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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the period of western history beggining in the 1300's in Italy when far reaching changes occurred in the arts, intellectual life and science and humanism. They glorified the human being and his potential.
Industrial Rev.
a period of change in the methods of producing goods and organizing labor which began in Britain during the 1700's and resulted from the invention and discovery of new machines and forms of power.
Age of Reason (Enligtenment)
the period of Western history in the 1700's when thinkers called for the use of reason and analyzing the improving society. Scientists used the scientific methods to make society better.
an Italian scientist and mathematician who supported Copernicus's heliocentric theory, found the moons of Jupiter using a telescope etc etc. He was tried by the Catholic Church for teaching that the earth was not the center of the universe and put into house arrest (made him a hertic)
the scientist who discovered that the sun, not the earth was the center of the universe.
the scientist of the Scientific Rev. who discovered the laws of gravity and the laws of motion.
Age of Discovery
the period beginning in the late 1400's when explorers found and explored the New World and also found a route around Africa to India. (Portugal was first)

Motives: Glory, Gold (trade routes), and God
Age of Imperialism
the 1800's when European countries went out and took over Africa and parts of Asia and made them colonies or spheres of influence. Imperialism is a policy of empire-building or extending a nation's control over other lands for economic (raw materials and markets) and political advantages.
Printing Press
the most important invention of the renaissance; allowed for the printing of books and the spreading of knowledge and the increase in literacy.
the 16th cent. (1500's) european movement that rebelled against the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the formation of Protestant Christian Churches. Martin Luther - German Monk.
sailed for Spain; discovered the new World but until his death believed he had found islands in Asia which he was really looking for.
his crew were the first to circumnavigate the globe
Spanish explorer in the New World who was the first to see the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama in Central America
Spanish conquistador (explorer and conquerer) who conquered the Aztec tribe of Mexico. They believed he was a god and he used his superior weapons against the king Montezuma.
divine right theory
political belief that a king is given his power from God and so has absolute power and is only answerable to God
habeas corpus
an English right in the petition of rights that said that a person could not be thrown into prison without being told his crime so he could defend himself
King Henry VIII
English king who made himself head of the English Catholic church when the Pope would not allow him to divorce his wife. He wanted a divorce b.c. he had no male heir and his first wife couldnt give him children. he thus founded the angelican church.
rule by a king

a) absolute monarchy - king has complete power to do his will
b)limited constitution monarchy - king must obey laws (constitution) made by legislature who represent the people.
palace uilt outside of paris by king louis XIV to show the world his power and wealth.
the name of the English legislature. its made up of 2 parts or houses called the house of lords (noble) and the house of commons. Gradually over time the parliament gained power and took it away from the absolute kings.
heliocentric theory
sun - center of univ. (copernicus and galileo)
geocentric theory
earth - center of univ. (believed by the Medieval world, the church and ptolemy of egypt)
reign of terror
the part of the Fr. Rev. when the jacobin radicals take over and execute evry1 who disagree witht the rev. using the guillotine.
the take over of this political prison in paris was the beginning of the Fr. Rev. of the Third Estate against the king.
the land and home of the pope. what is left of the country that at one time was rule by the pope.
a sudden seizure of power of a government by force. Napolean came to power in France by a coup.
French general who overthrew the Directory and made himself dictator then emporer. He was overthrown himsefl in 1815 but not before his was able to take over large parts of Europe and spread nationalism. He did some good things for France but didnt give the people freedom they fought for.
Code Napolean
laws made by napolean that made all frenchmen equal under the law and gave them religous freedom, but no political rights like the right to vote and freedom of speech.
a person who take over country by force of his army and has total power
continental system
napolean's trade boycott of england to try to weaken her when he could not defeat her navy
where Napoleon was finally defeated in Belgium.
Bessemer process
a new way to make steel from iron developed by Henry Bessemer in the In. Rev. Steel was stronger than iron.
Queen Victoria
the Queen of England during most of the 1800's when England took over India as a colony she was called the "Empress of India"
Boer War
Wars between the Dutch of Soutch Africa and the English over who would dontrol this area. It was highly prized b/c it had gold and diamonds.
Opium Wars
Wars between the Chinese and teh English over the English trade in opium which the Chinese gov. was trying to stop. England won and forced the Chinese to sign the Treaty of Nanking which resulted in the dividing up of CHina into spheres of influence etc.
Boxer Rebellion
Boxers were a secret socity whithin China trying to get rid of foreign influence in China by killing foreigners and Christians
Otto von Bismarch
Prussian Prime Minister who is largely responsible for uiniting all the many German states into one strong nationalist gov. He fought wars with France and Austria to achieve this.
Suez Canal
a canal built by France to connect the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. It was located in Egypt and eventually it came under the control of the English for whom it was very important to connect India with England.
"Blood and Iron"
Otto von Bismark's phrase meaning he would use anything necesary (war and weapons) to achieve his goal of uniting Germany
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the Austria throne whose assassinations led the world into World War I.
Sun Yat Sen
Western educated chinese reformer who fought to change China from a radition old-fashioned absolute monarchy into a modern democratic and technologically advanced country
Treaty of Tordesillas
a treaty made by the Pope, Spain and Protugal which drew a line North to South down the Atlantic. Anything found East was the line was to belong to Portugal and all land found West of the land was to be Spains' (during age of discovery)
loyalty to one's nation (A nation is land with a boundary around it that has one strong central gov.)
extreme nationalism
when people of a nation begin to believe that their nation is better than anyoe else's and their nationality is superior
domestic system
working at home by hand making a whole product
factory system
working in a factory or central place using machines and only doing a small part of the whole job
the development of cities. THis happened during the In. Rev. b/c people had to live near the central factory.
Sepoy Rebellion
a revolt of soldier's in Britian's Indian army over their belief that the English didnt respect their religion. This led to Britain taking direct control of India and making it a colony.
Berlin Conference
a meeting in Europe to make rules for taking over African land. NO African were invited.
a policy of trying to keep other out of or you people away from other countries. China before 1800's was isolationist. They didnt want contact with or trade with Europe. USA was isolationist during the days prior to WWI b/c we didnt want to get involved in Europes wars. The US was isolationist when it refused to vote to join the League of Nations after WWI b/c they were afraid to get involved in European wars.
payments made by 1 country to another to pay for damages. The Treaty of Versailles after WWI made Germany pay large reparations.
when fighting is occurring but neither side is moving or winning a war. WWI was in a stalemate until the US entered in 1917
Central Powers
Germany and Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire
England, France, Russia, and eventually the USA
League of Nations
an organization proposed by us President Wilson that all nations could join. Its purpose is to talk over problems and prevent another war.
a spanish system where a piece of land was given to a spanish settler in the New World which gave them the right to demand labor and taxes from the Indians. They were supposed to protect the Indians and give them Christianity.
an economic policy of the New World nations that stressed that a colony existed for the good of the mother country. The colony had to sell raw materials to only the mother country and buy finished products from the mother country.
Middle passage
the part of the Triangle trade route when the kidnapped Africans were brought from Africa to the new World to be sold as slaves
Religions toleration
the belief in freedom of religion. Something that is a new idea in the World!
Scientific method
state a problem, form a hypothesis, research the hypothesis to see if there is proof that its right or wrong. Form a conclusion. This method was developed during the Scientific Revolution of the 16th Cent (1500's) and led to many important discoveries
Triangle Trade
a trade pattern in which European countries brought goods to Africa, sold them for slaves, brought slaves to the New World and sold them for raw materials which they brought back to Europe.

Europe -> Africa -> US -> Europe ->....