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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
French Alliance
France was intent on avenging its loss in the French and Indian war.
Negotiating the Treaty
Ben Franklin and his associates exploited the rivalry between France and Britan using the threat of a negotiated settlement with Britan to win an explicit French commitment to American independence. In 1778, the Treay of Alliance was crafted that once France had entered the war against Great Britain, their main purpose would be the liberties and freedoms of Americans. The alliance was beneficial to the colonists and restored confidence in the Continental Congress.
How did the British respond?
The was was becoming increasingly unpopular in Britain. George III remained determined to crush the rebellion. Following their defeat at Saratoga, he assumed a more pragmatic attitude. The King opened discussions with the Continental Congress, but the Patriots, now allied with France, rejected the overture.
War in the South
Spain joined the war in 1779 and also had its own agenda to regain Florida and Gibraltar.
British's Southern Strategy
British ministry by 1778, settled on using its army to recapture the rich agricultural colonies and rely on local Loyalists to hold and administer them. African Americans joined their cause. Sir Henry Clinton became in charge and moved the army to NY in 1778. He moved inland the following year and with Loyalists' help, he took control of Georgia. During most of 1780, British forces marched from victory to victory. Clinton surrounded Charleston in S.C. but Lord Cornwallis assumed control of the British forces. General Gates was demanding the force at Camden, S.C. Then, Dutch declared war against Britain and France finally dispatched troops to America.
Partisan Welfare in the Carolinas
Washington dispatched General Nathanial Greene to recapture the Carolinas. The fighting led to social anarchy, making it difficult to distinguish military units from criminal gangs. Greene divided the militia into small groups with strong leaders and in 1780, a small militia force of Patriot farmers defeated a regiment of Loyalists. Weakened by this war of attrition and Patriot successes in restoring authority, Cornwallis decided to concede the southernmost states to Greene and seek a decisive victory in Virgina. Washington's army met with the Continental army and Cornwallis was surrounded and surrendered in Yorktown to the Franco-American forces in 1781.
The Patriot Advantage
Patriots were led by experienced politicians, unlike the leaders of the British. The combination of the Patriot army with the Continental one proved potent.
Diplomatic Triumph
Some feared that France might sacrifice American interests, and thus the Americans negotiatied secretly with the British to prepare to cut their ties with them if nec. They exploited the rivalry between France and Britain and in the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Great Britain formally recognized independence of seaboard colonies. The American government offered to allow British merchants to recover debts and to encourage state legislatures to return confiscated property to the Loyalists and grant them freedom. The Treaty of Versailles, made pease between British and France + Spain. The was had quadrupled France's debt. Only Americans benefited from treaties.