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55 Cards in this Set

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Olmecs, Toltecs, Aztecs, Mayan- Who were they?
They are all pre-columbian and mesoamerican cultures that lived in mexico and south america.The Aztecs in Particular were influencial for they were the pre-civilization to Mexico City- They were dominated by the spanish forces in 1521- led by Heran Cortes who they believed was a fair skinned god called quozequetl- they flourished from the 14th century till about the 16th century and before them came the Toltecs who occupied the land for the 10th to the 12th century A.D.
Meso American Culture
The Black Death?
It originally came to Europe on Ships from Asia- it was spread by a flea carried on the backs of black rats. The Black death lasts from about 1347 to 1351 and kills about a third of the population.They bring with them this disease to the New World.
Ring around the rosy
Martin Luther-?
Martin Luther was a theologian, a professor and a German Monk in the 16th century whose religious idealogies sparks the reformation of the church and deeply influences the doctrine of The lutheran, protestant, and Anglican relgions that spread to the western world. This reformation was caused due to the Catholics concern as to the way the Catholic church abused it's power.
Bartolemeu Dias?
He was a Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and in 1488 was the first explorer known to have done so. He was sent by Portuguese Monarch King John II to find a trade route to Asia. He also accompanied the band that discovered Brazil.
Shorter trade route to asia in good hope..portuguese
Vasco De Gama?
circa 1497- was a Portuguese explorer who was the most sucessful in the European Age of Discovery and was the first to sail directly from Europe to India.Dias was his predecessor.
Another attempt to get to india.- sucessful- portuguese
Christopher Columbus??
Was an Italian explorer that was credited with the discovery of the Americas.He was comissioned by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to find a shorter trade route to Asia. In 1492 the famous year of his first voyage- he was not the first to discover it- but the first to claim it- It was discovered by Amerigo Vespucci.But in 1492 it was a great year of national imperialism and economic competition between the competing nation states seeking to capitolize on the trade routes.
Hernan Cortes?
In 1519 comes to the New World and conquers the Aztecs by 1524. Able to conquer them easily due to the help of dona maria- a native translator and the fact that they think him a god Coazecoatl. By 1492 Hernan becomes more powerful- and begins to fight for land in the new world. Spain then focuses on South American and the Carribean. Able to easily transplant their bureacracy to where ever they conquer- most sucessful at early colonization.
John Cabot ??
England sends John Cabot to America to check it out while Henry the 7th is ruling. Cabot turns to England in 1495- he claimed he could find a route faster than columbus's and received backing he was denied by Portugal and Spain.
first english explorer
Humphrey Gilbert??
During the early Elizabethan Era queen Elizabeth herself was guided by Gilbert to transplant 3rd generation landless whites to the Americas. Monarchy always afraid of landless whites- that could stir up trouble for the crown if not working
landless whites
Sir Walter Raleigh
Gilbert's Brother- Sir Walter Raleigh in 1585 is sent by Elizabeth to develop the Roanoke Island off the coast of Carolina to claim for the crown. Cannot overthrow the natives and is pushed off the Island by 1586.
John White??
In 1587 John White is sent by England to try and settle the Roanoke Island once again.Does not end up staying long- for is greatly short of supplies- sails home to England and War breaks out keeping him in England until he returns to the settlement in 1590- when he discovers that all his settlers have died off or left. Sees etched on a post the word Croatoan. ANOTHER EARLY UNSUCESSFUL ATTEMPT BY ENGLAND TO SETTLE IN THE NEW WORLD.
Richard Hakluyt??
Richard's pamphlet called a " Discourse On Western Planting" formulates colonization ideas - Argues that England will best prosper through Mercantilism'
which is the trading of raw materials back and forth between the new and the old worlds. The raw materials are extracted from the colonies and manufactured in England and sold back to the Colonies under the british name.
Captain John Smith ?
In 1606 The Virginia Co, and the Plymouth Co, receieve charters from the King to go and colonize- The co- fund the expedition to the new world. They develop the first settlement for England- Jamestown in Virginia in 1607- 104 men go first and by 1608 only 38 left- failing again until John Smith arrives and turns things around in the colony. He applies a military like regiment in dealing with the settlers and by 1609 500 people inhabit Jamestown- a huge sucess for England.
John Winthrop?
In 1629 the Massachusettes Bay Colony sends a charter to England for guidance and they send John Winthrop in 1630- Is a Spiritual Leader and gives the"City on a Hill sermon" He leads 11 ships with 1,ooo people to the new world- these people told by winthrop that they are God's Chosen people- that if they did not fulfill their "covenant" with God they could be punished. This religious covenant bonds these early settlers and makes it a successful- they also set up a governing system based on representation by voting-also elects their courts and legislatures.
George Calvert a.k.a Lord Baltimore?
In 1633 King Charles the III And George II Grant 10 million acres of land in Maryland to Lord Baltimore. Calvert was a Catholic that was persecuted in England and created Maryland as a refuge for Catholics. He tries and fails to set up a feudal system-- too much land.
William Penn?
Founded the Province of Pennsylvania - The english North American Colony -his power extended to Delaware, New Jersey and Maryland- Ahead of his time- he wrote and urged all the English Colonies to unionize. The democratic law he set forth in Pennsylvania Frame of government served as one of the inspirations for the Constitution. He had a plan for the united states of europe and was a good quaker.
Roger Williams??
In 1636 Rhode Island is established by Roger Williams. He was a theologian and a free thinker that had some ideas that could be seen as in opposition to the crown. He thought that it was unfair that the British were taking the land from the natives and not paying them for it. He is put up on trial to be hanged but escapes with the help of natives and runs to what is now Rhode Island. They nicknamed this the Misfit Colony because this was a common place for refugees. Including Ann Hutcheson who thought that people were only accountable to God.Crown has no authority in her opinion.
Nathaniel Bacon?
Nathaniel Bacon was a middle class tidewater planter, and begins to covet more land than he owns. He envy's the Elite aristocrats that have claimed most of the coastal region of Virginia for their own. He wants the inland of Virginia to claim- yet the peaceful Susquehanocks live there- so he begins to raid their tribes with a band of landless whites in order to stir up trouble- he then goes before the judge Governor William Berkley saying that the natives are raiding them- sees through Bacon's ploy for land and declares Bacon a liar. Leaves Bacon infuriated and he lead's Bacon's rebellion- takes his followers and burns the capitol of Jamestown- First direct attack to colonial authority and the crown.
Govenor William Berkeley?
He is the judge who turns down Nathaniel Bacon's plea to take away the land from the Sasquehanock Natives.
Olaudah Equiano?
He also was known as Gustavus Vassa- was an eighteenth century seaman and writer of African Descent who lived in the American Colonies and Britain. He was a leading influence in the abolition of slavery- He was first a slave of a Naval Captain, Michael Pascal.He could read and write english and was too valuable to be bought as a plantation slave.He is a wonderful story of a slave that is able to become educated and tell his story. He marries a white woman and is the most well read source for information about the African Slave Trade Experience.
Richard White- Author of the Middle Ground
Wrote this groundbreaking work the Middle Ground which changed the way we see the relations between the natives and the Europeans.The book especially focuses on the french- the natives weren't so vulnerable and stupid as they are made to seem in opposition to the Europeans. However after the War of 1812 in which the British expel the French- then the British begin to dictate to the natives and there was no middle ground.
Edmund Morgan- Writer of American Slavery, American Freedom
Writes a theorhetical piece called the "American Paradox" American Slavery, American Freedom- which theorizes that due to Bacon's Rebellion and the need for the Elite to turn the attention of the landless whites elsewhere-So the Elite landowners make the "unthinking decision" to switch from indentured servitude to slavery- allowing for the landless whites to have someone to feel superior to.
The Quakers
Among the first to speak up on behalf of the abolitionist movement in the American Colonies and Europe. They began denouncing it as early as 1688 when German Quakers started protesting near Virginia.The Pennsylvania Abolitionist Society was comprised mainly of Quakers.
The Navigation Acts
cited as one of the reasons that led to the Revolutionary war- The Navigation Acts were passed in 1696- They put into lawful terms the Mercantilist Properties- 1) All goods must go to England First 2) Must be sent on English Ships 3) Enumerated Product Lists:Things that must be channeled through England first.
Glorious Revolution a.k.a the Revolution of 1688
This was the overthrow of John II in England in 1688 by a union of members of Parliment- It is sometimes called the bloodless revolution-Never again would a monarch hold absolute power-and ended any chance of re-establishment of the Catholic church in England.
Era Of Sanctuary Neglect
During the reigns of William and Mary they ignored the colonies for the most part and gave Carte Blanche to the colonial authorities so no one was really enforcing the mercantilist and Navigating Acts
Proclamation Of 1763
The Colonists start to move west. The further west you go the less Control the British have over the colonists. So the British issue this proclamation saying that you can't own land or move past a certain geographical western point that you cannot cross. You can live there- but you cannot own land. Infuriates the colonists.
Quartering Acts of 1765
This required colonial assemblies to pay for certain supplies for the British Troops that were stationed in the respective colonies. They do sometimes pay back the colonists for the supplies- just not always the full value.This act makes the colonists suspicious of the British- for what is the reason to have troops in a time of peace?
The Sugar Act of 1764
The Wars cost taxes and in order for the British to re-coup from their War with the French is to tax the price of sugar.Not too much outrage from colonists- sugar not a necessity.
The Stamp Act of 1765
This act required that all legal documents must have an official stamp- Newspapers,Marriage licenses, death certifcates, playing cards etc. Things now came at a much more expensive price.Sparked Pitt and his taxation without representation rebellion against this act.
Townshend Acts of 1767
These acts were created to replace the sugar and stamp acts that the British Parliment repealed because of the colonists boycott of British Goods. They strike back with the Townshend acts that place a duty tax on paper and on Tea. The Colonists once again boycott the goods and the English in 1770 Repeal all of the taxes except for the tax on tea- there way of saying that they have the power to tax the colonists if they choose to.
Crispus Attucks and the Boston Massacre
The same day that the Townshend Acts are to be Repealed- March 5, 1770- the Boston Massacre occurs. A mob of angry colonists encounter a militia patroling in Boston. The mob begins to pelt rocks at the soldiers- one of the officers gets nervous and opens fire into the crowd and then the rest of the officers follow suit. The first man to die was the fugitive slave Crispus Attucks. To end any more violence the troops pull out from Boston.
Thomas Hutchinson
He is a Royal Govenor that is appointed by the King to serve in Boston. He is the one that presides over the situation when The sons of liberty have the Boston Tea Party.
Intolerable Acts/ Coercive Acts: Sub Act: #1 The Boston Port Act
The Boston Port Act was passed to close the Boston Port until the colonies pay for the tea that was thrown into the Bostonn Harbor. No ingoing or outgoing ships-
Intolerable Acts: Sub Act #2 The Massachusetts Act
Changes the original doctrine of Massachusetts- they can no longer have elected assembly- can no longer assemble in large numbers without approval from the crown. Officials were now to be appointed only by the crown.
Intolerable Acts : Sub Act #3 The Administrative Justice Acts (Aka the Murder Act)
Under this act any British official that was accused of a crime or a felony in the colonies was sent back to England to be tried instead of where the crime was comitted.
Quebec Act
This Act allowed for the French citizens of Quebec Canada to participate in the affairs of the colonies. This allowed the colonists to lose the French support to the English and also annexed to Quebec the area east of the mississippi river and North of The ohio River
Main Problems with Boston Port Act
The colonists deem this act unfair for it punishes all of Boston and not just the sons of Liberty- not everyone in Boston at this time is opposed to the crown- so they feel that they should not be punished for it. The tide of supporters of the crown begins to switch over.
Problems with the Murder Act or Admin Justice Act
This allows for British officers to essentially get away for Murder- for their trials in England are much more lenient.
Whig Party
Was a political party prevalent during the era of Jacksonian Democracy- The party was formed in opposition to the ideas of President Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party. The party was eventually destroyed by the quesion of whether to allow the expansion of slavery into the Territories. These were the farmers and the commercial elite. They fight for colonial Rights.
Tory Party
Is the ancestor to the modern UK conservative party. They are the Royalists who are Pro-Crown in the Revolutionary era.The Tories are typical new immigrants who have just come in to the U.S. from overseas.
Suffolk Resolves
Was a declaration made in September of by the leaders of the suffolk county, Massachusetts. Made in response to the state of passive rebellion declared in Massachusetts Colony by Great Britain. It declared that they would boycott British Goods and not pay attention to the Intolerable Acts- and at the 1st Continental congress 55 delegates made the document legit.
The Virginia Plan
This was proposed by Virginia delegates at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. It put forth the idea of population weighted representation in both of th houses of Congress. They had gathered initially to revise the articles of the confederation and instead James Madison drafted this plan.One problem was the way that small states would be represented in legislature, because huge states like Virginia would have more representatives than them.
The New Jersey Plan
This was a response to the Virginia plan and was brought forth by new jersey delegate William Patterson on May 15, 1787. They proposed a single chamber legislature that each state, regardless of size or pop would have one vote under the articles of the confederation.
3/5 Compromise
Slaves represented a huge number in the population so they don't want an unbalanced vote.The south wants the slaves counted for votes not for taxation and the North wants the slaves counted for votes and because there isn't a large pop of slaves in the North they are also okay with taxation. So the north and the south come to the 3/5 compromise which counts every 5 slaves as 3 people in terms of votes.
Whiskey Rebellion
In order to pay off some of the debts of the Revolutionary war, Hamilton who was then secretary of treasury under President George Washington- proposed that Washington have a monopoly on the Whiskey production in the colonies as well as proposed an Excise Tax on the production or sale of alcohol. This greatly affected the farmers who would turn their extra grain into whiskey and sell it easily.So in rebellion those affected banded together in Philladelphia vowed not to honor the Excise tax- so in 1794 Washington sends troops into Philly to force the settlers to pay the tax- the rebellion fizzles and dies out.
This fiscial financial reform plan proposed by Alexander Hamilton pushed for the assumption by the Federal Government of the accumulative debts of the states from the Revolutionary War.
Broad Constructionalists
Was supported by Alexander Hamilton- and said that under congress they have the right to do all that is "necessary and proper" to legislate on laws that aren't explicitly in the constitution.
Strict Constructionalists
This was supported by James Madison under the 10th ammendment- that " all rights not explicitly stated in the constitution are under the state's juristiction." all of this is over the Charter that is proposed by hamilton to Charter a national bank to join the federal govt and private industry.
The XYZ affair
This is when the French decide to cutt off all diplomatic ties when the U.S. enters into Jay's Treaty with Britain. Adams sends over a delegation of three men X,Y,Z to try and mend the ties with France- The U.S. negotiators are treated with contempt by the French-but they agree to talk to them for a bribe price of 12 million dollars. Initially the negotiators only send information to John Adams- somehow rumors about the goings on reach the ears of the republican party and they demand that Adams release all dealings about the X,Y,Z affair and backfires for the republican party who wants to have ties with France.
Jay's Treaty
This was enacted with Britain negotiated this treaty and gave the U.K. the 'most favored Nation's Status' This means that whatever British goods come to the U.S. will have a lower tax than other countries. The U.S also promises to honor to Pay the Pre-revolutionary Brittish Bank Loan Debts.
Rebublicans Vs. The Federalists
The Republicans believe that everyone should participate in Government. Didn't have any fear of Mob rule. Thomas Jefferson was a republican and believed in an Egegarian republic- to be a nation of farmers everyone should own their own land. Adams being a federalist- Federalists being those who believed in a fiscally and militarily strong nation/state- ideas formed by Alexander Hamilton. Adams being a federalist when leaving office to Jefferson drafted the Judiciary Act of 1801 which enlarged the number of judges in the supreme court and packed them with federalist judges.
Alien and Sedition Acts
This act is passed in 1798- Made it a federal crime to engage in any action against the government and could be persecuted for treason under this act. Adams does this because people critisize his presidency because of the xyz affair- one of the greatest faux paus in Adams political career.
Marbury Vs. Madison
This was the court case that was brought to the supreme court by William Marbury who had been appointed a justice of the peace in the district of columbia by Adams right before leaving office- and one jefferson took up office the new secretary of state Madison stalled many of these comissions from going through.The supreme court did not grant Marbury his wish saying that no where in the const does it give them the right to force madison to make the appointment.
Louisiana Purchase
Made in 1803 by Thomas Jefferson- Napolean wants to sell the Lousiana Territory for 15 million dollars.People criticise the fact that he uses Hamilton's method for fiscal policy in this dealing-but in the end he doesn't suffer too much flack for it- for the people ultimately want the land.It faded domestic opposition.