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73 Cards in this Set

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Roger Williams
A Separatist who immigrated to Mass. Bay in 1631, told settlers that King of England had no right to grant them land already occupied by Indians, church/state should be separate, that Puritans should not force their views on others
- Banished from Massachusetts, founded Providence, RI (1636) - tolerates all religions.
Anne Hutchinson
A medical practitioner who stressed covenant of Grace (whereas most Mass. Puritans believed one had to do good works to earn it), spread her ideas in childbirths and women's meetings, idealized John Cotton, her ideas posed a threat to gender roles and Puritan orthodoxy, 1637 - brought to trial and banished to Rhode Island.
Golden Age Theory
The theory that women's lives were beter in colonial American than in Victorian America. they did have a more meaningful existence but modernity threw away many of their independent jobs (midwifing).
Society of Friends (Quakers)
Founded by George Fox (1652), believed that everyone receives an inner light from God and that there was a spark that had to be lit, no elect/no predestination/egalitarianism, God sees all as equal, believed in pacifism and social equality and there were no clergy (anyone could teach), this radical egalitarianism was unwelcome in hierarchical societies so they sufferred a lot of persecution
Responsible for 25% of exports of South Carolina
- Used for blue dye that English wanted for their clothes
- slavery increased because of the rice cultivation and the invention of this blue dye
- complimented rice because they grew in different land portions (rice in low areas and indigo on high ground)/had different growing seasons.
The Gun Trade
The English proposed that if the Native Americans did not trade with them they they would cut off their supply of guns and enslave Indians.
- Revolts by Tuskarora, some killed, some enslaved
Chartered in 1732 as a haven for English debtors released from confinement to settle the colony
- Founded by James Oglethorpe, who envisioned it as a protective, deefnsive colony between English settlement and Spanish Florida
- Charter prohibited slavery, but that was changed by Carolina rice planters in 1751 - GA became SC's slave society
- Georgia became a royal colony in 1752.
John Locke
- philosopher
- believed there should be no absolute rulers, all human understanding was a blank slate, law of nature (all humans equal/rational and independent - no one should harm another)
- natural rights of life, liberty, and estate.
- Proper political order could prevent the rise of tyrants and God's natural laws governed the power of the monarchs - legitimate governments had a social contract
The Spirit of the Laws
Montesquieu - society is created with minimal friction because of natural laws.
- Published in 1748 - Montesquieu suggested that the governing body of a nation should be divided into three brances (executive, legislature, and judiciary)
- This theory is called Theory of the Separation of Powers
The Great Awakening
A spiritual movement dominated at first by Johnathan Edwards - 1740s
- challenged traditional modes of thought (emphasis on emotion rather than learning)
- made "new lights" question not only religious but also social/political orthodoxy
George Whitefield
Church of England clergyman, came to American 1739
- Traveled preaching and in effect generated the Great Awakening - became very famous and brought thousands to conversion
- imitated by many
- Eventually preachers realized that this "revival religion" ran counter to their own beliefs and disliked the disruption in normal church attendance patterns
- Opposition to the Great Awakening heightened rapidly
"New Lights"
Evangelicals during Great Awakening
- fought with "old lights" (traditional Catholics and their followers)
- Split between Old/New lights caused new evangelical sects to gain populationarity (Methodists/Baptists)- led to American willingness to tolerate religious diversity
- Questioned religious, social, and political traditions
- Established churches
--> In Southern Colonies, it is Anglican church
--> in Massachusetts, it is Congregationalist
Navigation Acts
-The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted foreign shipping.
- Resentment against the Navigation Acts was a cause of the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the American Revolutionary War.
Seven Years War
- a war in the mid-18th century that enveloped both Europe and colonies
- the first conflict in human history to be fought around the globe
- The most tangible outcome of the war was the end of France’s power in the Americas (having only French Guiana, Saint-Domingue, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon left to them and Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, la Desirade and Martinique returned to them) and the emergence of Great Britain as the dominant colonial power in the world.
- began in the Americas and spread to Europe secondarily
- arose from the heated colonial struggle between Great Britain and France. Until the war, neither the French, nor the British had claimed the area along the Ohio River in North America. This area was fertile, rich for farming and trading, and would later become part of the American breadbasket region of the Midwest. The primary reason for the beginning of the American theatre of the war was a dispute over the Ohio River banks.
Albany Congress
- Delegates from the colonies and from the Iriquois met and negotiated
- No commitment from Iroquois
- They concluded a treaty to ensure peaceful relations but the results were mixed
- Outside of the general treaty, the Indians also sold land in the Wyoming Valley to John Lydius of Connecticut and also to Conrad Weiser of Pennsylvania. This began the confusion of land titles that ultimately resulted in the Pennamite Wars.
Pontiac's Rebellion
A war launched in 1763 by North American Indians who were dissatisfied with British rule in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
- attacked Detriot; 2000 settlers dead, many displaced.
- The war was a failure for the Indians in that it did not drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify policies that had provoked the conflict.
- hastened Proc. Act of 1763
Proclamation Act of 1763
The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Britain's vast new North American empire.
- The Proclamation of 1763 had been in the works before Pontiac's Rebellion, but the outbreak of the conflict hastened the process
- stabilize relations with North American Indians through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
- Prohibits expansion west of the Appalachian
- Not enforceable and England needs revenue doubled
Stamp Act
requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents such as property deeds. Those that pay the tax receive an official stamp on their documents.
- The Act was enacted in order to defray the cost of maintaining the military presence protecting the colonies.
- met with great resistance in the colonies and was never effectively enforced
- The Act was finally repealed on March 18, 1766. This incident increased the colonists' concerns about the intent of the British Parliament and added fuel to the growing separatist movement that later resulted in the American Revolution.
Loyal Nine
A Boston social club of printers, distillers, and other artisans organized a demostration against the stamp act.
- approached leaders of the city's rival laborer's associations based in Boston's north/south ends - convinced groups to put aside differences and participate in demonstration
Sons of Liberty
Unprecedented political organization - prominent lawyers, clergy
- Patriots in the British North American colonies before the American Revolution. They took their name from a debate on the Stamp Act in Parliament in 1765.
- The Sons are widely known for their violent and destructive acts. (burning effigies of local tax officials in the town squares, burning the crown officials' property while the owner was held to watch)
Virtual Representation
a Member of Parliament "virtually represented" every person in the colonies, and there was no need for a specific representative from each colony.
- No taxation without representation
American merchants organized nonimportation associations to pressure British exporters
- bleived that nonimportation would help to reduce bloated inventories - market was bad
- In response to the Stamp Act therw as a coalition that hindered merchants from importing goods from England until the series of acts had been repealed.
First American Revolution
East vs. West, 1760s
- caused by taxing without representation, debts to banks in east, government not protecting them against Native Americans
Sam Adams
a writer and theorist who articulated the principles of republicanism that shaped the American political culture
- the chief Massachusetts leader of the Patriot cause leading to the American Revolution
- Organizer of protests including the Boston Tea Party
Daughters of Liberty
group that proved women's involvement in politics could be benevolent for the country
- tried to prove their commitment to "cause of liberty and industry" through "homespun" items
- Also fought for women's equality.
The Daughters of Liberty used their traditional skills to weave yarn and wool into fabric, known as "homespun".
-They were recognized as patriotic heroines for their success, which made America less dependent on British textiles. They were trying to prove their commitment to "the cause of liberty and industry".
Intolerable Acts
a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 in response to the growing unrest in thirteen American colonies
- a supporting factor behind the calling of the First Continental Congress and the Declaration of Rights and Grievances.
Committees of Observation
A local committee of inspection and observation - established to enforce the Continental Association (?)
- became, in essence, de facto governments and published names of those who imported British goods
- promoted home manufacturing, private activities acquired public significance.
- everyone had to be careful because casual conversations could turn into treason!
18th century German regiments in service to the British Empire.
- One of the most famous incidents involving these mercenaries was the Battle of Trenton, where about 900 Hessians were captured out of a force of 1,400. General George Washington's Continental Army crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night, 1776, to carry out a highly successful surprise attack.
- Hessians composed approximately one-third of the British forces in the Revolution.
Patrick Henry
was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his "Give me liberty or give me death" speech.
- Along with Samuel Adams and Thomas Paine, he was one of the most influential (and radical) advocates of the American Revolution and republicanism
- Henry was elected to the House of Burgesses (the legislative body of the Virginia colony) in 1765. That same year, he proposed the Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions
- Henry led militia against Royal Governor Lord Dunmore in defense of some disputed gunpowder, an event known as the Gunpowder Incident
- During the war, he served as the first post-colonial Governor of Virginia
- Critic of Constitution
an individual who is loyal to the "powers that be" or The Establishment
- They were also called Tories, King's Men, or Royalists.
- About 1/5 European population in US remained loyal to GB
- Included British appointed government officials, Anglican clergy, tenatn farmers with patriot landlords, members of persecuted sects, veterans, nonEnglish ethnic minority
Lord Dunmore's Proclamation
all able bodied men to assist him in the defense of the colony, including the enslaved Africans of rebels. These recruits were promised their freedom in exchange for service in the Army.
- a controversial proclamation
- Lord Dunmore's Proclamation was the first mass emancipation of enslaved people in American history.
Thomas Paine
was an English and American intellectual, scholar, revolutionary, deist and idealist
- wrote Common Sense - a writing which spawned American Revolution and pressed for independence
- felt Britain exploited colonies
- he considered society a representation of human ideals, and government a necessary evil.
Stono Rebellion
one of the earliest known organized acts of rebellion against slavery in the Americas - Carolinian slaves gathered at the Stono River (for which the rebellion is named) to plan an armed march for freedom.
- marched toward St. Augustine and gathered more people as they marched on - burned slaveowners' homes.
- Late that afternoon, planters on horseback caught up with the group now numbering sixty to one hundred slaves. Twenty white Carolinians and forty of the rebels were killed before the rebellion was suppressed. The captured slaves were then decapitated though some also managed to escape.
Battle of Saratoga, 1777
a decisive American victory that was to result in France entering the conflict on behalf of the Americans during the American Revolutionary War.
- The capture of an entire British Army secured the northern American states from further attacks out of Canada and prevented New England from being isolated
- twice as many Brits killed as Americans
- Howe's blunder: Instead of meeting Burgoyne near Albany, he decided to sail toward the Delaware Bay and capture the American capital of Philadelphia. While he succeeded in taking the city, the nascent Continental Congress simply retreated to York, Pennsylvania, and evaded capture.
Siege of Yorktown, 1781
a victory by a combined American and French force led by General George Washington, Marquis de Lafayette, and the French General, Comte de Rochambeau, over a British army commanded by General Lord Cornwallis.
- The surrender of Cornwallis's army caused the British government to negotiate an end to the American Revolutionary War.
- Cornwallis headed North into VA where he joined forces with redcoats commanded by Benedict Arnold - fortified Yorkstown (between rivers) - Washington moved quickly and Brits were trapped (French destroyed a ship, Americans got them by land).
Treaty of Paris
Ended the Revolutionary War
- Recognized 13 colonies as free/sovereign states.
- Granted other rights to Americans, such as fishing off Newfoundland, etc.
- Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual access to the Mississippi River
- GB ignored teritorial rights of its Indian allies.
Northwest Ordinance
an act of the Continental Congress of the United States passed on July 13, 1787 under the Articles of Confederation. The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.
- established the precedent by which the United States would expand westward across North America by the admission of new states, rather than by the expansion of existing states
- banning of slavery in the territory had the effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory in the region between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.
Gradual Manumission
Postwar years witnessed the gradual abolition of slavery in the North
- Vermont banned slavery in 1777
- Only in the North where slaves were few could the state legislature vote to abolish slavery.
- Owner's current human property remained intact and so many African Americans in northern colonies lived in an ambiguous state between slave and free.
Shays' Rebellion
an armed uprising in western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787 and led by Daniel Shays.
- mostly small farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes. Failure to repay such debts often resulted in imprisonment in debtor's prisons.
- The lack of an institutional response to the uprising energized calls to reevaluate the Articles of Confederation, giving strong impetus to the Constitutional Convention, begun in May, 1787.
Feared the central government was too powerful and wanted to keep states as most powerful.
- Weakening of states' power could bring the onset of arbitrary power
- stressed the need for constant popular vigilance to avert oppression
- Focused on lack of Bill of Rights.
An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution
a 1913 book by American historian Charles A. Beard.
- argues that the structure of the Constitution of the United States was motivated primarily by the economic interests of the Founding Fathers
Enumerated Powers
Article 1 Section 8 of the United States Constitution which lists the specific powers of legislation granted to the United States Congress
- implies that the legislature may exercise only those powers that are stated in the Constitution, limited, of course, by the Bill of Rights and the other protections found in the Constitutional text.
- McCulloch v. Maryland
Alexander Hamilton
politician, leading statesman, financier, intellectual, military officer, and founder of the Federalist Party.
- One of America's foremost constitutional lawyers, he was an influential delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention in 1787 and was the leading author of the Federalist Papers (1788), which has been the single most important interpretation of the Constitution ever since.
- Secretary of Treasury during Jefferson's presidency
- Advocated assumption - believed nation's debt was a trifecta: owed to foreign countries, owed to merchants/soldiers, owed by the states.
The US government would assume the debts of all the states
- had political implications: consolidating debt in the national government would help concentrate economic/political power at national level.
Whiskey Rebellion, 1791-1794
Tax put on whiskey - in response, there were protests in frontier areas (this unrest continued for years).
- This tax was proposed and imposed by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton
- washington gathered army of 15,000 to stop rebellion - Washington pardoned most.
- Important because it showed that the national government wouldn't allow violent resistance to laws.
Supported the Constitution, for a centralized government.
- Stressed need for order, authority, and regularity in the political world
- Little emphasis on "ordinary people" in government.
one of the two political parties that dominated U.S. political life during the first party system.
- Against the Federalist Party
- saw themselves as heirs of Sons of Liberty
- Comprised of "ordinary men": artisans, farmers, merchants, and craftsmen.
- Washington believed this group started the Whiskey Rebellion.
- Publicly protested Washington's fiscal and foreign policy and repeatedly proclaimed their belief in freedom of speech, etc...
- Jefferson, Madison
act of conscripting people to serve as sailors.
- Brits forcably detained American vessels and forced them into British navy.
- 6,000-8,000 Americans were impressed between 1803-1812.
"Permanent Alliances"
Washington's farewelll address warned against "permanent alliances" with other nations (could be detrimental to USA)
- Advocated maintaining commercial (but not political) ties to other nations
- Unilateralism
Alien and Sedition Acts
Acts of Congress designed to protect the United States from aliens alleged to be dangerous and to muffle internal dissent.
- Under the Sedition Act, anyone "opposing or resisting any law of the United States, or any act of the President of the United States" could be imprisoned for up to two years. It was also illegal to "write, print, utter, or publish" anything critical of the president or Congress.
- The Alien Act (official title: An Act Concerning Aliens) authorized the president to deport any resident alien considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States."
Kentucky Resolution, 1798
Favored states' rights.
- written by Thomas Jefferson
- attacked the Sedition Act, which extended the powers of the federal government over individuals inside the states. The resolutions declared that the Constitution was a "compact." That is, it was an agreement among the states.
- submitted to other states for approval but with no success
- Contended that people (speaking through their states) had a right to judge the constitutionality of actions taken by the federal government.
Aaron Burr
He was a formative member of the Democratic-Republican Party in New York
- third Vice President, under Thomas Jefferson; had challenged Jefferson for presidency.
- duel with Alexander Hamilton, resulting in Hamilton's death- trial and acquittal on charges of treason.
- From New Jersey
Sally Hemings
a quadroon slave who may have had one or more children with Thomas Jefferson
- Initially a companion to one of Jefferson's daughters
- Hemings was never officially freed by Thomas Jefferson
Toussaint L'Ouverture
one of the leaders of the Haïtian Revolution: L'Ouverture is considered as one of the fathers of the Haitian nation.
- slave
Gabriel Prosser
a slave born in Henrico County, Virginia who planned a failed slave rebellion in the summer of 1800
- rebellion was suppressed and Gabriel was hanged together with the other rebels.
- hoped to lead the slaves into Richmond, but torrential rains postponed the rebellion. The slaves' masters had suspicion of the uprising, and before it could be carried out two bondmen notified their master, who in turn warned the Virginia Governor
- this rebellion being put down so easily more firmly established slavery as an economic institution/way of life - others afraid to revolt.
John Marshall
American statesman and jurist who more than anyone else shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power
- fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from February 4, 1801 until his death in 1835.
- appointed by Adams in last week of his presidency
- unified the court and became the voice of the majority.
Louisiana Purchase
acquisition by the United States of more than 530,000,000 acres of territory from France in 1803 for which they paid $15 million.
- land included in the Purchase comprises 22.3 percent of the territory of the modern United States
- an important moment in the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. At the time, it faced domestic opposition as being possibly unconstitutional - Jefferson argued that president's implied powers to protect the nation justified the purchase.
- doubled size of nation and made way for expansion
Embargo Act, 1807
American law prohibiting all export of cargo from American ports
- passed 1807 - South and West in favor, Northeast opposed
- this was an action Jefferson perceived as a short-term measure to avoid war: Jefferson thought that Britain needed the business so badly it would buckle on the impressment issue
- Unfortunately, surprisingly good crops in 1808 left Britain far less dependent on America than usual and the parts of the British Empire hit hardest by the Embargo were too poor to convince the government it was worthwhile to repeal
- Although the Act did succeed in lessening impressment, it was merely because it caused so many American sailors to become unemployed that they joined Britain's merchant marine and navy willingly, to avoid starving
a famous Shawnee leader. He spent much of his life attempting to rally disparate Native American tribes in a mutual defense of their lands, which eventually culminated in his death in the War of 1812.
- William Henry Harrison considered Tecumseh to be "one of those uncommon geniuses which spring up occasionally to produce revolutions and overturn the established order of things."
The War Hawks
Democratic-Republicans were known as the War Hawks
- Cried loudest for war against the Brits
- In 1812, Americans ordered Brits not to stop, search, or seize American warships
- In June 1812, Brits reopened the seas ot American shipping but before word got across the Atlantic, Americans declared war.
Hartford Convention
event in 1814 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed
Boston Associates
one of the earliest investment capital companies in America. Established in the early nineteenth century by Nathan Appleton, Abbott Lawrence, and Amos Lawrence
- consisited of about 80 members, often related genetically or through marriage, and was centered in Boston, Massachusetts.
- By 1845, the group's 31 textile companies- located in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and southern Maine- produced one-fifth of all textiles in the United States.
- The textiles were a product of cotton
- Revenue went to investing in railroads and established banks.
Frontier Thesis
the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between urbanized, civilized society and the untamed wilderness.
- frontier was seen as a region that created freedom: "breaing the bonds of custom, offering new experiences, and calling out new instutitions and activities."
Commerce Power
Clause empowering the USA "to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes." (???)
American System
an economic plan consisting of a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building, and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise and form a national currency
- intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper, by providing a defense against the dumping of cheap foreign products, mainly at the time from the British Empire
- Henry Clay & John C. Calhoun
- system was first proposed--and largely passed--in the Era of Good Feelings after the War of 1812 produced a sense of nationalism and an awareness that the economic infrastructure needed help.
- Plan had 3 points:
--> protective tariff; a tax on imported goods
establishment of a national bank that would promote a single currency
--> improvement of the country’s infrastructure, especially transportation systems, making trade faster and easier.
John C. Calhoun
Calhoun served as the seventh Vice President of the United States, first under John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) and then under Andrew Jackson (1829-1832), but resigned the Vice Presidency to enter the United States Senate, where he had more power
- also served in the United States House of Representatives (1810-1817) and was both Secretary of War (1817-1824) and Secretary of State (1844-1845).
- Helped create the American System with Henry Clay
-Calhoun was against the acquisition of Mexico after the Mexican-American War based on racial grounds
- From South Carolina
Indian Removal
a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or "Native American") tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river
- the rapidly increasing population of the United States resulted in numerous treaties in which lands were purchased from Native Americans
- U.S. government began encouraging Indian tribes to sell their land by offering them land in the West, outside the boundaries of the then-existing U.S. states, where the tribes could resettle. This process was accelerated with the passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which provided funds for President Andrew Jackson to conduct land-exchange ("removal") treaties
- An estimated 100,000 American Indians eventually relocated in the West as a result of this policy (mostly Oklahoma)
Monroe Doctrine, 1823
the United States' opinion that European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located in the Americas, such as the United States of America, Mexico, and others.
- In return, the United States planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and in wars between a European power and its colonies.
- issued by President James Monroe during his seventh annual State of the Union address to Congress
- still kind of intact - Roosevelt Corollary; protects colonialism?
A brief crusade against freemasonry, an elitist group coming to US from England
- Freemasons attracted men in prominent positions, common man left out; made some fear aristocratic powers
- Some Evangelicals listed it as satanic and argued it was terrible for making men neglect their families
Nullification Crisis
a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson centered around the question of whether a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
- The issue incited a debate over states' rights that ultimately threatened violent hostilities between South Carolina and the federal government, and the dissolution of the Union.
- Partially caused by Tariff of 1828 ("Tariff of Abominations")
Log Cabin Campaign
Emphasizes grassroots politics and candidates that argued that they came from humble backgrounds - common man! working for the people!
- Egalitarianism
- Election of 1840 - Harrison