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76 Cards in this Set

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altepetl
and sovereign Nahua state; in central Mexico, gernerally local ethnic states the spaniards were to call pueblos. became municipalities after the conquest and are sometimes called towns
andes
mountain ranges located int eh south america, located in the inca empire
Antonia Vieria
Jesuit preist who was leading intellectual in portugal and Brazil and encouraged black to accept their fate as foreign dominated and that their lives resemble of jesus
Atahualpa
las emporer of the incan empire
Aztec
enpire that consisted of a triple alliance: MexicoTenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan
Bahia
sugar harvesting region in Northeast Brazil
Bartolome de las Casas
wrote several volumes on antive peoples in americas and affirmed that they possessed highly civilized cultures; said natives societies lagged behind Europeans in some respects like technology, but were mostly equal; supported his ideas on accounts based on his own experiences in the indies
Bernal Diaz del castillo
Spanish conquistador who wrote an account of the conquest of Mexico under Cortes
Bernardino de Sahagún
complied the 12 books of the Florentine Codex, wanted to leave the Nahuatl language text untouched
Bozal
type of slave: new arrival from Africa
cabildo
Spanish-style municipal council, body of political officers
cacique/cacica
Indian ruler derived from Arawak term; Nahua tlatoani, Mixtec yya tonine or Maya batab; in late colonial Spanish, any prominent indigenous person; female indigenous ruler
compañia
companies in Spanish; what the spanish called their armed expeditions as in joint-investment ventures. A few wealthy men would make the whole investment and hire the rest of the members for the conquest
corregidor
often used as a synonym for alcalde mayor, though at time indicating higher rank
criollo/a
an African born outside of Africa and not familiar with European culture
Cuauhtemoc-
Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan from 1520-1521
Curaca
male indigenous hereditary ruler in Andean region
Cuzco
center of the Incas, became an important city of highland Peru under the Spaniards
don/doña
high title attached to the first name of a male/female (like sir or lady in english)
encomendero
holder of an encomienda grant
encomienda
grant usually to a Spaniard of the right to receive tribute and originally labor from the population of an existing indigenous unit through existing mechanisms
engenho
Portuguese term for sugar mill/plantation
Española
refers to Spain
Fazenda
Portuguese plantation, estate, or farm
Florentine Codex
12 books of the tlatelolcan view of the Spanish conquest
Franciscans
friars who came to Mexico a few years after the conquest and dedicated themselves to studying indigenous life, learning native languages, interacting with people, and writing about it
Garcilaso de la Vega, el Inca-
Peruvian historian who wrote about Incan history, culture, and society; attempted to reconcile the great Inca past with the Spanish conquest
Juan Ginés de Sepulveda
humanist who attempted to legitimize just war in the Indies by applying Aristotle’s theory of natural slavery to the Indians; spoke of Indians in terms of brutish pigs who did not possess individual property
Hacienda
Spanish word for estate; plantations, mines, or factories; aimed for self-sufficiency
Inca
empire based in Cuzco; also called Andes
Indies
term used for Spaniards and Portugese for the Western Hemisphere and especially those parts they occupied themselves
Inquisition
widespread attempt to convert many to Christitianity
just war
justification of the conquerors’ acts of aggression
ladino/a
a slave fluent in Portuguese
lavradores
sharecroppers who owned their own slaves; located in Brazil
limpieza de sangre
“purity of blood,” political device of extortion and control, often against “New Christians” and ethnic others; certificate used to prove their family’s Christian origins
Malinche
Nahuatl speaking woman who the Spaniards met on the coast and served as the interpreter between Moteuczoma and Cortes; Cortes ultimately made her his mistress
mameluco/a
Brazilian term for person of mixed European and indigenous descent, or any person of mixed racial origin
Maya
sedentary peoples of the Yucatan peninsula
Inca
empire based in Cuzco; also called Andes
Indies
term used for Spaniards and Portugese for the Western Hemisphere and especially those parts they occupied themselves
Inquisition
widespread attempt to convert many to Christitianity
just war
justification of the conquerors’ acts of aggression
ladino/a
a slave fluent in Portuguese
lavradores
sharecroppers who owned their own slaves; located in Brazil
limpieza de sangre
“purity of blood,” political device of extortion and control, often against “New Christians” and ethnic others; certificate used to prove their family’s Christian origins
Malinche
Nahuatl speaking woman who the Spaniards met on the coast and served as the interpreter between Moteuczoma and Cortes; Cortes ultimately made her his mistress
mameluco/a
Brazilian term for person of mixed European and indigenous descent, or any person of mixed racial origin
Maya
sedentary peoples of the Yucatan peninsula
Mesoamerica
term referring to extended culture area from central Mexico south to Guatemala (sometimes including Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua), region containing cultures w/ a great many common elements
mestizo/a
person of mixed Spanish and indigenous ancestry
Mexica or Tenochca
one of the altepetl of the empire of the Aztecs
Mexico Tenochtitlan
capital city of the Mexica, located in Lake Tetzococo
Mixtec
term adopted from Spanish Mixtecos that is based on the original Nahuatl designation for the culture group of Oaxaca who call themselves Nudzahui
Mita
clear system of taxation and labor service
morisco/a
person of Moorish descent, usually from Spain
Moteuczoma
the ruler of Mexico Tenochtitlan; gave gifts of gold and precious things to Spaniards upon their arrival in return for goods and an alliance
Motolinía
one of the first friars to arrive in New Spain; his chronicle of the conquest involved discussion of the 2nd and 3rd plagues; approved use of force in converting unwilling Indians to Christianity
mulatto/a
person of mixed African and European descent; used in the 16th century for mixtures of Africans with any other group
Nahuatl
language of the indigenous people of Mexico/Aztecs
New Laws of 1542
created to prevent exploitation of indigenous people by encomenderos by strictly limiting their power during the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Potosí
silver mining site in Charcas, largest and most productive in the Indies
Quechua
native language of the indigenous peoples of the Andes
Quinto
traditional obligation paid to the Crown (1/5 of all metals)
Reconquista
period of time when Christian kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula began conquering numerous kingdoms and converting them to Christianity; rallying cry for Christian territorial expansion
repartimiento-
most frequently, labor draft based on indigenous mechanism of rotary labor service
Requerimiento
Christian chain of command/ speech that Spaniards were supposed to read when they initially encountered natives
Seville
major trade capital; Spanish firms in Seville sent merchandise directly to American ports
Taino
indigenous peoples of the Bahamas and the Lesser Antilles
Tlatelolco
altepetl that lived on the same island as Tenochtitlan and Mexica, known for fighting off the Spaniards upon their arrival
Tlatoani
dynastic ruler of an altepetl
Tlaxcala
one of the states of the Mexican republic; allied with Spanish to defeat the Aztecs
Trunkline
region where most commercial production took place in the Americas
Tupac Amaru
last indigenous leader of the Incas
Tupí
indigenous group that inhabited Brazil upon the arrival of the Portuguese
Viceroy
leaders of the Spanish-states in the New World