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40 Cards in this Set

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Who is Sun Yat Sen?
Founder of ROC. Educated in U.S. and Hong Kong. Believed in democracy, nationalism and socialism. Belongs to KMT party. Declared president of ROC in Jan 1912 and forced to abdicate in Feb 1912, SYS made Puyi abdicate also.
What was is the KMT?
The nationalist party of china.
What is the CCP?
The Chinese Communist Party, founded in part by Mao Tse Tung in 1921. Broke away from confuciansim. Says revolution is necesarry for change.
Who was Yuan Shih Kai?
general in manchu army and starts 2nd mutiny because he wants power. Backed by people who didn't support Sun Yat Sen. Breaks up parliament + calls himself emperor. Breaks china into regents with warlords who report to him, so he took china back to feudal system where it was before the 1st emp. Makes a mess out of China and isn't popular.
What were the warlords of China?
Were in charge of regions of china under YSK. Taxed people 20 yrs in advance and everyone became poor. No laws restricting power.
What was the May Fourth Movement?
Caused by anger about Treaty of Versailles, because the german holdings in china were given to Japan. China believes the holdings should belong to CHina. So there were mass protests and on May 4th, 1919 students began pouring into tianamin square, because they want a gov't that can stand up to international powers, a modern political system, and general change. This is when china wakes up. 1st student protests in China and a model for future protests.
What was Marxism?
Created by German, Karl Marx, who lived in Germany (1818-1883) during their industiralization. He lives with the terrible conditions in Germany, like children doing dangerous factory work and workers having 18 hour work days with few breaks. He wants to take over the factories and govern them humanly. The idea is that people will fight back and that society advances through stages. Says that only economic forces propel social change. Communism is good.
What does Bourgeoisie vs Proletariant mean?
Marx came up with this idea Bourgeoisie were the powreful upperclass factory owners and proletarians were exploited workers who must rise up agaisnt their suppressors.
Who was Mao Tse Tung?
Founding member of CCP. Makes final tweaks to Marxism so it will work for China.
Who was Chiang Kai Shek?
takes over KMT when SYS dies in 1925. Married rich family so doesn't want communism anymore, so the KMT becomes concerned with keeping the rich, rich. Has personal grudge agaisnt communist b/c some russians were mean to him. Takes socialism out of KMT and West likes him!
What were the United Fronts?
When the KMT and CCP worked together to accomplish something. The 1st UNited Front was to get rid of the warlords. CCP attacked warlords while KMT brought warlords into the party. 2nd was to fight Japan.
What was Manchukou?
Name given to manchuria by japan when they gained control of it in 1932. Controlled by Japan, put Puyi on throne but it isn't recognized as an indpendent country.
Describe the long march.
Started b/c of CKS killing communists especially CCP people. 6,000 mile long retreat, 100,000 communists begin it and 7,000 survive. KMT is chasing the CCP, all the way to yenan where don't think they'll survive. Along the way the CCP gains a lot of support from the peasants. Lasting impact is that a lot of communist leaders survived the long march.
What was the raoe if Nanjing?
IN December 1937. At time Nanjing was capital, ccity was unprotected. Japan goes on 7 week killing spree, kill 100,000-250,000 chinese. Makes CKS realize japan is causing problems. Lasting impact is that there is still japan/china tension over this.
What was land reform?
Mao wants to help peasants, the goal was to equalize the wealth. People were assigned a class status based on wealth. Mao takes all the land and divides it equally. Peasants like land reform. After land reform life is good for peasants and bad for former land lords.
Hundred flowers movement?
1957. Like a giant suggestion box where people could give mao feedback. People begin signing names and mao gets upset with critics so he labels 300,000 people rightests, fires them from their jobs and their quality of life goes down.
What was the great leap forward?
Mao says china can industrialize in 15 yrs to catch England (which took 150 yrs to industrialize). Super sized collectives, makes them meet tough quota. Melted any metal to make "steel". It Failed. Grain and Steel production plummeted and there was a famine that killed 20 M people. Famine ends in 1962
What was the cultural revolution?
1966-1976. Mao begins depicting himself as a god in propaganda posters. Gains support of young population and gets a cult of mao. Anti-rightest and very bloody, focused for mao on keeping power over china.
What was the little red book?
A book of Mao's sayings which became required reading for schools, army members and the adult community. Everyone begins studying the sayings and writings of mao.
WHo were the red guards?
Children from poor backgrounds invited to be red guards. The idea is that teens will help advance communism. Red Guards get arm bands and uniforms. Their orders are to destroy the four olds: customs, thought, culture and habits. Could get revengeon anyone they wanted. A lot of violence from red guards.
Who was Jiang Qing and why was she important?
Mao's wife and she was important because she was ultra leftist and near mao's death became his brain/
Who were the gang of four?
Jiang Quing and 3 other ultra leftists they were put on trial and all except Jiang were killed.
Who was Deng Xiaoping?
was on long march and in 1960's he was the youngest general secretary of the party. Helped rebuild china after GLF. Was sent away by mao during cultural revolution. Clearly in charge of gov't by 1978. Makes china attractive to foreign companies. "To get rich is glorious" Died in '97
What was the Tiananmen Square Massacre?
Students Pour into tianamen square to protest. Stay for a long time while a russian leader is in town. June 4th, 1989: 300-3,00 people killed. 1,000s arrested. China got cold shoulder from world, lost 2000 olympics bid, trade and tourism feell. Relations restored the next year.
Who was Hu Jintao?
Becomes China's presidentin 2003. wants transparency in gov't. Current pres.
What is Shinto?
Ancient and traditional religion of Japan
What is the Bushido?
samurai guidebook
What were the Daimyo?
Both the landlords that controled the regions in feudal japan and the regions themselves.
What is a Shogun?
commander in chief/ head of miliatary
What was the Samurai?
the warrior class Samurai faought in daimyo armies. were 7% of pop. highest in social heirarchy
Who was tokugawa Iayasu?
The man who unites japan, takes title of shougun, makes emperor a figure head. Created a stable feudal system.
oligarchy
gov't with few in charge and the few in charge of japan
satsuma rebellion
1987 war agaisnt gov't, led by saigo, last stand of the samurai. samurai fell and then everyone below the absolute power was equal
meiji restoration
when Tokugawa says the emperor is truly divine and does a lot of emperor promotion so that the poeple will support the emperor while Tokugawa is behind the scene making the descisions
What were the warlords of China?
Were in charge of regions of china under YSK. Taxed people 20 yrs in advance and everyone became poor. No laws restricting power.
What was the May Fourth Movement?
Caused by anger about Treaty of Versailles, because the german holdings in china were given to Japan. China believes the holdings should belong to CHina. So there were mass protests and on May 4th, 1919 students began pouring into tianamin square, because they want a gov't that can stand up to international powers, a modern political system, and general change. This is when china wakes up. 1st student protests in China and a model for future protests.
What was Marxism?
Created by German, Karl Marx, who lived in Germany (1818-1883) during their industiralization. He lives with the terrible conditions in Germany, like children doing dangerous factory work and workers having 18 hour work days with few breaks. He wants to take over the factories and govern them humanly. The idea is that people will fight back and that society advances through stages. Says that only economic forces propel social change. Communism is good.
What does Bourgeoisie vs Proletariant mean?
Marx came up with this idea Bourgeoisie were the powreful upperclass factory owners and proletarians were exploited workers who must rise up agaisnt their suppressors.
Who was Mao Tse Tung?
Founding member of CCP. Makes final tweaks to Marxism so it will work for China.
Who was Chiang Kai Shek?
takes over KMT when SYS dies in 1925. Married rich family so doesn't want communism anymore, so the KMT becomes concerned with keeping the rich, rich. Has personal grudge agaisnt communist b/c some russians were mean to him. Takes socialism out of KMT and West likes him!