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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the people alone have the authority to make laws limiting an individual's freedom of action. The call for liberty. Choosing legislators who represented the people and were accountable to them.
well-educated, middle-class groups. The ones who led the way to revolutions.
representative government
voting for representatives as being restricted to those who owned property.
checks and balances
executive, legislative, and judicial branches would systematically balance one another. The power of the federal government would in turn be checked by the powers of the individual states.
classical liberalism
American Constitution and the Bill of Rights exemplified the great strengths and the limits. Liberty meant individual freedoms and political safeguards.
manorial rights
2nd estate - noblemen - priveledges of lordship. This allowed them to tax the peasantry for their own profit.
Great Fear
peasants all across France began to rise in spontaneous, violent, and effective insurrection against their lords. Peasants seized forests, and taxes went unpaid.
New assembly.. well-educated, middle-class men, but they were younger and less cautious. They were committed to the liberal revolution.
Heavy legal and surveying costs among the landowners meant that many peasants who had small holdings had to sell out to pay their share of the expenses.
The laboring men and women of Paris who drove the revolution foward.
planned economy
Rather than let supply and demand determine prices, the government set maximum allowable prices for a host of key products. It fixed the price of bread so peasants can afford.
Reign of Terror
used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. Robespierre directed against all who might appose the revolutionary government.
Thermidorian reaction
called for the early days of the revolution. Respectable middle-class lawyers and professionals who had led the liberal revolution reasserted their authority - drawing support from their own class, the provincial cities, and the better-off peasants.
1815 - transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners, the village poor found the cost of economic change and technological progress heavy and unjust.
England. system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state. made england different because the unusual idea that government economic regulations could and should serve the private interests of invidivuals and groups as well as the public needs of the state.
spinning jenny
1765. james hargreaves. simple and inexpensive. hand operated.
water frame
richard arkwright. used waterpower to power the spinning machines. used mostly in factories by 1790
body linen
made from expensive linen cloth.
steam engines
england. thomas savery and thomas newcomen. 1705. both engines burned coal to procuce steam, which was then used to operate a pump
crystal palace
1851 london home to the famous industrial fair. an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron, cheap and abundant. "workshop of the world"
iron law of wages
wealthy english stockbroker. david ricardo. because of the pressure of population growth, wages would always sink to subsistence level. wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving.
tariff protection
third force for industrialization was government, which often helped business people in european countries to overcome some of their difficulites. 1815. governments bore the cost of building roads and canals to improve transportation.
attacked factories in northern england in 1812, smashed new machines which were putting them out of work.
factory act of 1833
limited factory workday for children between ages of nine and thirteen to eight hours and twelve hours. prohibited the factory employment of children under 9
mines act of 1842
prohibited underground work for all women as well as for boys under 10
grand national consolidated trades union
reformer robert owen organized one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions in 1834.
congress of vienna
russia, prussia, austria, and GB had finally defeated france. 1814 - construct a settlement that would last.
carsbad decrees
metternich of germany issued in 1819. required the 38 german states to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers. established a permanent committee with spies to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations.
laissez faire
same as classical liberalism
modern working class
sturm und drang
1770s. romanticism. belief in emotional exuberence, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and personal life. what romantic germans called themselves.
corn laws
1815. restricted foreign grain imports. prohibited the importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose to very high levels.
follower of radical british philosopher jeremy bentham. 1834. edwin chadwick
labor aristocracy
highly skilled workers, who made up about 15% of the working classes. most "aristocratic" of the highly skilled workers.
separate spheres
after 1850. most wives work became distinct and separate from their husbands. husbands were wage earners, wives managed households
1890 bismark, germany. elected parliament.