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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Election of 1824: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay
Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives, where Adams won.
"Corrupt Bargain"
THe charge made by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office
Panama Conference
Summoned by the Venezuelan revolutionary leader, Simon Bolivar, in 1826 to discuss commercial treaties, adopt a code of international law, and arrive at a common Latin American policy toawrd Spain. Two delegates were sent by the US, but were delayed so long that when they got there the meeting was over. They were uncomfortable about black and whites mixing at the meeting. Showed the good relations between US and S America
Tariff of Abominations
1828- Also called the Tarriff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported maufactured goods. THe tariff protected the North by harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
Vice-President Calhoun: South Carolina Expostion and protest, nullification
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each of state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people thought he could make the American dream come true. Jackson appointed common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers' welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution of the "Common Man."
Age of the Common Man
Jackson's Presidency was called the Age of the Common Man. He felt that the governemnt should be run by common people--a democracy based on a self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed JAckson to be elected.
Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
The Jacksonian era included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was protrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electoral college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions
Franchise extended, spoils system
Franchise extended- more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land. Spoils system- "the the victor go the spoils"- the winner of the election may do whatever they want with teh staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
National Republicans
After teh 1824 election, part of the Democratic-Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel WEbster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures liek the recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined the Whigs in the 1830s
Caucus System, National Nominating Conventions
In teh National Nominating Convention, delegates voted on the results of a primary. In the Caucus System, candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and teh public had little say in the process.
Kitchen Cabinet
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were esp. influential in teh first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regualr cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet"
Cherokee Indian Removal, "Trail of Tears"
A minority in the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During teh Winter of 1838-1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears"
Worchester v Georgia; Cherokee Nation v Georgia
Worchester v. Georgia--the Supreme court decided Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia refused to enforce decision and President Jackson didn't support the Court. Cherokee Nation v Georgia--the Supreme Court ruled that Indians werent independent nations but dependent domestic nations which could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871, treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal gov.
Whigs: origins, policies
Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during teh Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American system. They were generall upper class in origin.
Maysville Road Veto
The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Penn. paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements
Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with VP Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the US bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was Pro-Bank, ran against him. The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won. The Mason were a sermi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-classmen of the Rev. War belonged. The Anti-Masons sprung up as a raction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the elections.
Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle
The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in 1811, but a second bank was est. in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was unconstitutional and should be rechartered.
Veto Message
1832--Jackson, in his veto message of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.
Jackson's removal of deposits, Roger B. Taney, pet bank, Loco-Focos
Angry because Biddle used bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, jackson removed federal deppsits from teh bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who wouldn't comply, and was charged with abuse of power. Roger B. Taney was Chief Justice in the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S. Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S, so called bc people that they were chosen on political grounds. Loco Focos were Democrats who wanted reform and opposed tariffs, banks, monopolies, and otehr places of special interest.