association, and economic and social rights such as those to work, to an adequate standard of living, to education, and to participation in cultural life. The exercise of an individual's rights and freedoms is limited only by respect for the rights and freedoms of others. The Declaration is not legally binding but it has underpinned the activities of the UN, affected national and international law, and influenced debates on human rights. In 1966 the General Assembly adopted the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which embody the rights in the Declaration and have legal force.
Asian Values Debate
Because the proponents of the concept came from different cultural backgrounds, no single definition of the term exists, but typically "Asian values" encompasses some flavor of Confucianism, in particular loyalty towards the family, corporation and nation, the forgoing of personal freedom for the sake of society's stability and prosperity, the pursuit for academic and technological excellence, and work ethic and thrift. Proponents of "Asian values", who tend to support Asian-style authoritarian governments, claim they are more appropriate for the region than the democratic values and institutions of the West. A frequent criticism is that the idea of "Asian values" is most promoted by the elites who benefit from authoritarian rule, rather than the wider populace of their nation. Some individuals[citation needed] go so far in their attempt to justify Asian values as to have founded those values upon notions of genetic similarity and how this has ramifications for sociobiology's interaction with genetics.
A summary list of 'Asian Values' would include a supposedly and distinctively 'Asian':
• predisposition towards strong and stable leadership rather than political pluralism;
• respect for social harmony and an inclination towards consensus as opposed to a tendency towards dissent or confrontation;
• acceptance of broad and penetrating state and bureaucratic intevention in social and economic affairs;
• concern with socio-economic well-being instead of civil liberties and human rights; and
• preference for the welfare and collective food of the community over individual rights.
Jus in bello
By contrast, agreements defining limits on acceptable conduct while already engaged in war are considered "rules of war" and are referred to as the jus in bello. Thus the Geneva Conventions are a set of jus in bello. Doctrines concerning the protection of civilians in wartime, or the need for "proportionality" when force is used, are addressed to issues of conduct within a war, but the same doctrines can also shed light on the question of when it is lawful (or unlawful) to go to war in the first place.The agreements regarding acceptable practices while engaged in war are referred to as the jus in bello. Thus the Geneva Conventions are a set of jus in bello.
Jus ad bellum
Jus ad bellum (Latin for "Justice of War"; see also Just War Theory) are a set of criteria that are consulted before engaging in war, in order to determine whether entering into war is justifiable. Jus ad bellum is sometimes considered a part of the laws of war. Any international agreement limiting the justifiable reasons for a country to declare war against another is concerned with jus ad bellum. In addition to bilateral non-aggression pacts, the twentieth century saw multilateral treaties defining entirely new restrictions against going to war. The three most notable examples are the Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawing war as an instrument of national policy, the Nuremberg Charter defining "crimes against peace" as one of three major categories of international crime to be prosecuted after World War II, and the United Nations Charter, which binds nations to seek resolution of disputes by peaceful means and requires authorization by the United Nations before a nation may initiate any use of force against another, beyond repulsing an immediate armed attack against its sovereign territory.
State-building/Nation-building
is a term used in state theory. It describes the construction of a functioning state. State-building is used to describe internationally assisted attempts to build, or re-build, the institutions of state in weak, post-conflict or failing states. In the American context, some commentators use the term "nation-building" interchangeably with "state-building". However, as the interventions do not target the "nation" (nation conventionally refers to the population itself, as united by identity history, culture and language) but rather the structures of the state, state-building is the more broadly accepted term. The United Nations (through complex peacekeeping operations), the UN Development Program, the World Bank, and many bilateral donors have increasingly adopted state-building in their aid and development stategy (eg Haiti, East Timor, the Former Yugoslavia, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Afghanistan, Iraq).State-building represents a recognition that one of the weaknesses of many of the past UN peace-keeping missions had been an inadequate focus on the state that was left behind after the peace-keeping mission withdrew
UNOSOM II
(United Nations Operation in Somalia) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia. It ran from March 1993 until March 1995. UNOSOM II was plagued with problem from the beginning, including political objectives that were both highly ambitious and ill-defined, while having little military and economic resources available to implement them. It became entangled in a messy civil war and spent much of its resources hunting down the most powerful warlord Aideed. A series of confrontations ensued, with the turning point at the Battle of Mogadishu, resulting in - according to estimates - the death of 500-1000 Somalian millitia and civilians, as well as the deaths of 18 American soldiers and 73 wounded. Faced with news footage of dead U.S. troops being dragged through the streets of Mogadishu, American public opinion turned against participation in UNOSOM II. President Clinton then decided to withdraw the U.S. forces, setting a deadline of 31 March 1994 for their complete withdrawal.
Humanitarian Intervention
a forceful intervention in the domestic affairs of a state by another state or group of states for the purpose of stopping outrageous human rights abuses and alleviating human suffering. The notion of humanitarian intervention fell in disfavor in the 18th century with increased state sovereignty. Under this system, states were no longer obligated to intervene in another state to protect basic human rights, unless those of their own citizens were threatened. As late as the 1970s, while the governments of Uganda and Cambodia engaged in wholesale slaughter and genocide that cost several million lives, the international community refused to sanction a humanitarian intervention on behalf of the peoples of either country. After the end of the Cold War, the growth of fresh hopes for a rebirth in the United Nations’ fortunes, and the successful conclusion of the Persian Gulf War, the classical notion of humanitarian intervention underwent a dramatic revival. An example is when the US, Great Britain and France carried out a successful humanitarian intervention in Northern Iraq on behalf of the Kurds. A less successful example is the US humanitarian intervention in Somalia from 1992 to 1995. Today the international consensus seems to be that humanitarian intervention is legitimate as long as it is sanctioned by the United Nations, truly humanitarian – large number of lives at risk, the human rights abuses need to be truly egregious and it be no more intrusive and last no longer than necessary for the international community to accomplish its humanitarian objectives.
Bush Doctrine
The Bush Doctrine is name given to a set of foreign policy guidelines first unveiled by President George W. Bush in his commencement speech to the graduating class of West Point given on June 1, 2002. The policies, taken together, outlined a broad new phase in US policy that would place greater emphasis on military pre-emption, military superiority ("strength beyond challenge"), unilateral action, and a commitment to "extending democracy, liberty, and security to all regions". The policy was formalized in a document titled The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, published on September 20, 2002. The Bush Doctrine provided the policy framework for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.The Bush Doctrine is a marked departure from the policies of deterrence and containment that generally characterized American foreign policy during the Cold War and the decade between the collapse of the Soviet Union and 9/11.
UNSCOM/UNMOVIC
United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was a United Nations organization performing inspections in Iraq to ensure its compliance with the policies of the United Nations concerning Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction after the Gulf War. After the expulsion of Scott Ritter and his ensuing resignation, as well as the press attention that followed, the United Nations Special Commission was dissolved. The successor of United Nations Special Commission is the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission. It continued with the latter's mandate to disarm Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction, and to operate a system of ongoing monitoring and verification to check Iraq's compliance with its obligations not to reacquire the same weapons prohibited to it by the Security Council. Following the mandate of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441, Saddam Hussein allowed UN inspectors to return to Iraq in December 2002. UNMOVIC led inspections of possible chemical and biological facilities in Iraq until shortly before the U.S. invasion of Iraq in March 2003, but did not find any weapons of mass destruction. Based on its inspections and examinations during this time, UNMOVIC inspectors determined that UNSCOM had successfully dismantled Iraq’s unconventional weapons program during the 1990s. This commission further discredited US legitimacy in invading Iraq.
IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency. International organization officially founded in 1957 to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Based in Vienna, its activities include research on the applicability of nuclear energy to medicine, agriculture, water resources, and industry; provision of technical assistance; development of radiation safeguards; and public relations programs. Following the Persian Gulf War, IAEA inspectors were called on to certify that Iraq was not manufacturing nuclear weapons. The IAEA has no enforcement authority and compliance with IAEA inspections is voluntary; enforcement actions must be mandated by the United Nations Security Council.
NPT
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. International agreement intended to prevent the spread of nuclear technology. It was signed by the U.S., Britain, the Soviet Union, and 59 other countries in 1968. The three major signatories agreed not to assist states lacking nuclear weapons to obtain or produce them; the nonnuclear signatories agreed not to attempt to obtain nuclear weapons in exchange for assistance in developing nuclear power for peaceful purposes. Only Israel, India, Pakistan, and Cuba have refused to sign the treaty. They claim that the treaty is unfair because it privileges the nuclear "haves" of the 1960s, while preventing other states from acquiring their own nuclear arsenals. India, in particular, has also accused the United States and other nations of failing to meet their stated obligation to negotiate for "general and complete disarmament." In 1995, when the treaty was due to expire, it was extended indefinitely by a consensus vote of 174 countries at the United Nations.
Wahabbism
Muslim puritan movement founded in the 18th century by Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab. Members call themselves al-Muwahhidun, a name derived from their emphasis on the absolute oneness of God. They reject all acts implying polytheism, including the veneration of saints, and advocate a return to the original teachings of Islam as found in the Qu'ran and the Hadith. They supported the establishment of a Muslim state based on Islamic canon law. Adopted by the ruling Saudi family in 1744, the movement controlled all of Nejd by the end of the 18th century. It was assured of dominance on the Arabian Peninsula with the creation of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, and in the 20th century — supported by Saudi wealth — it engaged in widespread missionary work throughout the Islamic world.
Aum Shinrikyo
now known as Aleph, is a Japanese terrorist cult founded by Shoko Asahara in 1987. It aimed to take over Japan and then the world. The group gained international notoriety in 1995, when several of its followers carried out a Sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subways. Approved as a religious entity in 1989 under Japanese law, the group ran candidates in a Japanese parliamentary election in 1990. The Japanese Government revoked its recognition of the Aum as a religious organization in October 1995, but in 1997, a government panel decided not to invoke the Anti-Subversive Law against the group, which would have outlawed the cult. A 1999 law gave the Japanese Government authorization to continue police surveillance of the group due to concerns that the Aum might launch future terrorist attacks. Under the leadership of Fumihiro Joyu, the Aum changed its name to Aleph in January 2000 and claimed to have rejected the violent and apocalyptic teachings of its founder.
IRA
Republican paramilitary organization, founded in 1919, seeking the end of British rule in Northern Ireland and the unification of the province with the republic of Ireland. The IRA was declared illegal in 1931. It gained popular support in the 1960s when Roman Catholics in Northern Ireland began a civil rights campaign against discrimination by the dominant Protestant majority. The IRA used terrorist tactics that included the 1979 assassination of Lord Mountbatten and the killing of some 1,800 people by the early 1990s. In 1994 the IRA declared a cease-fire, and its political representatives were included in multiparty talks beginning in 1997. Negotiations produced the Good Friday Agreement (1998), in which the IRA agreed to decommission (disarm). In July 2005, the IRA announced that it was ending its armed campaign and instead would pursue only peaceful means to achieve its objectives.
Free rider problem
Consumers can take advantage of public goods without contributing sufficiently to their creation. In the case of clean air, for example, everyone enjoys clean, healthy air, but noneone wants to bear the cost of ensuring it. The free rider knows that if someone else were to ensure the benefits from clean air, he could not be kept from enjoying them. So the free rider would not voluntarily exert any extra effort, unless there is some inherent pleasure or material reward for doing so.
Public goods
non rivalrous, non excludable, clean air, free rider problem
Common Pool Resources (CPRs)
alternatively termed a common property resource, non-excludable but rival. Unlike pure public goods, common pool resources face problems of congestion or overuse. Common property regimes typically function at a local level to prevent the overexploitation of a resource system from which fringe units can be extracted, such as pollution. In some cases, government regulations combined with tradable environmental allowances (TEAs) are used successfully to prevent excessive pollution, whereas in other cases - especially in the absence of a unique government being able to set limits and monitor economic activities - excessive use or pollution continue. An example of a global common-pool regime is the Kyoto Protocol, which aims to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Debates and controversy over attribution of access and changes to common-pool resources, as well as its causes, form part of the issue over regulation of a common-pool resource.
Epistemic Community
epistemic communities are transnational networks of knowledge-based experts who define for decision-makers what the problems they face are, and what they should do about them. Debates and controversy over attribution of access and changes to common-pool resources, as well as its causes, form part of the issue over regulation of a common-pool resource.
Emission Trading/Tax
(or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. In such a plan, a central authority (usually a government agency) sets a limit or cap on the amount of a pollutant that can be emitted, companies that emit the pollutant are given credits or allowances which represent the right to emit a specific amount. Companies that pollute beyond their allowances must buy credits from those who pollute less than their allowances. This transfer is referred to as a trade. In effect, the buyer is being fined for polluting, while the seller is being rewarded for having reduced emissions. Emissions trading is a means of achieving environmental objectives at potentially lower cost than the more traditional use of uniform standards on emissions sources. Properly designed emissions trading systems can also encourage innovation. Perhaps the most successful emission trading system to date is the SO2 trading system under the framework of the Acid Rain Program of the 1990 Clean Air Act in the USA. Under the program, which is essentially a cap-and-trade emissions trading system, SO2 emissions are expected to be reduced by 50% from 1980 to 2010.
Kyoto Protocol
An agreement on global warming reached by the United Nations Conference on Climate Change in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. The major industrial nations pledged to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases between 2008 and 2012. The Kyoto Protocol now covers more than 160 countries globally and over 55% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although the American delegation signed the protocol, the United States Senate has refused to ratify the treaty, mainly because it believes that the targeted reductions are so steep that they will produce a severe economic slump. Attacking the U.S. position as selfish, European governments have been extremely critical of the U.S. refusal to ratify the protocol.
Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty, drafted in 1959 and entering into force in 1961, regulates international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only uninhabited continent, defined as all land and ice shelves south of the southern 60th parallel. The treaty has now been signed by 45 countries, including the Soviet Union and the United States, and set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent. This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
an international agreement between governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants. Not one species protected by CITES has become extinct as a result of trade since the Convention entered into force in 1975.
International Whaling Commission (IWC)
The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was set up in 1946 to promote and maintain whale fishery stocks. The structural design of the IWC rested on the hope that states in their long-term self-interest would adopt cooperative policies suggested by expert scientific management of a common resource. Since the 1980s the IWC has become the primary mechanism for the protection of all species of whale. The protective role the IWC has taken has come under strain since in the late 1980s, as various species of minke whale were argued to be sufficiently populous to allow limited hunts. The sharp controversy between those who wish to resume some whaling and those who in the main have been successful in denying any return to whaling has, as one consequence, led the pro-whaling nations to question the legitimacy of the IWC's decisions.
Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer
The Montreal Protocol, a treaty designed to save the Earth's ozone layer by calling on nations to reduce certain chemical emissions, was signed in 1987. Twenty-five nations agreed to establish a timetable for the phasing out of several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons proven to contribute to ozone depletion. Eventually, nearly 170 nations signed on to comply with the protocol, leading Kofi Annan to call it "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date."
United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
coordinates United Nations environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and encourages sustainable development through sound environmental practices. It was founded as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in 1973 and is headquartered in Gigiri, Nairobi, Kenya. UNEP has aided in the development of guidelines and treaties on issues such as the international trade in potentially harmful chemicals, transboundary air pollution, and contamination of international waterways. 46 countries have called for the United Nations Environment Programme to be replaced by a new and more powerful 'United Nations Environment Organization' (UNEO), to be modelled on the World Health Organization. The 46 countries included the European Union nations, but notably did not include the United States, China, Russia, and India, the top four emitters of greenhouse gasses
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Any of various halocarbon compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine, once used widely as aerosol propellants and refrigerants. Chlorofluorocarbons are believed to cause depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer.
Helsinki Protocol
1985 Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions, called on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 %. It entered into force in 1987. Twenty-one ECE countries are Parties to this Protocol, which aims at abating one of the major air pollutants. As a result of this Protocol, substantial cuts in sulphur emissions have been recorded in Europe: Taken as a whole, the 21 Parties to the 1985 Sulphur Protocol reduced 1980 sulphur emissions by more than 50% by 1993. Also individually, based on the latest available data, all Parties to the Protocol have reached the reduction target. Eleven Parties have achieved reductions of at least 60%. Given the target year 1993 for the 1985 Sulphur Protocol, it can be concluded that all Parties to that Protocol have reached the target of reducing emissions by at least 30%.
Tragedy of the Commons
An example in game theory which is used to explore problems of resource distribution. The use of commons (publicly available land on which farmers graze their cattle) becomes a problem when one such farmer reasons that he or she can expand his or her herd since this small addition to the total stock will contribute little harm to the available pasture. However, if other farmers reason likewise, these incremental additions to the stock using the land lead to overgrazing and thus the destruction of the resource itself. In other words, if each individual in this situation rationally pursues his or her own short-term interest while disregarding others similarly pursuing theirs, then the long-run consequence is that everyone loses their share in the collective resource.
MFA
the multi fibre agreement governed the world trade in textiles and garments from 1974 through 2004, imposing quotas on the amount developing countries could export to developed countries. It expired on 1 January 2005. The MFA was introduced in 1974 as a short-term measure intended to allow developed countries to adjust to imports from the developing world. Developing countries have a natural advantage in textile production because it is labor intensive and they have low labor costs. According to a World Bank/IMF study, the system has cost the developing world 27 million jobs and $40 billion a year in lost exports. However, the Arrangement was not negative for all developing countries. For example the EU imposed no restrictions or duties on imports from the very poorest countries, such as Bangladesh, leading to a massive expansion of the industry there. At the GATT Uruguay Round, it was decided to bring the textile trade under the jurisdiction of the World Trade Organization. The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing provided for the gradual dismantling of the quotas that existed under the MFA. This process was completed on 1 January 2005. However, large tariffs remain in place on many textile products.
Export Dumping
selling goods at less than the normal price, usually as ternational dumping, nations often resort to flexible tariffs. It may be done by a producer, a group of producers, or a nation. Dumping is usually done to drive competitors off the market and secure a monopoly, or to hinder foreign competition. To counterbalance ing a high price in the home market, on export bounties, or on low import duties in the foreign market. Governments may condone, or even sponsor, dumping in other markets for either political reasons or to achieve a more favorable balance of payments. In the late 19th cent., dumping became part of the trade policy of great European cartels, especially German cartels. Britain, France, Japan, and the United States also have practiced dumping. In the United States various tariff acts have been passed to deal with different types of dumping; in particular the 1921 Emergency Tariff Act imposed special duties on goods imported for sale at less than their fair value or cost of production. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) prohibits dumping and provides for increased import duties to combat the practice.
TRIPS
The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is a treaty administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) which sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation. It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) treaty in 1994.Specifically, TRIPS contains requirements that nations' laws must meet for copyright rights, enforcement procedures, remedies, and dispute resolution procedures. In 2001, developing countries concerned that developed countries were insisting on an overly-narrow reading of TRIPS, initiated a round of talks that resulted in the Doha Declaration: a WTO statement that clarifies the scope of TRIPS; stating for example that TRIPS can and should be interpreted in light of the goal "to promote access to medicines for all." The TRIPS agreement introduced intellectual property law into the international trading system for the first time, and remains the most comprehensive international agreement on intellectual property to date. TRIPS has been criticised by the alter-globalization movement, regarding for example its consequences with regards to the AIDS pandemic in Africa.
HIPC
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) are countries with the highest levels of poverty in the world, most of which are in sub-Saharan Africa, which are the subject of international debt relief measures aiming to reduce their external debt to sustainable levels. Assistance is conditional on the national governments of these countries meeting a range of economic management and performance targets. Many times these countries turn to the IMF for help. The IMF has been criticized for using ineffective market fundamentalist policies on these countries, which only increase their suffering.
LDC
less developed countries, those nations (primarily in Africa, Asia, and Latin America) that have little or no industrial base. Characteristically, they have high rates of population growth, high infant mortality, short life expectancy, low levels of literacy, and poor distribution of wealth. Since the late 1980s, some countries, especially in Asia and Latin America, have experienced rapid economic development, resulting in greater differences between the less developed countries.
Doha Development Agenda
The Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization negotiations aims to lower trade barriers around the world, permitting free trade between countries of varying prosperity. The Doha round began with a ministerial-level meeting in Doha, Qatar in 2001, with subsequent ministerials in Cancún, Mexico (2003), and Hong Kong, China (2005). As of 2006, talks have stalled over a divide between the developed nations led by the European Union, the United States and Japan and the major developing countries (represented by the G20 developing nations), led and represented mainly by India, Brazil, China and South Africa.
Second-wave HIV pandemic
That is, the potential impact of the pandemic in countries that currently have low- to mid-level HIV prevalence but stand on the brink of major epidemics. China, India, Russia, Ethiopia and Nigeria, in particular, have been identified as second wave countries. Current official HIV prevalence estimates range in these countries from 0.1 percent to 5.4 percent, overall, but prevalence is much higher in certain areas and among certain populations within each country. In addition, HIV is moving beyond its initial concentration in the higher risk groups reflecting an important “tipping point” for each country. Indeed, Ethiopia and Nigeria, while not experiencing the high prevalence rates of some other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, already have generalized epidemics.
Life expectancy
The number of further years of life a person can expect at a given age. Life-expectancy at birth is a widely used indicator of health standards and social and economic living standards. As one would expect from variations in mortality rates between countries, life-expectancies also vary considerably, being around 30 to 40 years at birth in certain developing countries, and reaching 75 and over for women in the major Western industrialized societies. It shows the gap between the developed nations and most of the rest of the world.
HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus, a retrovirus that is transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child via the placenta, and that breaks down the human body's immune system, sometimes producing symptoms of dementia, and often leading to AIDS.
 Africa is without doubt the region most affected by the virus. Inhabited by just over 12% of the world's population, Africa is estimated to have more than 60% of the AIDS-infected. Various organizations such as UNAIDS and NGOs have addressed this issue.
WHO
World Health Organization (WHO) Intergovernmental organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN), headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1948, it collects and shares medical and scientific information and promotes the establishment of international standards for drugs and vaccines. WHO has made major contributions to the prevention of diseases such as malaria, polio, leprosy and tuberculosis, and the eradication of smallpox.
UNAIDS
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, or UNAIDS, established in 1994, is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV epidemic. UNAIDS' mission is to lead, strengthen and support an expanded response to HIV and AIDS that includes preventing transmission of HIV, providing care and support to those already living with the virus, reducing the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV and alleviating the impact of the epidemic.
Millennium Declaration
The Millennium Declaration is a United Nations resolution, adopted at the 8th plenary of the Millennium Summit meeting on September 8, 2000, with eight major development goals adopted by 189 world leaders during the summit. The 8 objectives are 1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, 2) achieving universal primary education, 3) promoting gender equality and empowering women, 4) reducing child mortality, 5) improving maternal health, 6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7) ensuring environmental sustainability 8) developing a global partnership for development. These Millennium Development Goals have been the center of controversy on part of the feasibility and commitment of international long term aid efforts in the early 21st century.
Moral Hazard
A problem created by the tendency for the group in receipt of a benefit (such as a loan or donation) to grow in size as a consequence of the virtually costless (to the individual) availability of certain social benefits.
Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM)
Established in 1994, central pillar of the multilateral trading system, and as the organization's "unique contribution to the stability of the global economy". A dispute arises when one country adopts a trade policy measure or takes some action that one or more fellow-members considers to be breaking the WTO agreements, or to be a failure to live up to obligations. WTO members have agreed that if they believe fellow-members are violating trade rules, they will use the multilateral system of settling disputes instead of taking action unilaterally. That means abiding by the agreed procedures, and respecting judgements. A former WTO Director-General characterized the WTO dispute settlement system as "the most active international adjudicative mechanism in the world today."
Deregulation
abolition of regulations that impede market entry or restrict competition, except for those justified on safety, environmental and consumer protection grounds, and prudent oversight of financial institutions; and legal security for property rights. Part of the IMF economic prescriptions, Washington consensus.
Trade liberalization
liberalization of imports, with particular emphasis on elimination of quantitative restrictions (licensing, etc.); any trade protection to be provided by low and relatively uniform tariffs; Liberalization of inward foreign direct investment; Privatization of state enterprises; part of Washington concensus, IMF policies.
Tax reform
broadening the tax base and adopting moderate marginal tax rates; Interest rates that are market determined and positive (but moderate) in real terms; Competitive exchange rates; part of Washington concensus, IMF policies.
Washington concensus
The Washington Consensus is a phrase initially coined in 1987-88 by John Williamson to describe a relatively specific set of ten economic policy prescriptions that he considered to constitute a "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked countries by Washington-based institutions such as the IMF, World Bank and U.S. Treasury Department. The Washington Consensus focuses on policies that open up markets and trade. The Washington Consensus is the target of sharp criticism by some individuals and groups, who argue that it is a way to open up less developed countries to investments from large multinational corporations and their wealthy owners in advanced First World economies, which the critics would view as a negative development. As of 2006, several Latin American countries are led by socialist governments, some of which openly oppose the Washington Consensus. Critics frequently cite the Argentine economic crisis of 1999-2002 as a case in point of why the Washington Consensus policies are flawed, as they argue that Argentina had previously implemented most of the Washington Consensus policies as directed: some economists, by contrast, question how closely Argentina had in fact followed the Consensus policies.
Trickle-down economics
in United States political rhetoric, are characterizations by opponents (principally Democrats) of the policy of lowering taxes on high incomes and business activity. Proponents of these policies claim that they will promote new investment and economic growth, thereby indirectly benefitting people who do not directly pay the taxes. Opponents characterize this as a claim that the people who would otherwise pay the tax will distribute their benefit to less wealthy individuals, so that a fraction will reach the general population and stimulate the economy. Proponents of the policies generally do not use the terms "trickle-down economics" themselves.
Battle of Seattle
Protest activity surrounding the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, which was to be the launch of a new millennial round of trade negotiations, occurred on November 30, 1999, when the World Trade Organization (WTO) convened in Seattle, Washington, USA. The negotiations were quickly overshadowed by massive and controversial street protests outside the hotels and the Seattle Convention Center, in what became the coming-out of the anti-globalization movement in the United States. The scale of the demonstrations—even the lowest estimates put the crowd at over 40,000 —dwarfed any previous demonstration in the United States against a world meeting of any of the organizations generally associated with economic globalization (such as the WTO, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), or the World Bank). The events are sometimes referred to as the Battle of Seattle.
Mundell Dilemma
It refers to the trade-offs among the following three goals: a fixed exchange rate, national independence in monetary policy, and capital mobility. According to the Mundell-Fleming model, a small, open economy cannot achieve all three of these policy goals at the same time: in pursuing any two of these goals, a nation must forego the third. It highlights the problems associated with creating a stable international financial system.
Globalization
Process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation technologies and services, mass migration and the movement of peoples, a level of economic activity that has outgrown national markets through industrial combinations and commercial groupings that cross national frontiers, and international agreements that reduce the cost of doing business in foreign countries. Globalization offers huge potential profits to companies and nations but has been complicated by widely differing expectations, standards of living, cultures and values, and legal systems as well as unexpected global cause-and-effect linkages.
Swing Producer
Saudi dominance of OPEC’s production and Saudi financial strength enabled that country to manage the oil cartel virtually single-handedly. Saudi Arabia accounted for close to one-third of OPEC’s production and exports, and possessed vast financial reserves. In periods of excess supply, as during the recession of 1975, Saudi Arabia maintained the OPEC price by absorbing a large share of the necessary production reductions. In periods of tight supply, Saudi Arabia increased its production to prevent excess price rises.
OPEC
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela and headquartered in Vienna, Austria. OPEC's influence on the market has not always been a stabilizing one. It alarmed the world and triggered high inflation across both the developing and developed world through its use of the oil weapon in the 1973 oil crisis. Its ability to control the price of oil has diminished somewhat since then, due to the subsequent discovery and development of large oil reserves in the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea, the opening up of Russia, and market modernization. OPEC nations still account for two-thirds of the world's oil reserves, and over 40% of the world's oil production, affording them considerable control over the global market. The organization is considered the most succesfull cartel by many observers.
Nationalization
Nationalization or nationalisation is the act of transferring assets into public ownership. It usually refers to the transfer of private assets, but may also mean assets owned by other levels of government, such as municipalities. The opposite of nationalization is usually privatization, but may also be municipalization. A renationalization occurs when assets are nationalized after a previous privatization. Nationalizations are distinguished from property redistributions in that in the former case, the government retains control of the property after acquisition.
Cartel
Group of businesses or nations that agree to influence prices by regulating production and marketing of a product. The most famous contemporary cartel is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which, notably in the 1970s, restricted oil production and sales and raised prices. A cartel has less control over an industry than a Monopoly. A number of nations, including the United States, have laws prohibiting cartels, this laws however do not apply to the international realm.
Oligopoly
A market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers. OPEC is the best example of an oligopoly; exerted a lot of control over supply and prices; Saudi Arabia was the head of the oligopoly, acting as the swing producer
Horizontal Integration
(expanding product line) - When a company expands its business into different products that are similar to current lines; Oil companies, during the oil crisis in the 1970s, began to build refineries, etc. to compensate and earn additional revenue.
Vertical Integration
(specializing product)- Oil companies, both multinational (such as ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, or BP) and national (e.g. Petronas) often adopt a vertically integrated structure. This means that they are active all the way along the supply chain from locating crude oil deposits, drilling and extracting crude, transporting it around the world, refining it into petroleum products such as Petrol/Gasoline, to distributing the fuel to company-owned retail stations, where it is sold to consumers.
Seven Sisters
Following the break up by the U.S. Government of Standard Oil, several new companies were created, three of which, along with four other major Anglo-Saxon oil companies, were once referred to as the Seven Sisters. With their dominance of oil production, refinement and distribution, they were able to take advantage of the rapidly increasing demands for oil and turn massive profits. Being well organized and able to negotiate as a cartel, they were able to have their way in most Third World oil producers. It was only when the Arab states began to gain control over oil prices and production, mainly through the formation of OPEC, beginning in 1960 and really gaining power by the 1970s, that the Seven Sisters' influence declined.
Shuttle Diplomacy
In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle diplomacy is the use of a third party to serve as an intermediary or mediator between two parties who do not talk directly. The third party travels frequently back and forth (that is, "shuttles") between the two primary parties. Shuttle diplomacy is often used when the two primary parties do not formally recognize each other but still want to negotiate. Occurred after the oil producing states decided to build a cartel and after countries were barred from receiving oil after the Yom Kippur War
King Faisal
King of Saudi Arabia from 1964- 1975. Following the death of Nasser in 1970, Faisal drew closer to Egypt's new president, Anwar Sadat, who himself was planning a break with the Soviet Union and a move towards the pro-American camp. Criticized for being pro-American. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, launched by Sadat, Faisal withdrew Saudi oil from world markets, in protest over Western support for Israel during the conflict.
Anwar Sadat
President of Egypt 1970 - 1981; Thought that the only way to negotiate or establish diplomatic ties with Israel would be through a dramatic event (war). Thus, he tried to build a coalition to attack Israel so diplomacy could be an achievable option. On October 6 1973, in conjunction with Hafez al-Assad of Syria, Sadat launched the October War, a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights in an attempt to liberate the territory captured by Israel six years earlier.
Yom Kippur War/October War
Also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to October 26, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria. The war began with a surprise joint attack by Egypt and Syria on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Egypt and Syria crossed the cease-fire lines in the Sinai and Golan Heights, respectively, which had been captured by Israel in 1967 during the Six-Day War. The Arabs were succesful initially, but were pushed back by Israeli retaliation. Israel then forced the Syrians and Egyptians back and, in the last hours of the war, established a salient on the west bank of the Suez Canal, but these advances were achieved at a high cost in soldiers and equipment.The war had far-reaching implications for many nations. The Arab World, felt psychologically vindicated by its string of victories early in the conflict. This vindication paved the way for the peace process that followed, as well as liberalizations such as Egypt's infitah policy. The Camp David Accords, which came soon after, led to normalized relations between Egypt and Israel—the first time any Arab country had recognized the Israeli state. Egypt, which had already been drifting away from the Soviet Union, then left the Soviet sphere of influence almost entirely.
Counter-force
In nuclear warfare, enemy targets are divided into two types; a counterforce target is an element of the military infrastructure, usually either specific weapons or the bases which support them. A counterforce strike is an attack which targets these elements whilst leaving the civilian infrastructure – known as countervalue targets – as undamaged as possible. Counterforce is a type of attack which was originally proposed during the Cold War.Both sides in the Cold War took steps to protect at least some of their nuclear forces from counter-force attacks. At one point the US kept B-52 Stratofortress bombers permanently in flight; these would remain operational after any counter-force strike. Other bombers were kept ready for launch at short notice, allowing them to escape their bases before intercontinental ballistic missiles could destroy them.
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment of strong weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use of the very same weapons. The strategy is effectively a form of Nash Equilibrium, in which both sides are attempting to avoid their worst possible outcome — nuclear annihilation.
Minimum Deterrence
A popular notion is to excuse nuclear arsenals by claiming their role has been limited to "minimum deterrence". Former Secretary of Defense William Perry asserted: "I strongly support deep reductions in our nuclear arsenal...we are committed to a nuclear posture based on the minimum number of nuclear weapons to meet our security needs". However, when has the Department of Defense (DOD) commitment ever been for other than the minimum arsenal to meet security needs? The statement begs the question of when, in the past, DOD sought more weapons than it needed. If the bureaucratic response is "never", then DOD has always sought a "minimum number" to meet needs. The term "minimum" begs definition, as does the term "needs".
Domino Theory
Doctrine of U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War, according to which the fall of a noncommunist state to communism would precipitate the fall of other neighbouring noncommunist states. The theory was first enunciated by Pres. Harry Truman, who used it to justify sending U.S. military aid to Greece and Turkey in the late 1940s. Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson invoked it to justify U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia, especially the prosecution of the Vietnam War.
Robert Strange McNamara
(born June 9, 1916) is an American business executive and a former United States Secretary of Defense. McNamara served as Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, during the Vietnam War period.
David Dean Rusk
(February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. As Secretary of State he was consistently hawkish, a believer in the use of military action to combat Communism. During the Cuban missile crisis he initially supported an immediate military strike, but he soon turned towards diplomatic efforts. His public defense of US actions in the Vietnam War made him a frequent target of anti-war protests.
Tet Offensive
1968, a series of crucial battles in the Vietnam War. On Jan. 31, 1968, the first day of the celebration of the lunar new year, Vietnam's most important holiday, the Vietnamese Communists launched a major offensive throughout South Vietnam. It took weeks for U.S. and South Vietnamese troops to retake all of the captured cities, including the former imperial capital of Hue. Although the offensive was not militarily successful for the Vietnamese Communists, it was a political and psychological victory for them. It dramatically contradicted optimistic claims by the U.S. government that the war had already been won.
Operation Rolling Thunder
was the title of a U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) sustained, and graduated, aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 1 November 1968, during the Vietnam Conflict. The four objectives of the operation, (which evolved over time) were: to bolster the sagging morale of the Saigon regime in the Republic of Vietnam; to convince the DRV to cease its support for the communist insurgency in the RVN; to destroy the DRV's (NVN's) transportation system, industrial base, and air defenses; and to interdict the flow of men and materiel into the RVN.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in August 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Strategic Hamlet Program
was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the Communist insurgency by means of population transfer. Both of these programs attempted to separate rural peasants from Communist insurgents by creating fortified villages and forcing the peasants to take an active role in the civil war.There are several other important problems that the GVN faced in addition to those created by the failure to provide basic social needs for the peasants and over-extension of its resources. One of these was wide public opposition to the program caused partly by aggressive NLF information campaigns, but also brought about by the inability of the program committee to choose safe and agriculturally sound locations for the development of the hamlets. Facing all of these challenges, the Strategic Hamlet Program finally collapsed with the assassination of President Diem in late 1963 and the disbanding of the Committee for Strategic Hamlets in early 1964.
Compellence
involves attempts to reverse an action that has already occurred or to otherwise overturn the status quo, such as evicting an aggressor from territory it has just conquered or convincing a proliferating state to abandon its existing nuclear weapons programs.
Ngo Dinh Diem
First President of South Vietnam; Diệm's rule was authoritarian and nepotistic. His most trusted official was his brother, Ngô Đình Nhu, leader of the primary pro-Diệm political party; s opposition to Diem's rule in South Vietnam grew, a low-level insurgency began to take shape there in 1957. Finally, in January 1959, under pressure from southern cadres who were being successfully targeted by Diem's secret police, Hanoi's Central Committee issued a secret resolution authorizing the use of armed struggle in the South. On 12 December 1960, under instruction from Hanoi, southern communists established the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam in order to overthrow the government of the south.
Deterrence
There are two forms of deterrence: deterrence by punishment or deterrence by denial. Deterrence by punishment is a strategy by which governments threaten an immense retaliation if attacked. Aggressors are deterred if they do not wish to suffer such damage as a result of an aggressive action. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) is a form of this strategy, which characterizes relations between the United States and former Soviet Union as well as present day Russia. Deterrence by denial is a strategy whereby a government builds up or maintains defense and intelligence systems with the purported aim of neutralizing or mitigating attacks. Aggressors are deterred if they choose not to act, perceiving the cost of their action to be too high in relation to its likely success.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(1962) Major confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union over the presence of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. In October 1962 a U.S. spy plane detected a ballistic missile on a launching site in Cuba. Pres. John F. Kennedy placed a naval blockade around the island, and for several days the U.S. and the Soviet Union hovered on the brink of war. Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev finally agreed to remove the missiles in return for a secret commitment from the U.S. to withdraw its own missiles from Turkey and to never invade Cuba. The crisis provides textbook illustrations of important misperceptions and miscalculations. The U.S. government had calculated that the Soviet Union would not deploy nuclear weapons to Cuba because such a move would be inconsistent with past Soviet behavior, and because it seemed obvious that it would trigger a major confrontation. Similarly, Khrushchev underestimated the risk of the deployment when he grossly overestimated the willingness of Kennedy and the American people to tolerate a major disruption in the hemispheric status quo.For many, the crisis demonstrated the dangers of the nuclear age. Subsequently, a telephone hotline was established linking the White House and the Kremlin and efforts were intensified to secure arms control agreements and détente.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
(April 17, 1961) Abortive invasion of Cuba directed by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and carried out by Cuban exiles. The invasion was intended to spark a rebellion that would topple Fidel Castro, whose communist regime was considered a threat to U.S. interests in the region. The invasion began with the bombing of Cuban military bases; two days later a force of about 1,500 landed at several sites along the coast, including the Bay of Pigs. The rebellion never materialized, the invasion force was quickly defeated, and more than 1,100 men were imprisoned. The result was a huge propaganda victory for Castro and a severe embarrassment for the administration of U.S. presiden
Thick Defense
The first U.S. ballistic missile interceptor systems were to be placed in cities, so as to defend them, and were to be armed with nuclear warheads. Once this became known, however, there were citizen revolts around the country. No one wanted nuclear weapons anywhere near them. The next idea was presented by then Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in a 1967 speech in San Francisco. McNamara suggested that in place of a nationwide city defense or “thick system,” involving the deployment of thousands of nuclear-tipped defensive missiles around the country to protect the United States from intercontinental ballistic missiles carrying large nuclear weapons launched from the Soviet Union, the United States would build a thin nationwide ballistic missile defense involving perhaps 100 or so defensive missiles to defend against Chinese long-range nuclear missiles (then non-existent). This would have entailed the deployment of far fewer interceptor systems, and therefore far fewer irate citizens, but would still have permitted the deployment of a missile defense system—whether useful or not.
Thin Defense
Efforts to dissuade the Soviet Union from continuing to develop Anti-Ballistic Missile systems saw little success. With insight that remains particularly relevant today, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara noted that the introduction of an ABM system would compel the opposing country to compensate by bolstering its offensive nuclear arsenal, thus leading to a defensive/offensive arms race; he also stated that any ABM system should be designed to address a limited nuclear arsenal, citing Communist China as an example. The Sentinel system was thus considered a ‘thin’ defense, meant to protect major cities against a limited nuclear attack.
Khrushchev
was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. He was First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964. He was removed from power by his party colleagues in 1964 and replaced by Leonid Brezhnev. He spent the last seven years of his life under the close supervision of the KGB.
Comintern
an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the "war communism" period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State
NSC-68
or National Security Council Report 68 was a 58 page classified report issued April 14, 1950 during the presidency of Harry Truman. Written in the formative stages of the Cold War, it has become one of the classic historical documents of the Cold War. NSC-68 would shape government actions in the Cold War for the next 20 years and has subsequently been labeled its "blueprint." Key content included provisions of: Defending the Western Hemisphere and essential allied areas in order that their war-making capabilities can be developed; Providing and protect a mobilization base while the offensive forces required for victory are being built up; Conducting offensive operations to destroy vital elements of the Soviet war-making capacity, and to keep the enemy off balance until the full offensive strength of the United States and its allies can be brought to bear; Defending and maintain the lines of communication and base areas necessary to the execution of the above tasks; and providing such aid to allies as is essential to the execution of their role in the above tasks.
Berlin Blockade
(June 24, 1948 to May 11, 1949) became one of the first major crises of the new Cold War, when the Soviets blocked railroad and street access to the West. The crisis abated after the Soviet Union did not act to stop American, British and French airlifts of food and other provisions to the Western-held sectors of Berlin following the Soviet blockade.
Iron Curtain
the boundary which symbolically, ideologically, and physically divided Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II until the end of the Cold War. Winston Churchill employed the term in a speech in Fulton, Mo., U.S., about the division of Europe in 1946. The restrictions and the rigidity of the Iron Curtain eased slightly after Joseph Stalin's death in 1953, though the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 restored them. The Iron Curtain largely ceased to exist in 1989 – 90 with the communists' abandonment of one-party rule in eastern Europe.
Containment
refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it was to stop what it called the domino effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based communism, rather than democracy. In early application of containment was the Truman Doctrine (1947), which provided U.S. aid to Greece and Turkey. some might argue that containment remained a policy into the twenty-first century for the United States in dealing with communist regimes in Cuba, North Korea, and China.
Long Telegram
The X Article, formally titled "The Sources of Soviet Conduct", was published in Foreign Affairs in July 1947. Though signed pseudonymously by "X," it was well known at the time that the true author was George F. Kennan, the Deputy Chief of Mission of the United States to the USSR from 1944 to 1946. It became famous for setting forth the doctrine of containment. Kennan then proceeded (in his first two sections) to lay out concepts that would become the bedrock of American Cold War policy: The Soviet Union perceived itself to be at eternal war with capitalism ;Socialism and social democracy were perceived as enemies, not allies; The Soviet Union would use controllable Marxists in the capitalist world as allies; Soviet aggression was not fundamentally aligned with the Russian people's views or with economic reality, but rather in historic Russian xenophobia and paranoia; The structure of the Soviet government prohibited an objective or accurate picture of either internal or external reality.The Long Telegram was heavily circulated in the State Department in 1946, and reached the White House and Defense Departments by 1947. It was a major spur to the development of U.S. Cold War policy as set forth in NSC-68 (1950). The Long Telegram did not actually lead to the Cold War policy adopted via NSC-68. NSC-68 provided for a distinctly different type of containment than that laid out in the Long Telegram. The Long Telegram called for economic pressures against the USSR, whereas NSC-68 called for militaristic pressures.
George Kennan
George F. Kennan, the Deputy Chief of Mission of the United States to the USSR from 1944 to 1946, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. In the late 1940s, his writings inspired the Truman Doctrine and the U.S. foreign policy of "containing" the Soviet Union, thrusting him into a lifelong role as a leading authority on the Cold War. His "Long Telegram" from Moscow in 1946, and the subsequent 1947 article "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" argued that the Soviet regime was inherently expansionist and that its influence had to be "contained" in areas of vital strategic importance to the United States. These texts quickly emerged as foundational texts of the Cold War, expressing the Truman administration's new anti-Soviet Union policy. Kennan also played a leading role in the development of definitive Cold War programs and institutions, most notably the Marshall Plan.
Four Policemen
a term coined by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, to refer to the four major Allies of World War II and founders of the United Nations (UN): the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and Republic of China. Foundations for power distribution in the UN.
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
formally known as the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the USSR, was a non-aggression treaty between the German Third Reich and the Soviet Union. It was signed in Moscow on August 23, 1939, by the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. The mutual non-aggression treaty lasted until Operation Barbarossa of June 22, 1941, when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Although officially labeled a "non-aggression treaty", the pact included a secret protocol, in which the independent countries of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania were divided into spheres of interest of the parties. The secret protocol explicitly assumed "territorial and political rearrangements" in the areas of these countries. Subsequently all the mentioned countries were invaded, occupied or forced to cede part of their territory by either the Soviet Union, Germany, or both.
Rhineland
The Rhineland is in the western part of Germany, and abuts international boundaries with France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. After World War I, Allied troops occupied portions of the area on the border with France, and it was the scene of recurrent crises and controversies during the 1920s. In 1936 Adolf Hitler ordered German troops to enter the demilitarized zone of the Rhineland; weak objections by the Allies foreshadowed Hitler's later annexation of the Sudetenland.
Harry Truman
succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Truman's presidency was eventful in foreign affairs, starting with victory over Germany, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the surrender of Japan and the end of World War II, the founding of the United Nations, the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe, the Truman Doctrine to contain Communism, the beginning of the Cold War, the creation of NATO, and the Korean War.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was President during the Great Depression and World War II. He demonstrated the power of the modern Presidency to restore public confidence and win speedy passage of recovery legislation. In spite of considerable isolationist sentiment in Congress, he provided aid to Great Britain and the Soviet Union that prevented their defeat at the hands of Adolf Hitler, and after U.S. entry into World War II he led the Allied coalition to victory over Germany. Roosevelt created the New Deal coalition within the Democratic party, which dominated national politics through the 1960s. Established the US as a global hegemonic leader.
Stalin
The Soviet statesman Joseph Stalin was the supreme ruler of the Soviet Union and the leader of world communism from 1929 to 1953. Under Joseph Stalin the Soviet Union greatly enlarged its territory, won a war of unprecedented destructiveness, and transformed itself from a relatively backward country into the second most important industrial nation in the world. For these achievements the Soviet people and the international Communist movement paid a price included the loss of millions of lives; massive material and spiritual deprivation; political repression; an untold waste of resources; and the erection of an inflexible authoritarian system of rule thought by some historians to be one of the most offensive in recent history and one that many Communists consider a hindrance to further progress in the Soviet Union itself. The United States and Great Britain perceived Stalin's actions as attempts to force Communism on the world. In the late 1940s, the Soviet Union was captioned by the United States as the Red Menace, seeking to subvert democracy and capitalism. Stalin’s actions can be seen to contribute to the Cold War.
Allied Powers
The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. Within the ranks of the Allied powers, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom were known as "The Big Three." France was also a member. They started the international organization known as the United Nations, which is still alive today. It was started by Franklin D. Roosevelt to help maintain peace after the war was over.
Axis Powers
those countries opposed to the Allies during the Second World War. The three major Axis powers, Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan were part of a military alliance. The alliance originated in a series of agreements between Germany and Italy, followed in 1936 by the Rome-Berlin Axis declaration and the German-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pact. The connection was strengthened by the formal Pact of Steel (1939) between Germany and Italy and by the Tripartite Pact signed by all three powers in 1940. Several other countries, including Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, and Slovakia, later allied themselves with the original Axis Powers.
Munich Agreement
(1938) Settlement reached by Germany, France, Britain, and Italy permitting German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. Adolf Hitler's threats to occupy the German-populated part of Czechoslovakia stemmed from his avowed broader goal of reuniting Europe's German-populated areas. Though Czechoslovakia had defense treaties with France and the Soviet Union, both countries agreed that areas in the Sudetenland with majority German populations should be returned. Hitler demanded that all Czechoslovaks in those areas depart; when Czechoslovakia refused, Britain's Neville Chamberlain negotiated an agreement permitting Germany to occupy the areas but promising that all future differences would be resolved through consultation. The agreement, which became synonymous with appeasement, was abrogated when Hitler annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia the next year.
Pearl Harbor
Site of a surprise Japanese attack on America’s naval fleet on December 7, 1941; ultimately caused the entry of the United States into World War II; Japan had hoped that this attack would force America to end its oil embargo, but that did not occur
Postdam Conference
(July 17 – Aug. 2, 1945) Allied conference held in the Berlin suburb of Potsdam after Germany's surrender in World War II. Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin, and Winston Churchill met to discuss European peace settlements, the administration of defeated Germany, the demarcation of the boundaries of Poland, the occupation of Austria, the definition of the Soviet Union's role in eastern Europe, the determination of reparations, and the further prosecution of the war against Japan. The four occupation zones of Germany conceived at the Yalta Conference were set up, each to be administered by the commander-in-chief of the Soviet, British, U.S., or French army of occupation. Poland's boundary became the Oder and Neisse rivers in the west, and the country received part of former East Prussia. Stalin refused to let the Western powers interfere with his control of eastern Europe. Much was left undone, and the Big Three's ability to cooperate and work toward similar postwar goals was still unknown. Potsdam remains a transition point as the former Allies moved from World War II to the Cold War.
Yalta Conference
The Yalta Conference was a meeting of British prime minister Winston Churchill, Soviet premier Joseph Stalin, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt early in February 1945 as World War II was winding down. The leaders agreed to require Germany's unconditional surrender and to set up in the conquered nation four zones of occupation to be run by their three countries and France. They scheduled another meeting for April in San Francisco to create the United Nations. Stalin also agreed to permit free elections in Eastern Europe and to enter the Asian war against Japan. In turn, he was promised the return of lands lost to Japan in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. At the time, most of these agreements were kept secret. Yalta became controversial after Soviet-American wartime cooperation degenerated into the cold war. Stalin broke his promise of free elections in Eastern Europe and installed governments dominated by the Soviet Union. Then American critics charged that Roosevelt, who died two months after the conference, had "sold out" to the Soviets at Yalta.
Sudentenland
Acquired by Germany under the Munich Agreement; after the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitler's next target. Hitler's strategy was to exploit the existing Sudeten German minority problem as a pretext for German penetration into eastern Central Europe. In 1938 neither the United Kingdom nor France desired war. France, not wanting to face Germany alone, subordinated itself to the United Kingdom. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain became the major spokesman for the West. Chamberlain believed that Sudeten German grievances were just and Hitler's intention limited. Both the United Kingdom and France advised Czechoslovakia to concede.
Hossbach Memorandum
the summary of a meeting on November 5, 1937 between Adolf Hitler and his military leadership, laying out his plans to precipitate an aggressive war that would eventually be known as World War II in Europe. The Memorandum is often used by intentionalist historians to prove that Hitler had planned the Second World War and some of the events which led to it. However structuralist historians would argue that the document shows no such plans. They would also contend that Britain and France's appeasement of Hitler (in his remilitarization of the Rhineland in March 1936 and the Anschluss of Austria in March 1938) had given him the confidence to exploit the situations and to move on to Czechoslovakia and Poland. This appeasement only seemed to have ended when war was declared on Hitler by Britain and France on 3 September 1939.
Lebensraum
was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. In Hitler's book Mein Kampf, he detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum ("living space", i.e. land and raw materials), and that it should be found in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, or enslave the Polish, Russian and other Slavic populations, whom they considered inferior, and to repopulate the land with Germanic peoples. It served as the motivation for the expansionist policies of Nazi Germany, aiming to provide extra space for the growth of the German population, for a Greater Germany.
Anschluss
Political union of Austria with Germany, which occurred when Adolf Hitler annexed Austria. In 1938 the Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg was bullied into canceling a plebiscite on union with Germany, which he expected Austrians to oppose. He resigned his office and ordered the Austrian army not to resist the Germans. The Germans invaded on March 12, and the enthusiasm shown by Austrians persuaded Hitler to annex Austria outright the next day. Though France and Britain protested Hitler's methods, they and other countries accepted the fait accompli.
Neville Chamberlain
a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940.Chamberlain is perhaps the most ill-regarded British Prime Minister of the 20th century in the popular mind internationally, because of his policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany regarding the abandonment of Czechoslovakia to Hitler at Munich in 1938. He signed the Munich Agreement with Adolf Hitler in 1938, which effectively allowed Germany to annex the Czech Sudetenland. Shortly thereafter, Hitler occupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia, technically his first International aggression, and the first step on the road to World War II. Chamberlain entered into a Mutual Defence Pact with Poland, but was unable to do anything directly when Germany invaded it six days later on 1st September 1939. Nevertheless, Chamberlain delivered an ultimatum to Hitler, declared war on Germany on 3 September and launched attacks on German shipping on September 4. Chamberlain was forced to resign the premiership on in 1940, after Germany invaded the Netherlands, Belgium and France.
Maginot Line
a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and in the run-up to World War II. Generally the term describes either the entire system or just the defences facing Germany while the Alpine Line is used for the Franco-Italian defences. The French believed the fortification would provide time for their army to mobilize in the event of attack. The success of static, defensive combat in World War I was a key influence on French thinking. However, the fortification system utterly failed to contain the invading German forces in World War II, who largely manuevered around it. The term is sometimes used today to describe any comically ineffective protection.
Benito Mussolini
In the 1930s Mussolini sought to make Italy an international power. In 1935 Italy invaded the East African country of Ethiopia. Mussolini ignored the League of Nations' demand that he withdraw and proceeded to conquer the country.. By the end of the 1930s, Mussolini also moved closer to Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany. In 1939 he invaded nearby Albania. Mussolini did not enter World War II until June 1940, when he invaded the south of France. At first his alliance with Hitler appeared propitious. However, the Italian army suffered defeat in North Africa, and the Allies invaded Sicily in 1943. Mussolini's regime crumbled. King Victor Emmanuel dismissed Mussolini as the head of state on July 25, 1943. Mussolini was briefly imprisoned, but German troops rescued him. Hitler directed Mussolini to head an Italian puppet state in northern Italy, then under the control of German forces. As the Allies moved north in 1945, Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans and shot on April 28, 1945.
Rapollo Conference
At the Conference on 7th November 1917, all three Allies agreed to create a Supreme War Council, as a coordinating body with powers to ensure effective unity. The Fifth Session of the Conference was converted into the first session of the Council, which became popularly known as the Versailles Council. The first Military Representatives were Wilson (Great Britain), General Maxime Weygand (France), and Marshal Cadorna (Italy).
Winston Churchill
After the outbreak of the Second World War Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain in May 1940 Churchill became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and led the British war effort against the Axis powers. Churchill's greatest achievement was that he refused to capitulate when defeat by Germany was a strong possibility and all seemed hopeless, and he remained a strong opponent of any negotiations with Germany. By adopting a policy of no surrender, Churchill kept democracy alive in the UK and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942-45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of Soviet Russia and the liberation of Western Europe.Among the many consequences of this stand was that Britain was maintained as a base from which the Allies could attack Germany, thereby ensuring that the Soviet sphere of influence did not extend over Western Europe at the end of the war.
Adolf Hitler
Chancellor of Germany from 1933, and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. He was leader of the Nazi Party. Hitler gained power in a Germany facing crisis after World War I. Using propaganda and charismatic oratory, he appealed to the economic needs of the lower and middle classes, while sounding resonant chords of nationalism, antisemitism, and anti-communism. With the establishment of a restructured economy, a rearmed military, and a totalitarian regime, Hitler pursued an aggressive foreign policy with the intention of expanding German Lebensraum ("living space"). This triggered World War II when Germany annexed Austria, the Czech lands, and invaded Poland, much of which was also annexed to form the "Greater German Reich". I twas under his rule that some of the most attrocious crimes against humanity were committed, leading to the Nuremberg Trials and a call for international humanitarian law.
Price-specie-flow-mechanism
logical mechanism created by David Hume which dispeled the Mercantilist (1700-1776) notion that a nation can have a continuously favorable balance of trade. Under the rules of the Gold standard, each nation’s currency consisted either of gold itself, or of paper currency fully backed (convertible) by gold. Consequently, in the absence of any sterilization, money supply would fall in the deficit nation and rise in the surplus nation as external balances were settled by payment in gold. Since the popular economic theory at the time for explaining monetary equilibrium and formation of domestic prices was the so-called quantity theory of money, a fall in the money supply would cause internal prices to decline, just as an increase in money supply would cause prices to rise in proportion. As a result, the relative prices of the deficit nation would fall, causing its exports to rise and imports to fall. The opposite changes took place in the surplus nation. And this process of adjustment through prices was expected to continue until balance of payments equilibrium (current A/C only) or external balance were fully restored in each nation.
Populism
a political doctrine or philosophy that aims to defend the interests of the common people against an entrenched, self-serving or corrupt elite. Soviet scholars primarily focused on the 1870s and 1880s. There is also disagreement about what populism represented as an ideology. There are three ways of looking at it: as a reaction against Western capitalism and socialism, as agrarian socialism, and as a theory advocating the hegemony of the masses over the educated elite. As this should make evident, populism meant different things to different people; it was not a single coherent doctrine but a widespread movement in nineteenth-century Russia favoring such goals as social justice and equality. Populism in Russia is generally believed to have been strongly influenced by the thinking of Alexander Herzen and Nikolai Chernyshevsky, who during the 1850s and 1860s argued that the peasant commune (mir) was crucial to Russia's transition from capitalism to socialism via a peasant revolution.
Gold Standard
a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold.Under the gold standard, currency issuers guarantee to redeem notes, upon demand, in that amount of gold. Governments that employ such a fixed unit of account, and which will redeem their notes to other governments in gold, share a fixed-currency relationship.Supporters of the gold standard claim it is more resistant to credit and debt expansion. Unlike a fiat currency, the money backed by gold cannot be created arbitrarily by government action. This restraint prevents artificial inflation by the devaluation of currency. This is supposed to remove "currency uncertainty," keep the credit of the issuing monetary authority sound, and encourage lending. Nevertheless, countries under the gold standard, like countries with fiat currencies, underwent debt crises and depressions throughout the history of its use.
Dawes Plan
(1924) Arrangement for Germany's payment of reparations to the Allies after World War I, produced by a committee of experts presided over by Charles Dawes. The total amount of reparations was not determined, but payments were to begin at 1 billion gold marks in the first year and rise to 2.5 billion by 1928. The plan, which also provided for the reorganization of the Reichsbank and for an initial foreign loan of 800 million marks to Germany, was later replaced by the more lenient Young Plan.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
also known as the Pact of Paris after the city where it was signed on August 27, 1928, was an international treaty "providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy." It failed in its purpose but was significant for later developments in international law. It was named after the American secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand, who drafted the pact.
Locarno Treaty
(1925) Multilateral treaty signed in Locarno, Switz., intended to guarantee peace in western Europe. Its signatories were Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. Germany's borders with France and Belgium as set by the Treaty of Versailles were decreed inviolable, but its eastern borders were not. Britain promised to defend Belgium and France. Other provisions included mutual defense pacts between France and Poland and between France and Czechoslovakia. The treaty led to the Allied troops' departure from the Rhineland by 1930, five years ahead of schedule
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
(March 3, 1918) Peace treaty signed at Brest-Litovsk (now in Belarus) by the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary) with Soviet Russia, concluding hostilities between those countries in World War I. Russia lost the Ukraine, its Polish and Baltic territories, and Finland by signing the treaty, which was later annulled by the Armistice. While the treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year, it gave some break to Bolsheviks waging the civil war in all directions and contributed to the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.
Gustav Streseman
Gustav Stresemann was one of Germany's outstanding diplomats and a leading political figure of the post-World War I Weimar Republic. He championed a policy of postwar reconciliation and cooperation in Europe. As chancellor (1923) and foreign minister (1923 – 29), he worked to restore Germany's international status, pursuing a conciliatory policy with the Allied Powers. He negotiated the Pact of Locarno, supported the reparations revisions in the Dawes and Young plans, and secured Germany's admission to the League of Nations. He shared the 1926 Nobel Prize for Peace with Aristide Briand.
Haile Selassie
Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974; Following the 1935 Italian invasion of Ethiopia from its colony in Eritrea , Emperor Haile Selassie I made an attempt at fighting back the invaders personally. The Emperor asked the League to live up to its promise of collective security. He spoke eloquently of the need to protect weak nations against the strong. He detailed the death and destruction rained down upon his people by the use of Mussolini's chemical agents.
Abyssinia Crisis
The Abyssinia Crisis was a pre-WW2 diplomatic crisis originating in the conflict between Italy and Ethiopia. Both Italy and Ethiopia were members of the League of Nations, which had rules forbidding aggression. After their border clash at Walwal in 1934, Ethiopia appealed to the League for arbitration, but the response was dull and sluggish. There was little international protest to Mussolini when he then sent large numbers of troops to Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, two colonies of Italy that bordered Ethiopia on the North and Southeast respectively. The League responded by condemning the attack and imposing economic sanctions on Italy. However the sanctions excluded vital materials such as oil, and were not carried out by all members of the League. The United Kingdom and France did not take any serious action against Italy (such as blocking Italian access to the Suez Canal). Its effects were to undermine the credibility of the League of Nations and to encourage Italy to ally with Germany.
Manchuria Incident
or Mukden Incident, 1931, confrontation that gave Japan the impetus to set up a puppet government in Manchuria. After the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5), Japan replaced Russia as the dominant foreign power in S Manchuria. By the late 1920s the Japanese feared that unification of China under the Kuomintang party would imperil Japanese interests in Manchuria. This view was confirmed when the Manchurian general Chang Hsüeh-liang, a recent convert to the Kuomintang, refused to halt construction of railway and harbor facilities in competition with the South Manchurian Railway, referring Japan to the Nationalist central government. When a bomb of unknown origin ripped the Japanese railway near Shenyang (then known as Mukden), the Japanese Kwantung army guarding the railway used the incident as a pretext to occupy S Manchuria (Sept., 1931). Despite Japanese cabinet opposition and a pledge before the League of Nations to withdraw to the railway zone, the army completed the occupation of Manchuria and proclaimed the puppet state of Manchukuo (Feb., 1932).
Self-determination
The principle, often seen as a moral and legal right, is that every nation is entitled to a sovereign territorial state, and that every specifically identifiable population should choose which state it belongs to (for instance by plebiscite). It is commonly used to justify the aspirations of an ethnic group that self-identifies as a nation toward forming an independent sovereign state.
Fourteen Points
were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. In his speech, Wilson intended to set out a blueprint for lasting peace in Europe after World War I. The idealism displayed in the speech gave Wilson a position of moral leadership among the Allies, and encouraged the Central Powers to surrender.The speech was delivered over 10 months before the Armistice with Germany ended World War I, but the Fourteen Points became the basis for the terms of the German surrender, as negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and documented in the Treaty of Versailles. However, only four of the points were adopted completely in the post-war reconstruction of Europe, and the United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.
League of Nations
Organization for international cooperation established by the Allied Powers at the end of World War I. A league covenant, embodying the principles of collective security and providing for an assembly, a council, and a secretariat, was formulated at the Paris Peace Conference (1919) and contained in the Treaty of Versailles. The covenant also set up a system of colonial mandates. Headquartered at Geneva, the League was weakened by the failure of the U.S., which had not ratified the Treaty of Versailles, to join the organization. Discredited by its failure to prevent Japanese expansion into China, Italy's conquest of Ethiopia, and Germany's seizure of Austria, the League ceased its activities during World War II. It was replaced in 1946 by the United Nations.
Clemenceau
The French statesman Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929) was twice premier of France, in 1906-1909 and 1917-1919. He led France through the critical days of World War I and headed the French delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. Leading the French delegation at the Paris Peace Conference, Clemenceau insisted on Germany's disarmament and was never satisfied with the Versailles Treaty. He was the main antagonist of Woodrow Wilson, whose ideas he viewed as too idealistic. Ironically, he was defeated in the presidential election of 1920 because of what was regarded as his leniency toward Germany.
Collective Security
Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any "breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states," 1 and will result in a collective response. This began in 1918 after the international balance of power was perceived by many nations to be no longer working correctly. Henry Kissinger, in "Diplomacy", argued that collective security is fundamentally flawed, since the cost of enforcing security can be (or be perceived to be) exceedingly high while the benefit of doing so can be (or be perceived to be) exceedingly low, which strongly discourages action, while at the same time, there are no formal military alliance in place (which would enforce action), since the adaptation of such treaties by countries engaged in collective security would already imply that collective security was not trusted or expected to work.
Crimean War
(October 1853 – February 1856) War fought mainly in the Crimea between the Russians and an alliance consisting of the Ottoman empire, Britain, France, and Sardinia-Piedmont. It arose from the conflict of great powers in the Middle East and was more directly caused by Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman sultan. The war was managed and commanded poorly by both sides. Battles were fought at the Alma River, Balaklava, and Inkerman, before the besieged Sevastopol was taken by the allies. Disease accounted for many of the approximately 250,000 men lost by each side. After Austria threatened to join the allies, Russia accepted preliminary peace terms, which were formalized at the Congress of Paris. The war did not settle the relations of the powers in Eastern Europe, but it did alert Alexander II to the need to modernize Russia.
Export Oriented
trade and economic policy aiming to speed-up the industrialization process of a country through exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage. Export-led growth implies opening domestic markets to foreign competition in exchange for market access in other countries. Reduced tariff barriers, floating exchange rate, and government support for exporting sectors are all an example of policies adopted to promote EOI, and ultimately economic development. Export-Oriented Industrialisation was particularly characteristic of the development of the national economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore in the post World War II period. The purpose of international institutions such as the World Trade Organization, work in favour of such trade strategies and promote multilateral trade policy rules to put every nation on the same playing field.
Import Substitution
a trade and economic policy based on the premise that a developing country should attempt to substitute products which it imports, mostly finished goods, with locally produced substitutes. As a set of development policies, it derives a body of practices, which are commonly: an active industrial policy to subsidize and orchestrate production of strategic substitutes, protective barriers to trade (namely, tariffs), and a monetary policy that keeps the domestic currency undervalued. Conceptually, ISI could be outward-looking in that it promotes exports (like in Asia, especially South Korea) or inward-looking without significant links to world markets (like in Latin America). In both cases, however, external competition by imports in the markets of the targeted industries are discouraged by tariffs. Hence, policies to pursue ISI have a strong protectionist component and are not favored by advocates of absolute free trade.A major (theoretical) advantage touted by proponents, which grew out of the Great Depression was this. If most of an ISI-practicing country's industries were native - food, consumer goods like clothing, automobiles, electronics, and even industrial goods - that nation would only be affected slightly, if at all, in the case of another massive worldwide economic shock like that of 1929, being insulated by its self-contained ISI policies.
Suez Crisis
international crisis that arose when Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal after Western countries withdrew promised financial aid to build the Aswan High Dam. The French and British, who had controlling interests in the company that owned the canal, sent troops to occupy the canal zone. Their ally Israel seized the Sinai Peninsula. International opposition quickly forced the French and British out, and Israel withdrew in 1957. The incident led to the resignation of Britain's prime minister, Anthony Eden, and was widely perceived as heralding the end of Britain as a major international power. Nasser's prestige, by contrast, soared within the developing world.
United Nations Emergency Force
The Suez crisis, during which Israel, France, and Britain invaded Egypt and occupied sizable portions of its territory, was brought before the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in early November 1956. Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld submitted a plan for setting up an emergency UN force to supervise the cessation of hostilities on 5 November. The General Assembly then authorized the establishment of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF), the first UN peacekeeping force.UNEF was composed of contingents provided by member states. Troops from the five permanent members of the Security Council and any countries that might have a special interest in the conflict were excluded. UNEF's establishment in the conflict area required the consent of all parties concerned. Its soldiers had light defensive weapons but were not authorized to use force except in self-defense.
Uniting For Peace Resolution
Uniting for Peace is a legitimate UN mechanism adopted in 1950. It provides that if, because of the lack of unanimity of the permanent members of the Security Council (France, China, Russia, Britain, United States), the Council cannot maintain international peace where there is a "threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression," the General Assembly "shall consider the matter immediately.."
UN General Assembly
One of six principal components of the United Nations and the only one in which all UN members are represented. It meets annually or in special sessions. It acts primarily as a deliberative body; it may discuss and make recommendations about any issue within the scope of the UN charter. Its president is elected annually on a rotating basis from five geographic groups of members.
UN Security Council
Division of the United Nations whose primary purpose is to maintain international peace and security. The Security Council originally consisted of five permanent members — China (represented by the government on Taiwan until 1971), France, the United Kingdom, the U.S., and the Soviet Union (succeeded in 1991 by Russia) — and six rotating members elected by the United Nations General Assembly for two-year terms.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
international organization that came into being in 1961. It followed the Organization for European Economic Cooperation, which had been founded in 1948 to coordinate the Marshall Plan for European economic recovery following World War II. Member countries are pledged to work together to promote their economies, to extend aid to underdeveloped nations, and to contribute to the expansion of world trade. Agencies operating under the OECD include the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, the Development Centre, and the European Nuclear Energy Agency. The headquarters is in Paris.
European Economic Community
Economic entity, also known as the Common Market, originally formed in 1957 to work toward the regulation of European international trade. The EEC is made up of 15 member nations composed of over 300 million people, including Austria, Belgium, Britain, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. Its agreements call for the elimination of tariffs and other trade restrictions among members and the establishment of uniform tariffs for nonmembers. The EEC also encourages common standards for food additives, labeling, and packaging. The combined gross national product of the EEC is nearly equal to that of the United States. Direct marketers operating in the EEC countries must adhere to stricter privacy laws than in the United States.
European Coal and Steel Community
Administrative agency designed to integrate the coal and steel industries of France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. It originated in the plan of Robert Schuman (1950) to establish a common market for coal and steel by those countries willing to submit to an independent authority. Created in 1952, the ECSC came to include all members of the European Union. It initially removed barriers to trade in coal, coke, steel, pig iron, and scrap iron; it later supervised the reduction of its members' excess production. In 1967 its governing bodies were merged into the European Community. When the treaty expired in 2002, the ECSC was dissolved.
GATT
Institutional framework signed in 1948 by 23 nations, including the United States, for the purposes of fostering multilateral trade agreements among members. A basic tenent of GATT is the most-favored nation principle, which allows every nation within the framework the best contract terms received by any single nation within the framework. GATT provides a set of rules and principles that are committed to the liberalization of trade between member nations, and the member nations meet every two years to negotiate new tariff agreements. As of 1991, 108 nations were participating in GATT, representing over 80% of the total volume of international trade.
World Bank
The World Bank was created at the end of World War II as a result of many European and Asian countries needing financing to fund reconstruction efforts. Created out of the Bretton Woods agreement of 1944, the Bank was successful in providing financing for these devastated countries. Today, the Bank functions as an international organization that attempts to fight poverty by offering developmental assistance to middle and poor-income countries. By giving loans, and offering advice and training in both the private and public sectors, the World Bank aims to eliminate poverty by helping people help themselves.
IMF
International organization, formed at the Bretton Woods economic conference in 1944, to maintain monetary stability in the world community. It has 184 members, including the United States. The IMF works closely with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank). The International Monetary Fund's role has changed since the early 1970s when fixed-exchange rates were ended. The IMF currently directs much of its attention toward assisting developing countries manage their debts to foreign creditors.
Bretton Woods Conference
Bretton Woods Conference, also known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, held in New Hampshire in July 1944, was attended by forty-four nations. The conference was held to make plans for post–World War II international economic cooperation similar to the groundwork for political cooperation laid by the ATLANTIC CHARTER. The delegates reached agreement on an International Monetary Fund to promote exchange stability and expansion of international trade and on an International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which became the World Bank. Four of the nations attending, Haiti, Liberia, New Zealand, and the Soviet Union, did not sign.
Reciprocal Trade Agreement
To help increase American exports at a time when worldwide depression had reduced international trade and many countries raised import tariffs, in June 1934 President Franklin D. Roosevelt's secretary of state Cordell Hull persuaded Congress to pass the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (RTAA). This amendment to the 1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act granted the president the power to make foreign trade agreements with other nations on the basis of a mutual reduction of duties. This marked a departure from the historic approach of having Congress set import duties, usually at high protectionist levels.
Lend-Lease Act
The Lend-Lease Act of March 11, 1941, was the principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II. The act authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to "the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States." Britain, the Soviet Union, China, Brazil, and many other countries received weapons under this law.By allowing the president to transfer war matériel to a beleaguered Britain--and without payment as required by the Neutrality Act of 1939--the act enabled the British to keep fighting until events led America into the conflict. It also skirted the thorny problems of war debts that had followed World War I.Lend-Lease brought the United States one step closer to entry into the war. Isolationists, such as Republican senator Robert Taft, opposed it. Taft correctly noted that the bill would "give the President power to carry on a kind of undeclared war all over the world, in which America would do everything except actually put soldiers in the front-line trenches where the fighting is."
Atlantic Charter
Joint declaration issued on Aug. 14, 1941, during World War II, by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Among the statements made in this propaganda manifesto, signed when the U.S. had not yet entered the war, were that neither the U.S. nor Britain sought aggrandizement and that both advocated the restoration of self-government to peoples forcibly deprived of it. The charter was incorporated by reference in the Declaration of the UN (1942).
Raison d'etat
The national interest, often referred to by the French term raison d'état, is a country's goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural. The notion is an important one in international relations where pursuit of the national interest is the foundation of the realist school.
Congress of Vienna
(1814 – 15) Assembly that reorganized Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. The powers of the Quadruple Alliance had concluded the Treaty of Chaumont just before Napoleon's first abdication and agreed to meet later in Vienna. There they were joined by Bourbon France as a major participant and by Sweden and Portugal; many minor states also sent representatives. The principal negotiators were Klemens, prince von Metternich, representing Francis II (Austria); Alexander I (Russia); Frederick William III and Karl August, prince von Hardenberg (Prussia); Viscount Castlereagh (Britain); and Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand (France). The Congress reduced France to its 1789 borders. A new kingdom of Poland, under Russian sovereignty, was established. To check possible future aggression by France, its neighbours were strengthened: the kingdom of The Netherlands acquired Belgium, Prussia gained territory along the Rhine River, and the Italian kingdom acquired Genoa. The German states were joined loosely in a new German Confederation, subject to Austria's influence. For its part in the defeat of Napoleon, Britain acquired valuable colonies, including Malta, the Cape of Good Hope, and Ceylon. The Vienna settlement was the most comprehensive treaty that Europe had ever seen, and the configuration of Europe established at the congress lasted for more than 40 years.
William Ewart Gladstone
The English statesman William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) led the Liberal party and served as prime minister four times. His strong religious sense was an integral part of his political and social policies.
Disraeli
Prime minister in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880 An English political leader of the nineteenth century. He led the Conservative party of Britain (Tories) in the 1860s and 1870s and was prime minister twice. He was a political opponent of William Gladstone. Disraeli strongly supported the extension of British colonies and had Queen Victoria proclaimed empress of India.
Bismarck
The German statesman Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck (1815-1898) was largely responsible for the creation of the German Empire in 1871. A leading diplomat of the late 19th century, he was known as the Iron Chancellor. Prussian statesman who founded the German Empire in 1871 and served as its chancellor for 19 years. When he took office, Prussia was widely considered the weakest of the five European powers, but under his leadership Prussia won a war against Denmark in 1864 (see Schleswig-Holstein Question), the Seven Weeks' War (1866), and the Franco-Prussian War (1870 – 71). Through these wars he achieved his goal of political unification of a Prussian-dominated German Empire. Once the empire was established, he became its chancellor. The "Iron Chancellor" skillfully preserved the peace in Europe through alliances against France. Domestically, he introduced administrative and economic reforms but sought to preserve the status quo, opposing the Social Democratic Party and the Catholic church. When Bismarck left office in 1890, the map of Europe had been changed immeasurably. However, the German Empire, his greatest achievement, survived him by only 20 years because he had failed to create an internally unified people.
Napoleon III of France
Napoleon III (1808-1873) was emperor of France from 1852 to 1870. Elected president of the Second French Republic in 1848, he staged a coup d'etat in 1851 and reestablished the Empire.
Alexander I
Alexander I (1777-1825) was emperor of Russia from 1801 to 1825. His leadership in the defeat of Napoleon and his statesmanship at the Congress of Vienna contributed to a rare attempt at massive political reconstruction of Europe.
Castlereagh
The British statesman Robert Stewart Viscount Castlereagh and 2d Marquess of Londonderry (1769-1822), as foreign secretary did much to consolidate a firm final international alliance against Napoleon and to establish the framework for a remarkably durable European peace settlement.1812-1822 he managed british foreign policy
Metternich
an Austrian politician, statesman, and one of the most important diplomats of his era. He was a major figure on the negotiations leading to the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paradigm of foreign policy management and a major figure on the development of diplomacy. He was the prime practitioner of 19th century diplomatic realism, deeply rooted on the balance of power postulates. He took a prominent part in the Congress of Vienna and dominated European politics from 1814 to 1848. He acted as the restorer of the 'Old Regime' and the reconstruction of Europe after the Napoleonic wars. To safeguard the balance of power Metternich formed a 'Holy Alliance' between the monarchies of Austria, Russia, Prussia and France.
Most-Favored-Nation Status
provision in a commercial treaty binding the signatories to extend trading benefits equal to those accorded any third state. The clause ensures equal commercial opportunities, especially concerning import duties and freedom of investment. Generally reciprocal, in the late 19th and early 20th cent. unilateral MFN clauses were imposed on Asian nations by the more powerful Western countries (see Open Door). In the late 20th cent. tariff and trade agreements were negotiated simultaneously by all interested parties through the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which ultimately resulted in the World Trade Organization. Such a wide exchange of concessions is intended to promote free trade, although there has been criticism of the principle of equal trading opportunities on the grounds that freer trade benefits the economically strongest countries.
Hegemonic Stability Theorem
Hegemonic Stability Theory postulates a number of rules for the maintenance and decline of international monetary and political systems. Owing to significant popularity and widespread diffusion there is significant internal differentiation of focus and fact within the fieldCharles Kindleberger, whose analysis of the 1929 depression is widely accepted as the precursor of the theory, states that for an international system of trade and finance to function smoothly there must be a hegemon. This is so because there is a collective action problem in that regulation and institutionalization of trade and finance is a public good, that is, it benefits the community. To solve the collective action problem, a hegemon takes the lead and is motivated to do so because of the benefit it gains; for example, the United States benefitted greatly as the reserve currency under the Bretton Woods system. Kindleberger's theory stems from the historical experience of the United Kingdom. Its manufacturing production surpassed that of France in the 1850s, it took on the leading role as exporter of capital, and used British gunboats to force trade. The UK was a hegemon, and used this power to maintain the international economic system. In the 1930s however, the UK had lost its dominance and when the Great Depression hit, the system broke down because of the absence of a hegemon. A Hegemon, according to Keohane, is a state that possesses the following characteristics: 1) the ability to create and enforce international norms, 2)the will to do so,3) decisive economic, technological, and military dominance. A hegemon is now commonly referred to as a superpower, a term used to describe the United States and, prior to it's collapse, the Soviet Union
Mercantilism
The theory and system of political economy prevailing in Europe after the decline of feudalism, based on national policies of accumulating bullion, establishing colonies and a merchant marine, and developing industry and mining to attain a favorable balance of trade.
Comparative Advantage
In economics, the theory of comparative advantage explains why it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. What matters is not the absolute cost of production but the opportunity cost, which measures how much production of one good is reduced to produce one more unit of the other good. Comparative advantage is critical to understanding modern international trade theory.
Specialization and Division of Labor
Occurred with increase in free trade as countries began to adopt what they possessed the comparative advantage in. London focused on finance, America on industry/agriculture, Germany on manufactured goods, etc. Idea that countries who specialize make everyone better off because of the benefits from trade.
The Cobden-Chevalier Treaty
a Free Trade treaty signed between the United Kingdom and France on 23 January, 1860. It is named after the main British and French originators of the treaty, Richard Cobden MP and Michel Chevalier. The treaty reduced French duties on most British manufactured goods to levels not above 30% and reduced British duties on French wines and brandy. In consequence the value of British exports to France more than doubled in the 1860s and the importation of French wines into Britain also doubled. France ended the treaty in 1892 in favour of the Méline tariff. Served as the beginning of the free-trade movement in Europe with the addition of the most-favored-nation clause. This allowed countries to bilatearlly make trade agreements that would affect all other countries in Europe. Because Britain reduced its tariffs by so much, it benefitted greatly from France's renegotiatio of treaties.
Repeal of the Corn Laws
Any of the regulations governing the import and export of grain (called corn by the English) in Britain. Records mention the imposition of Corn Laws as early as the 12th century. They became politically important in the late 18th and early 19th century, during the grain shortage caused by Britain's growing population, bad harvests, and the blockades imposed in the Napoleonic Wars. When Sir Robert Peel became prime minister the laws were finally repealed (1846). They marked the beginning of the British push for free trade.
Alcibiates
During the course of the Peloponnesian War, Alcibiades changed his allegiance on several occasions. In his native Athens in the early 410s BC, he advocated for an aggressive foreign policy, and was a prominent proponent of the Sicilian Expedition, but fled to Sparta after his political enemies brought charges of sacrilege against him. In Sparta, he served as a strategic advisor, proposing or supervising several major campaigns against Athens.
Cleon
Athenian Strategos during the Peloponnesian War. In 427 Cleon gained an evil notoriety by his proposal to put to death the whole male population of Mytilene, which had put itself at the head of a revolt. His proposal, though at first accepted, was soon rescinded, though about 1000 chief leaders and prominent men of Mytilene were executed.
Pericles
turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War. The period during which he led Athens, roughly from 461 BC to 429 BC, is sometimes known as the "Age of Pericles," though the period thus denoted can include times as early as the Persian Wars, or as late as the next century.
Archidemus
King of Sparta; In the summer of 431, king Archidamus led the Peloponnesian forces to Attica, where he laid waste the countryside. This was repeated in 430 and shocked the Athenians so profoundly, that they called the conflict the Archidamian War. However, as Archidamus had already predicted, it was not a successful strategy against a city with large walls that could be supplied from the sea. Sparta needed a navy and the spectacular naval victories of the Athenian Phormio suggested that getting even at sea would be difficulty.
Helots
The serfs of Sparta. What is more, when the Ephors took office, they routinely declared war on the Helots, (Aristotle cited by Plutarch, Life of Lycurgus 28, 7), thereby allowing Spartans to kill them without repercussion. This hatred of the Spartans towards the Helots originates in fear: given the relatively small number of Spartans in comparison with the servile population, the natural fear that Helots would attempt to destroy them contributed to their mistreatment.
Milos
Though the Melians sent a contingent to the Greek fleet at Salamis, it held aloof from the Delian League, and sought to remain neutral during the Peloponnesian War. But in 415 BC the Athenians, having attacked the island and compelled the Melians to surrender, slew all the men capable of bearing arms, made slaves of the women and children, and introduced 500 Athenian colonists. Thucydides made this event the occasion of one of the most impressive of the "speeches" in his history. Written like the others in more complex and difficult Greek than his pellucid narrative, this passage, known as the Melian Dialogue, is a locus classicus for the contest between raison d'état and ethical action, and is the fulcrum at which the state of Athens in his history abandoned the noble ideals with which it had entered the war and began to pursue simply its own self-interest.
Corinth
Corinth was a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. Corinth's sea trade was competitive with Athens, but Corinth liked Sparta more. Corinth comes into a dispute with Corcyra; both states appeal for Athenian support, and Athens allies against Corinth. In trying to persuade Athens, Corinth says the Corcyra was not in an alliance with Athens like Corinth was; also appeal to the right of states to punish allies.
Sparta
a state optimized for war. The entire economic/constitution is set up to allow Sparta to have the most powerful army in the land. Thus, the economic system set up to provide for full-time soldiers. The Spartan system takes all land for Sparta – keeps all land for the state and transfers land (for use, not for ownership) to decedents of people who fought in war. Sparta provides each family with slaves so that Spartan citizens don’t have to spend their time farming and can spend their time training. Economic system set up to prepare for an army of full-time soldiers created from the general population of Spartans. Citizens-farm, when other states go to war, the put down their farming interest and go to war
Athens
Not a democracy like in the United States – pure democracy. In Athens, everyone treated as if they are all equal; all citizens have the right to vote. If everyone is equal, every city official is as good as another; therefore, officials chosen by lottery and generals are chosen by vote. In Athens, money matters to the stratgoi; strategoi chooses the generals Able to get out the vote; wealthiest and most ambitious choose generals; therefore, the pursuit of honor against other wealthy individuals comes through the generalship. All rivalry between the wealthy comes out in the election of generals. In the Peloponnesian War, Athens, despite its economic and naval dominance, loses to Sparta.
Radicalism
served as the alternative to realism and liberalism until the 1980s. Marxism offered a different explanation for international conflict and a blueprint for transforming the existing order. The main view of this theory was that rich nation became rich by exploiting underdeveloped nations. The only way to change this was to overthrow the elites and install a revolutionary government. Eventually, this was discredited by the benefit of economic integration and with developing nation's ability to bargain with international corporations.
Liberalism
theory that holds that state preferences, rather than state capabilities, are the primary determinant of state behavior. Unlike realism where the state is seen as a unitary actor, liberalism allows for plurality in state actions. Thus, preferences will vary from state to state, depending on factors such as culture, economic system or government type. Liberalism also holds that interaction between states is not limited to the political/security ("high politics"), but also economic/cultural ("low politics") whether through commercial firms, organizations or individuals. Thus, instead of an anarchic international system, there are plenty of opportunities for cooperation and broader notions of power, such as cultural capital (for example, the influence of a country's films leading to the popularity of its culture and the creation of a market for its exports worldwide). Another assumption is that absolute gains can be made through co-operation and interdependence - thus peace can be achieved.Liberalism as an international relations theory is not inherently linked to liberalism as a more general domestic political ideology. Increasingly, modern liberals are integrating critical international relations theory into their foreign policy positions.

Serves as the principle challenge to realism; argues that economic inter-dependence would discourage states from using force against each other. Liberalism is primarily associated with Woodrow Wilson
Realism
A theory that shares the following key assumptions:
• The international system is anarchic. There is no authority above states capable of regulating their interactions; states must arrive at relations with other states on their own, rather than it being dictated to them by some higher controlling entity (that is, no true authoritative world government exists).
• Sovereign states are the principal actors in the international system. International institutions, non-governmental organizations, multinational corporations and other sub-state or trans-state actors are viewed as having little independent influence.
• States are rational unitary actors each moving towards their own national interest. There is a general distrust of long-term cooperation or alliance.
• The overriding 'national interest' of each state is its national security and survival.
• In pursuit of national security, states strive to amass resources.
• Relations between states are determined by their comparative level of power derived primarily from their military and economic capabilities.

In summary, realists believe that mankind is not inherently benevolent but rather self-centered and competitive. This Hobbesian perspective contrasts with the liberalism approach to international relations which views human nature as selfish and conflictual unless given appropriate conditions under which to cooperate. Further, they believe that states are inherently aggressive (offensive realism) and/or obsessed with security (defensive realism); and that territorial expansion is only constrained by opposing power(s). This aggressive build-up, however, leads to a security dilemma where increasing one's own security can bring along greater instability as the opponent(s) builds up its own arms. Thus, security is a zero-sum game where only relative gains can be made.
3rd Image
View of the entire system; how alliances are formed, in what context they are formed, etc.
2nd Image
Image of the state – idea that states are rational, unitary actors looking out for their best interests
1st Image
Image of the individual – idea that individuals can have a role in international relations by their personalities, actions, or rhetoric