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151 Cards in this Set

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Missouri Compromise
1820: created by Henry Clay; when MO wanted to enter the US; Maine was admitted free, MO as a slave state; north of MO Compromise Line
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay; Cali would become a free state; abolished slave trade in Washington D.C. and more effective law to hunt runaway slaves
Kansas-Nebraska Act- 1854
: Kansas becomes a state before the Civil War; hard time for Kansas- “Bleeding Kansas”; eventually becomes free state
Panic of 1819
borrowing money from the banks which collapsed… and therefore led to economic depression and sectionalism between North and South
Dred Scott Decision- 1857:
slaves became property and even in free states they were slaves; led to slave codes
Popular sovereignty
people have the right to choose free or slave; ultimately to have power. Crucial
Gutmann, Stampp, Genovesee, Alex Haley:
oStampp- The Peculiar Institution
Setting of slavery
oGutmann- The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom
Focus on family
oHaley- ROOTS
oGenovesee- Roll, Jordan, Roll
Violence
Between husbands and wives
Drapetomania
a disease that caused slaves to run away
“Persuasion Doctrine”:
use of positive reinforcement rather than punishment by slave owners
Bi-culture
Stampp’s perspective; slaves were caught between 2 cultures: African and slave
Slave codes
can’t get married; can’t own property; don’t have the right to vote
Jim Crow Laws
segregation of blacks and whites enforced by law in the North and violence in the south
The Second Great Awakening
late 1790s to late 1830s; like the first one; Protestant reforms; people feared God and sinners went to hell… God is angry and to fear him.
oUnitarians: William Ellery Channing; believed in humanitarianism and tolerance in religion
oDeists: believed God made the universe and then stood back and watched the world; God viewed through nature
oCharles Finney: lawyer turned preacher; had duty to reform society; from personal reform to moral reform
Temperance Crusade
excessive drinking in America;
oMaine Law of 1851: first state to prohibit the sale, manufacture, and consumption of alcohol
oWomen’s suffrage: Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton led the Seneca Falls Convention; Elizabeth Ann Seton won women’s voting rights in 1920 as the 19th Amendment
Prison Reform
Dorothea Dix- fought for insane people; to separate insane people from bad people, and children from adults
Abolitionist Movement
oWilliam Lloyd Garrison: The Liberator; moral suasion… burned the Constitution b/c it was pro-slavery
oHarriet Tubman: Moses of the UGRR
oHarriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s Cabin
oFrederick Douglass- The North Star (newspaper)
oTheodore Dwight Weld- American Slavery As it Is
Education Reform
Horace Mann; in public school system: teachers now had to be taught, higher wages, more attendance; tax supported public schools
Oneida Experiments
o Oneida Colony: city in NY attempted utopian community
o Utopian societies: perfect societies; men and women are equal; God is both man and woman
Abraham Lincoln
president in 1860s
Stephen A. Douglas
Lincoln’s opponent in Illinois and for president
Ulysses S. Grant
leader for the North
Robert E. Lee
takes command in Northern Virginia and becomes great leader for the South
Jefferson Davis
president of Confederacy
Frederick Douglass
free black man; started The North Star (newspaper)
Ida Wells Barnett:
crusade against lynching
Harriet Tubman
Moses of the UGRR
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin described harshest conditions of slavery; helped abolitionist movement
William T. Sherman
believed in total war
John Wilkes Booth
man that shot Abe
Andrew Johnson
vice president that takes over when Abe is killed
Hiram Revels
black to serve in the Senate reping the state of Miss.
Arlington National Cemetery
Lee’s home becomes cemetery- Lee never comes home
April 12, 1861
the first fire is shot on Fort Sumter to begin the war
Fort Sumter
last fort in SC under Union rule; started the Civil War
1860 Election
4 candidates from 4 different parties; Lincoln won w/ less that 40% popular vote and wasn’t even on the ballot in some southern states
Reconstruction
period of US history from 1865-1877 when the states that seceded during the Civil War were reorganized under federal control and later restored to the Union
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan
he wanted to restore the Union as quickly and painlessly as possible; 10% of citizens of a state had to create govt. that abolished slavery; Wade Davis Bill- 50% of citizens (didn’t feel Lincoln’s was harsh enough)
13th Amendment
abolishes slavery in 1865
14th Amendment
in 1868; black men have civil rights
15th Amendment
black men have the right to vote in 1870
Plessy vs. Ferguson
supreme court upheld a Louisiana law requiring segregated RR facilities as long as they were equal
Jim Crow Laws
segregation of blacks and whites enforced by law in the North and violence in the south
Segregation:
separation of blacks and whites
Impeachment
removal from office by offense
“Lynch” law
means of controlling social order; hung, burned, beat, drag behind wagons
Brown vs. the Topeka Board of Edu
unconstitutional to create separate schools for children based on race
"Wade-Davis” Bill
much harsher that Lincoln’s Plan- split up Republican party
Freedman's Bureau
govt. agency created after the Civil War to assist black and white refugees in the defeated Confederacy; an employment agency and arbitrator between blacks and whites
Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address
reconstruction plan
Poll tax
a tax that must be paid for before a citizen may vote in an election; set in the south
Secession
a formal withdrawal from a union
Klu Klux Klan
secret society whose ultimate goal was to ensure white supremacy
Urban League
est. in 1910; nation’s oldest and largest community based movement devoted to empowering blacks to enter the economic and social mainstream
Carpetbaggers
Northerners who settled in the south
Scalawags
southerners who joined the Republican party
Literacy Tests
set in the south; tests to avoid the 14th amendment thru provisions that usually said an aspiring voter had to be able either to read any section of the state constitution or to understand what was being read to him; were permanently banned in 1975
"Grandfather Clause"
a legal loophole for white voters who would otherwise be disqualified to vote by the “color-blind” poll/literacy test poll
Antietam
single bloodiest day in American history; 28,000 people killed or wounded
Total War
requiring total mobilization of men and resources, destroying men and resources on a massive scale and ending only with unconditional surrender
Freeport Doctrine
one of 7 debates- states that slavery will stay down if the people vote it down
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
in 1858; 7 debates- Lincoln lost the election in Illinois but won the moral victory;
"Bleeding Kansas"
violent riots for popular sovereignty in Kansas to make it slave or free; prelude to Civil War
54th Massachussetts
first all black regiment; after Battle of Fort Wagner
Texas: Lone Star Republic
the name of Texas when it was independent between 1836-1845
Texas: Moses Austin
creates the first Anglo-American colony of settlers in Spanish Texas in 1820
Texas: Stephen Austin
son of Moses; creates first settlement in Tejas, province of Mexico
Texas: Father Hidalgo
priest in Dolores led Mexican settlers to fight for independence from Spain
Texas: Santa Fe Trail
was used between 1821-1880 to connect settlers from MO to Santa Fe
Texas: Santa Anna
battled against Texans over the Alamo; Santa Anna won after 13 days
Alamo
landmark in San Antonio
Sam Houston
elected president of Lone Star Republic
Lone Star
single star on the flag
Jim Bowie
defender of the Alamo
Davy Crockett
defender of the Alamo
Oregon: Whitmans
first wagon that crossed Oregon Trail was led by Marcus; helped rebuild buildings in the Willamette Valley after Mt. St. Helen erupted; he and his wife were murdered by the Indians who thought the white men caused the death of Indian kids
Oregon: Father de Smet
travels Oregon Trail in 1830s and arrives in Oregon in 1840
Oregon: Cayuses
Indians in the area
Oregon: Willamette River
valley with very fertile soil
Oregon: Measles
outbreak among Indians; killing children quickly
Utah: Joseph and Hyram Smith
tried to create a Mormon community; Joseph believed that Jesus had appeared in America and revealed the Book of Mormon
Utah: Nauvoo, Ill.
where Mormons were going to settle
Utah: Brigham Young
decides to settle by Great Salt Lake w/ new kingdom of God
Utah: Latter Day Saints
started in NY; Mormons are part of this church
Utah: Latter Day Saints
started in NY; Mormons are part of this church
polygamy
having more than one wife
conditions of statehood in 1896
joined the Union
California: Bear Flag Republic
June 14, 1846 Americans tried to revolt from Mexican rule and seized the capital at Sonoma; the flag with the grizzly bear and star was raised; independence ended in July
"forty-niners"
searching for Gold Rush in 1849
Bear Flag
star represented Texas and the bear was for the many in the area
John Sutter
first to discover gold in 1848
Californios
leftover Mexican poor ranch hands; maintained cattle
Donner Party
group of 82 people went south of Great Salt Lak e and through Sierra Nevada to go to Cali; stuck in mountains, ate each other
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
treaty signed on Feb 2nd, 1848; called Mexicans to cede 55% of territory for $15 million
Mexican Cession
gave up Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas and parts of Colorado, Nevada, and Utah
National Women's Trade Union League
formed in 1903; fought for minimum living wage
Jane Adams
opened Hull House in 1889; nurseries for kids, sports, and theatre, taught English and health
Florence Kelly
made important contributions to social reforms: developed strategies such as consumer boycotts of sweatshop-produced clothing and the use of clothing labels to guarantee legally produced clothes
Terence Powderly
took over Knights of Labor and tried to unite all workers into one union
Alexander Graham Bell
invented telephone; Scottish; tried to sell phone to Western Union Telegraph Co. for $100,000 and was turned down; formed Bell Phone Co. in 1877 and by 1885 sold more than 300 thousand phones
Christopher Sholes
invented the typewriter
"Bird of Passage"
how the father would come over and work to bring the rest of his family over
Burlingame Treaty of 1868
convinced Chinese tocome and work for RR
William Jennings-Bryan
"Cross of Gold" Speech; silver democrat for President in 1896
Andrew Carnegie
made fortune on steel industry bought out other companies and phases companies to make steel; Carnegie Steel Co. in 1892; gave millions to charity
National Banking Act
raised money for the Union by enticing banks to buy federal bonds, and taxed state bonds out of existence
Niagara Falls
first hydroelectric plant in 1885
The Grange
union for farmers; main problem was RR; aka the Patrons of Husbandry; able to get Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
"Yellow-dog" contracts
a requirement by a firm that a worker agree not to engage in collective labor action
ILGWU
International Ladies Garment Workers Union in 1900; founded by Rose Schneiderman and Leona O'Reilly; more than 20,000 men and women left jobs in 1910- caused employers to increase pay and decrease hours; part of AFL
"company towns"
factories would build houses around factory
United Mine Workers
formed under the Knights of Labor; industrial union including all workers in the coal industry
Socialism
an economic theory advocating collective or governmental ownership of production of goods
Karl Marx
wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848; class struggle throughout time… make everyone equal; 1917-Bolshevik Revolution
Thomas Edison
invented the light bulb; founded first central power plant for electricity
communism
a totalitarian system of govt. in which a single authoritative party controls state owned means of production resulting in a final stage in which the state has withered away and economic goods are distributed equitably
George Pullman
the Pullman car was a sleeping car on trains
Samuel Gompers
organized American Federation of Labor in 1886; open to skilled workers only; AFL wanted higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions; supported strikes; most powerful union in nation in 1886- 1910
Samuel Morse
invented Morse Code
Knights of Labor
1869; at first this union was only open to skilled workers and meetings were held in secret because workers in unions were fired; 1879: chose Terence Powderly or pres and worked to strengthen union by opening it to immigrants, blacks, women and unskilled workers; goals were shorter work day, end to child labor, equal pay for men and women; Haymarket Riot… caused membership to drop
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
made the RRs the first industry subject to federal regulation; addressed problem of RR monopolies by setting guidelines for how the RRs could do business; outlaw pooling, RR rates must be published, rates must be reasonable and just, interstate commerce commission
National Labor Union
was started in 1866 by William Sylvis; 1872- faded out; imposed 8 hour work day
Henry Bessemer
invented mass production of steel
Populist Party
6 agenda items
o Wanted a free and unlimited silver
o Govt. ownership of the RR, telephone, and telegraph
o Advocated govt. ownership of RR land
o Graduated income tax (wealthy people pay more in taxes; poor people pay less)
o National warehouse system to store produce like grains and corn until market conditions improved
o To reform politics
Pacific Coast Immigration
Chinese immigration to the coast, they were extremely discriminated against
John D. Rockefeller
multimillionaire b/c of oil industry; when he was 23 he invested in oil refinery and used profits to buy other refineries and combined these into the Standard Oil Co.
The Jungle
Upton Sinclair; about horrid conditions in meat packing plants;Jurgis and Ona come to Chicago from Lithuania, have their
wedding in a bar in Chicago, have come to Chicago in search of a better life
in Packingtown which is a brutal and dirty working place and very difficult
to find a job. Shows family struggles of debt, death and hopelessness.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
gave constitutional power of congress regulate
interstate commerce, declared illegal every contract, restraint of
interstate and foreign trade
Monroe Doctrine
The US did not want to interfere with international
affairs.
Hawaii
Sandwich Islands; Queen Lilioukalani didn't want to be controlled by Americans; they wanted to grow sugar there; 50th state
Spanish- American War 1898
On April 25, 1898 the US declared war on Spain
after the sinking of the battle ship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15,
1898. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10,
1898. In the contents of the signing, Spain lost control over its overseas
empire (Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippine islands, Guam, and other Pacific
islands. Tensions between Spain and the Americas started in 1492 when Spain
sailed west into the western hemisphere. Over time, Spain slowly began to
lose its empires in the west (the US). Soon is only held on to the islands
in the Pacific and Caribbean. All of these individual islands began to
fight for their independence also. America also had a great influence with
these islands. America began to invest money into Cuba¡¦s sugarcane and
some of the other islands products. The Spanish did not like this US
involvement and influence. Tensions began to rise and eventually erupted
with an explosion in the U.S.S. Maine; which then led to war. On December
10, 1898, the peace treaty was signed and the war ended. The US lost about
3,000 lives and it costed them $250 million dollars.
Battleship Maine
On February 15, 1898, a mysterious explosion destroyed
the American battleship Maine in Havana Harbor and helped propel the United
States into a war with Spain.
Teddy Roosevelt
Rough Riders
USS Oregon and Panama Canal
The USS Oregon was called to help and by the time that it
traveled around South America the war had already ended
Seward's Folly
William H. Seward asked Congress for $7 million to
purchase Alaska from the Russians. He had a hard time getting Congress to
approve this sake and therefore the purchasing of Alaska is called
Open Door Policy
this recommended that all nations would have equal
trading and development rights in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Protectorate
A relationship of protection and partial control assumed by a superior power over a dependent country or region
Walter Reed
was an American doctor. He joined the army and became a
captain. He discovered great advanced with yellow fever and eventually
found that it came from mosquitoes.
Yellow Fever
An infectious tropical disease caused by an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, especially A. aegypti, and
Haemagogus and characterized by high fever, jaundice, and often
gastrointestinal hemorrhaging. Also called yellow jack.
Japan and China Open Door Policy
the western powers had power now to come in and equally trade and develop business in these areas
Commodore M. C. Perry Drago Doctrine
U.S. rejects claim that any
Europeans Nation has the right to use fore to collect debts from a Latin-
American country- Perry believed that it was not fair for the European
nations to collect debts from Latin- American counties. Perry believed that
in order for the Latin- American counties to re-start after the war they
needed to be pardoned from their major debts.
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
was riding in an open car in Sarajevo,
Bosnia with his wife. He was the heir to the Austrian thrown. A Serbian
nationalist was who assassinated him and his wife. (the nationalists did
not to be taken over and controlled by other countries)
Woodrow Wilson
1913- very smart, had a very hard time letting young
soldiers go over to war, 2 terms. Wanted peace and towards the end had a
hard time getting through to the public
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
A War to make the World Safe for Democracy
Wilson¡¦s War message-
this was one of Wilson's justifications for going to war. He had a hard
time letting the young men go to war. He wanted to have a good reason to
fight. He said that the US had a duty to fight to make the world safe for
democracy.
Zimmerman Notes
US relations with Mexico- A secret note intercepted by
the US in which Germany was asking for a secret alliance with Mexico against
the US and the Triple Entente. Bad for the US b/c they had fought against
Mexico just a few years prior to this.
Lusitania-
A passenger ship that was sunk by submarine warfare. Germans attacked May 7, 1915- 1198 killed total and 128 Americans killed
submarine warfare
the bombing of ships and vessels as they crossed the
ocean to bring supplies for the war. At first any ship could be bombed then
with the Sussex Pledge it was limited to only warships. But then Germany
ended that agreement ¡Vone cause of the US involvement in the war.
John J. Pershing
commander of the American Expeditionary Force; from Lincoln, NE
Wilson's 14 Points
1. modern war
2. open not secret diplomacy
3. freedom of seas
4.removal of tariffs and trade barriers
5. reduction of land weapons
6. end to colonization
7. liberation of small countries
and a league of nations
Treaty of Versailles
ended WWI
League of Nations
pre-United Nations; American never joined... led to its downfall