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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
west of the mississippi river was known as _________ prior to 1840's
Great American Desert
after 1840 it was...
frontier- the empty land waiting for settlement and civilization
Pacific Coast tribes
Serrano,, Chumash, Pomo, Maidu, Chinook: all decimated by disease
The Pueblo Indians
Anasazi, Navajo. grew corn, lived in adobe houses, irrigation systems, engaged in trade and commerce
Plains Indians
Siox (Lakota), Cheyenne, Nez Perce. lived off land, followed buffalo, warlike, always in conflict, tp's, most formidable foes
Hispanic New Mexico
1 to 50 anglos to hispanics. still tried to establish a white gov.
*remained under military rule til 1850 when a territorial gov was est due to Taos rebellion
*catholic patriarchal
Hispanic California
*hispanics were working class
Hispanic Texas
*economically displaced Hispanics made 75% of pop in south texas
Juan Cortina
*raided a jail in Brownsville and freed Mexican prisoners
*continued to harass Anglos for 15 years
Chinese Migration
*came looking for Gold
*industrious workers
*tended to become buisness proprietors
*mining 1st then railroads
*90% of workforce for west part of rr
*organized well... San Fran
where east and west sides of railroad met
*Promontory Point
*marked with a gold spike
Anti-Chinese Sentiments
*industrious workers that took jobs
*opium dens
*gangs "tongs"... violence
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
*suspended migration
*barred Chinese aliens from US citizenship
*virtually ended Chinese/Southeast Asian immigration to US until 1968
why make act?
*fear of industrial army of Asian workers... class conflict
*decreased Chinese pop by more than 40% over next 40 yers
Homestead ACt of 1862
*160 acres for a small fee if improved for 5 years
*wasnt enough land
*bleak life
Timber Culture Act of 1862
*amendment to homestead act
*received additional 160 acres if you planted trees
Desert Land Act of 1877
*2.5 mil acres purchased
*tentative title to 640 acres in Great Plains
*had to irrigate within 3 years
Cattle industry
*mexican ranchers started "cowboy"
*1860's led long cattle drives
*abilene, kansas and chicago became cow towns
*cowboys were often veterans of army
Romance of Old West
*cowboy as american symbol
*contributions by authors to image
Book that portrayed old west as idealized, rugged, free-spirited
The Virginian by Owen Wister
Important Turning Point
-Frederick Jackson Turner: historian from U of Wisconsin writes his essay that argues that the end of the frontier will end an era in Amerfican History
Essay about end of the frontier
because of censes. by Frederick Jackson Turned called "The Significance of the Frontier"
Concentration Policy
*forced Indians onto scattered locations often with un liveable land
*desirable lands were left for white
Indian peace commission to relocate Plains Indians to Oklahoma and Dakotas
*resulted in conflicts btwn white and indians
Fort Laramie Treaty
Lakota (sioux) wanted black hills because it was a sacred burial and hunting grounds for peace
Sand Creek Massacre 1864
Colonel John Chivington: union army officer orders to fire upon 98 unarmed women and children natives
lat natives to organize resistance to whites
Apaches in late 1880s
Battle of LItlle Bighorn
Natives under Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
*killed 200 soldiers
*left reservations and army was in pursuit of them to be put back on reservations
Chase of the Nez Perce
*Being forced onto a smaller recervation and Chief Joseph refused and tried to tak tribe to Canada
*550 ppl were caught near the Canadian border
*forced to live in Okla and many died of disease and starvation
Dawes Severlty Act
*designed to accelerate assimilation of Natives
*citizinship for indians who abondoned allegiances
*land to those indians. full titleship ater 25 years
*much of land was never distributed
*nearly 1/2 of Indian land was lost to white settlement
economic trasformation
*rapid industrialization
*specialized workers
*urbanization and manufacturing of cities
*5 mil immigrants
*large factories replace small ones. competition
*corporate expansion
*natural resources
*agriculture supports pop
*supportive gov
age of inventions
Thomas Edison: light bulb, electric generating system, lab
*internal comubstion engine, electric engine
*Alexander Bell: phone
*Nikolas Tesla: electricity
the corporation
*sell sahres and generate capital
*shareholders didnt run company, experts did
*no personal liability
*survived shareholders
Pullman, Illinois
*George Pullman built railway car manufacturing plant on outskirts of Chicage. own city
Vertical Integration
incolved taking over the businedd on which a company relies for it primary functions. Primary secondary and tritary industries owned by same company
example of Vertical Integration
Carnegie: self made man. sold his interest in the US. steel corporation owned the steel industry from mining to production
Horizontal integration
involved owning all the same type of buisness
example of horizontal integration
Rocafeller. developed leadership skills and love for hard work. He owned 90% of nation's oil refineries
The Jungle
book written by Sinclair about life working in a meatpacking plant
common diseases in workplace
tuberculosis and bronchitis
How the other half lives
by Jacob Riis
-tenement apartment in urban slums
*1894 NY tenemen district pop density equal to Calcutta
Settlement houses
Hull house in Chicago founded by Jane Addams in 1889. Neighborhood reconstruction, helped them rebuild lives and daycare for children (should help poor)
Social Gospel Movement
*theory popular among industrialists and intellectuals
*poverty=flawed character
*intervention on behalf of poor was of doubtful benefit
*Carnegie urged that rich set example for poor & return some wealth to community. (give to worthy poor)
Social Darwinism
*growing gap btwn rich& poor is due to competition.
*the fit survive the weak parish and life moves on
*wealth reflects fitness so who cares if poor die
*Herbert Spencer, William Sumner
laissez faire
*hands off policy
*economy will self regulate
*govt shouldnt regulate business
1877 Great Uprising
*started with workers refusing to let trains move
*spread to all industries
*early union
*resembled Nat'l Labor Union
importance of the great strike
*ist important strike
*fails: shows how frail the labor movement is
Knights of Labor
-Uriah Stephens/Terence Powderly
*opened to both skilled and unskilled workers
*disapproved of strikes
*supported better pay, 8hr work day
*wanted to change economic system
American Federation of Labor AFL
-Samuel Gompers
*only skilled workers
*hate blacks and women
*no political involvment
*limited # of labor reforms
*aprroved strikers
*collective bargaining
Haymarket Riot 1886
*police killed 2 unarmed workers
*home made bomb exploded at meeting in Haymarket Square
-made to protest slayings
*killed 7 police, 4 strikers, 100 wounded.
*8 leaders tried for death. 4 executed
Homestead Strike 1892
Carnegie's steal plant. refused collective bargaining and would hire scabs.
*8000 troops sent to end strike and protect scabs
Pullman Strike 1894
-Eugene V Debs
-persuaded ppl to boycott Pullman cars in 27 states, paralyzing transportation
-Pres cleveland sent 2000 troops to inforce injunction