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171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Force Act
1832. passed by Jackson. This bill allows the US president to use the Army and the Navy to collect federal tariff duties.
Bank Panic of 1837
800 banks suspend business. businesses close. a lot of people lose their money. 1/3 of people are unemployed. lasts for 6 years.
Fugitive Slave Act
"the bloodhound bill". stirred up a storm of opposition in the North. the fleeing slaves could not tesitfy in their own behalf, and they were denied a jury trial.
Roger Williams
extreme separatist. says church and state shouldn't be together. nice to indians and believes you should pay them for their land. he establishes Rhode Island. colony has religious freedom.
Maryland Toleration Act
1649. act that says that anyone who believes in Jesus Christ will not be persecuted. guaranteed toleration to all christians.
Anne Hutchinson
banished from massachusetts. deeply religous. took idea of pre-destination too far. said that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey law of either God or man. known as antinomianism. was killed by indians.
Stono Rebellion
1739. in South Carolina. slaves trying to get out of South Carolina. trying to march to Spanish Florida but they are stopped.
Great Awakening
Presbyterians and Congretionalists split. weakened ties with church of england and weakened respect for british authority.
Causes of Salem Witch trials
personal grudges/scapegoating, regional divisions (town vs. village), class ($) farmer vs. merchant, economic problems, Puritan rigidity/piety, gender roles, age (women who lived alone), church membership decline, opposition to anything, superstition, hard times (diseases, indian attacks, politcal woes), adolescent attention seeding that may have come out of puritan repression, family association, anyone breaking puritan mold (free thinker, questioning authority, etc).
Glorious Revolution
turning point. makes britain tighten commercial control. dethrons catholic James II. enthroned protestant rulers of the netherlands, dutch-born William III and wife, Mary, daughter of James II.
Port Royal Experiment
1866-1868. took sea islands off coast of Charleston. give all free slaves 40 acres and a mule. perfect area to start reconstruction plan
Nathaniel Bacon
gets a seat on governors council. represents back country farmers. western farmers aren't being represented properly and need more protection from indians, kills 150 tribal members. he gets a seat in house of burgesses. torches jamestown.
"starving time"
The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
Kitchen cabinet
people who jackson met with and depended on. regular cabinet wrecked.
House of Burgesses
an assembly authorized by the London Company to the settlers. 1st representative assemly. established in 1619. People go and discuss problems. It isn't too successful.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
set forth in 1854, said that Kansas and Nebraska should come into the Union under popular sovereignty. Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduced it, and it pushed the country even closer the Civil War.
Proprietary Colony
colony controlled by an individual
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Missouri is a slave state. Maine is a free state. all territory above 36th parallel is free and everything below has slaves. creates a lot of sectionalism.
Royal Colony
under direct control of crown. owned by Kind/Queen
Charter colony
company that contracts with the crown
Half-way covenant
way to get more members of church in massachusetts. offers partial membership to church.
"salutary neglect"
period when navigation laws were only weakly enforced
Roger Taney
He was Chief Justice for the Dred Scott case. A decision was made on March 6, 1857. Roger Taney ruled against Dred Scott. Scott was suing for freedom because of his long residence in free territory. He was denied freedom because he was property and his owner could take him into any territory and legally hold him as a slave. This court ruling was major cause in starting the Civil War.
Raleigh organized a group of settlers who landed in 1585 on North Caolina's Roanoke Island, off the coast of Virginia. This colony mysteriously vanished.
Virginia Company
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: comfirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
The Impending Crisis of the South
A book written by Hinton Helper. Helper hated both slavery and blacks and used this book to try to prove that non-slave owning whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. The non-aristocrat from N.C. had to go to the North to find a publisher that would publish his book.
Bleeding Kansas
Kansas was being disputed for free or slave soil during 1854-1857, by popular sovereignty. In 1857, there were enough free-soilers to overrule the slave-soilers. So many people were feuding that disagreements eventually led to killing in Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces.
Monroe Doctrine
written by JQ Adams (secretary of state). thought most important thing was nationalism. non-colonization. non-intervention. no transfer of colonies. guarantees security. keeps europe off continent.
Freeport Doctrine
The Freeport Doctrine occurred in Freeport, Illinois during the debates of Lincoln and Douglas for senator. This was a question that Lincoln asked Douglas that made Douglas answer in such a way that the South would know that he was not truly supporting them.
Joseph Smith
reported to being visited by an angel and given golden plates in 1840; the plates, when deciphered, brought about the Church of Latter Day Saints and the Book of Mormon; he ran into opposition from Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri when he attempted to spread the Mormon beliefs; he was killed by those who opposed him.
Brigham Young
A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846. Under Young's management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons.
13th amendment
This Amendment was made to forbid slavery, making slavery and involuntary servitude both illegal. It could only be used as a punishment for crime. This Amendment was ratified in 1865, after the war was over. The South had to ratify it to be readmitted to the Union.
Peculiar Institution
Another term for slavery; The owning of human beings existed in a country that practiced liberty.
Denmark Vessey
bought a lottery ticket and bought his freedom. plans a revolt. tells slaves not to reveal plans to anyone who has received an old coat from their master- bc they are more likely to tell their masters. he is eventually hung.
Negroes Seamans Act
in reaction to denmark vessey's revolt. anytime a ship comes into charleston harbor, all salves will be put in jail until ships leave.
Free Soil Party
pushing for Wilmot Proviso
Seneca Falls 1848
convention to discuss women's rights. inspired by 1840 World Anti-Slvery Convention in London. Declaration of Sentiments- product of Seneca Falls. Lucretia Mott, Susan B Anthony- feminists.
Cult of Domesticity
widespread cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker.
Compromise of 1877
Hayes becomes president. troops leave the south. good for both north and south. blacks lose big time in this election. they aren't protected anymore.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
1896. separate but equal facilities are ok.
Booker T Washington and W.E.B. DuBois
major political theorists.
Grandfather clause
if grandfather couldn't vote, you couldn't vote.
Black Codes
laws designed to regulate the affairs fo the emancipated blacks. varied in severity from state to state. they aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. sought to restore as nearly as possible the pre-emanciaption system of race relations. forbade a black to serve on jury. a black could be punished for "idleness" by being sentenced to work on a chain gang. blacks couldn't vote.
Freedman's Bureau
govt agency during reconstruction that set up education and other things by Oliver Howard.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Dred Scott vs Sanford
dred scott, a black slave, had lived with his master for five years in illinois and wisconsin. backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. supreme court said he was not even allowed to sue in a federal court.
Jay Treaty
Jay promised Britain that the U.S. would pay the debts still owed to British merchants on preRevolutionary accounts.
Tallmadge Amendment
James Tallmadge says slavery should be prohibited. except as punishment for convicted crimes. children born in slave states should be free when they turn 21.
Maysville Road Veto
Jackson vetoed the bill to improve Maysville road using federal money- setback for internal improvements aspect of american system.
specie circular
1836. all federal land offices only accepted gold and silver for payment of land.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Floride Calhoun accused her of not finalizing her divorce before getting remarried.
Gag rule
controversy. stopped discussion of slavery in House of Reps and later in Senate.1836-1844. calhoun believed in it. adams was opposed to it.
group of people who lived in mainly Massachusetts, who wanted to purify from within
first successful English colony. chartered by King James I of England. John Smith was the leader who ruled with an iron fist. people went there and looked for gold but it was only iron pyrite. goal of jamestown settlers- commercial. trying to discover a passage through the orient.
Headright system
used in Maryland and Virginia. you received 50 acres per head in new world.
"Great Migration"
1630's. 17,000 refugees left England and went to Massachusetts and west indies (especially barbados).
Bacon's Rebellion
1676. back country farmers wanted representation. they felt the good land was taken. and they needed protection from the indians.
Church of England
Anglican Church
extreme Puritans. vowed to break away entirely from Church of England.
John Winthrop
he came to the bay colony. he was a well-to-do pillar of English society, who became the colony's 1st governor. he was a successful attorney and manor lord in england. believed he had a "calling" from god to lead the new religious experiment. governor for 19 years. "City upon a hill". he gets the charter for the land between boston and new hampshire- puritan headquarters.
Lord Baltimore
founded maryland in 1634. from a prominent english catholic family. maryland was a refuge for persecuted catholics. they were nice to the indians. he was given 1st proprietary grant.
last colony settled. settled by James Oglethorpe. colony for debtors.
Mayflower Compact
1620. 41 white males on board the ship said "we are the body politic and what we decide on this ship will go for the whole colony". nothing like this had ever been written before.
William Bradford
governor of Plymouth. elected 30 times (one yr terms). very religious. what he said went. helps save plymouth from disease, attacks, etc.
King Philip's War
1675&6. Indians went on a rampage in Massachusetts. the war slowed the westward march of english settlement in new england for several decades. the war inflicted a lasting defeat on new england's indians.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
1639. 1st time laws of colony were written. 1st written constitution.
Election of 1840
Whigs beat Democrats bt the comman man. whigs nominate william henry harrison. southern vote- get john tyler as running mate. "Tippe canoe and tyler too". harrison dies after one month in office. tyler- former democrat. he hates jackson. he vetoes bills that are part of henry clays american system. his cabinet resigns- except for webster.
William Penn
he is given pennsylvania on a proprietary grant. establishes it as a haven for quakers. doesn't want to pay taxes to church because some of that money goes to wars. quakers don't believe in fighting. (pacifists). he is nice to indians and doesn't believe in slavery. he advertised pennsylvania. its the holy experiment. quakers are known as the society of friends. they are very liberal.
Manifest Destiny
people believed that Almighty God had "manifestly" destined the American people for a hemispheric career. said they should go west.
Spot resolution
polk says mexico has invaded our territory and shed american blood on american soil. lincoln says- show me that spot.
Wilmot Proviso
prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the mexican war.
Industrial revolution
starts in cotton textiles
Great Triumverat
Clay (west), Calhoun (South), Webster (North).
mercantilist system
mother country gets rich from colonies. colonies give gold and silver to them. in return, the colonies get protection from england.
Triangular trade
travel in a triangle making profit at each leg.
Navigation Laws
everything colonies were going to trade had to trade through England. had to use British ships. in return- colonies got protection and goods. only way to sail on ship that wasn't British- trade with other colonies. said they were trading with other colonies and sailed to other countries.
these laws were enforced. put people on trial in Admiralty/military courts- which had no jury and you were guilty until proven innocent.
indentured servants
those who came to new world and couldn't pay the passage, they had to work it off for 4-7 years. white colonists. really poor.
French and Indian War
1754-1760. france vs. england for territory in america and eslewhere.
Albany Congress
1754. led by Franklin. wanted to achieve unity and support from indians. Franklin draws "join or die" poster. wants iroquios to join us and unite against the French.
Proclamation of 1763
forbidding settlement west of the rivers running through the appalachians. agitated colonial settlers. reshapes map of north america. kicks french out. brit has most of the control. spain loses florida for siding with french. britain says we can't settle west of app. mtns because it's for our own good. it's indian territory and they can't protect them. they actually want to keep us under their control and protect the fur trade. this is the end of salutary neglect.
William Lloyd Garrison
abolitionist. published first issue of his militantly antislavery newspaper the liberator.
Nat Turner
led revolt. bloodiest of all slave revolts. southampton country, virginia. in august 1831. a slave preacher. him and his followers killed 57 whites. during hunt for him and his band, nearly 100 blacks were killed.
John Brown
militant abolitionist.
"no taxation without representation"
James Otis
Tariff of 1828/Tariff of Abominations
splits jackson and calhoun. calhoun resigns. he leads fight for nullification of tariff of 1828. calhoun says it penalizes south carolina. says we shouldn't have to obey it. jackson threatens to send in troops to south carolina to force them to pay tariff.
George Grenville
prime minister. enforces navigation laws. britain is in huge debt after war and they think we should help them pay it off.
Sugar Act
increased duty on foreign sugar from west indies. reduced duties of colonial imports designed to generate revenue for british govt. import/external tax. created a monopoly.
Currency Act
british would issue currency. not colonies
Election of 1824
2nd time they had to toss election votes into the House to be decided. 4 candidates- crawford, adams, jackson, and calhoun. adams- leading contender. jackson- from tennessee. calhoun- secretary of war. calhoun and crawford drop out. henry clay rallies in support behind adams. clay becomes secretary of state. jackson thinks adams bribed clay to get him to win. jackson says its a "corrupt bargain".
Stamp Act
1765. 1st internal tax. (tax on goods within country). stamp needed on any printed material. tried to raise money to defend us. the most influential people were being hurt by this tax the most.
Sons of Liberty
formed in 1765. go after tax and customs collectors. tear down homes. trash offices. pegrum.
Stamp Act Congress
in NYC. 27 delegates from 9 colonies. draw up list of complaints. english ignore it. plants seeds for intercolonial unity. they are not calling for independence.
Boston Massacre
March 5,1770. mob pelted group of soldiers with rock filled snowballs. soldiers fired on crowd. killed 5.
Boston Tea Party
1773. dumped tea off ship. british shut down boston harbor. also suspended legislature in NY because they didn't follow the quartering act. they were especially angry about tea being taxed because it was widely consumed.
Quartering Act
colonists must provide shelter and food for british soldiers.
Webster/Hayne debates
huge debate over western land expansion in congress. new england against expansion. south sides with west against north east. their most pwerful orator- Robert Hayne. he condemns sell of western lands bc northerners were inconsistent and only looking out for their own interest. puts them down for tariff of abominations. Hayne- good at articulating minorty and states rights. against seccession. Webster- highly regarded. say people not states framed constitution. once states nullify federal laws=really bad. wouldn't have union if had state govt.
Townshend Acts
taxed goods imported directly from britain. taxed paper, glass, paint, and tea. money went to royal governor. colonists accused- tried in military courts.
Committee of Correspondence
1772. trade ideas and apprise each other of the political mood. worked to convince more citizens to take an active interest in conflict. these groups set up throughout colonies.
Intolerable/Coersive Acts
British can do wahtever thy want. tightened control.
Quebec Act
granted greater liberties to Catholics. extended boundaries of Quebec territory. good act, but at a bad time.
First Continental Congress
all colonies except Georgia send delegates. goals: to enumerate American grievances, to develop a strategy for addressing those grievances, and to formulate a colonial position on proper relationship between royal govt and colonial govts.
Lexington and Concord
1775. 2,000 minutemen. someone fired a shot which made british return fire. concord- "shot heard round world". war lasts for 14 months.
Second Continental Congress
in Philadelphia. all 13 colonies represented. desire to continue fighting in hope that king and parliament would consent to a redress of grievances. Washington selected as head of army besieging boston.
Olive Branch Petition
professing loyalty to crown and begging king to prevent further hostilities. we don't need to be independent. we can work things out. british bring in german mercenary soldiers (Hessians)- bad because don't have colonial patriotism.
Bunker Hill
1775. colonists seized a hill (breed/bunker). menaced enemy in boston. british attacked them.
loyal to crown. govt officials, devout anglicans, merchants dependent on trade with england, and many religious and ethnic minorities who feared persecution at hands of rebels.
Common Sense
1776. written by Thomas Paine. says people should be self-ruled. called for creation of new kind of political society (democratic republic). power came from people themselves, not from a corrupt and despotic monarch. all govt officials should derive their authority from popular consent.
Declaration of Independence
Richard Henry Lee says they should be free and independent states. he wrote 1st draft of it then Jefferson rewrites it. enumerates colonies' grievances against crown. articulates principle of individual liberty and govt's fundamental responsibility to serve people. with its signing, revolutionary war begins.
Battle of Saratoga
after this battle, france helps us
Abigail Adams
"remember the ladies". she pushed over a coffee merchant and stole tea because the loyalist merchant wouldn't give her tea.
Treaty of Paris
1783. ends revolutionary war. britain says we're independent. will remove troops from colonies. give florida to spain. we get new land.
Articles of Confederation
1777. 1st national constitution. had quite a few problems. most power went to states- not federal govt. no chief executive or national court system. legislature- one house. after battle of saratoga it was translated into french. want to show french that they could win and want support from them. france says yes.
Land Ordinance
1785. provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt. divided into townships six sq miles. each of which in turn was to be split into 36 sections of one sq mile each. 16th section set aside to public schools.
Northwest Ordinance
1787. temporary tutelage, then permanent equality. stages to become state: 1. territorial government. 2. when 5,000 voting age males have settled in territory- they could establish 2 house legislature and assembly would send one voting delegate to congress. 3. when 60,000 inhabitants in territory- can apply for statehood but needed constitution- provided public education, religous tolerance, and no slavery.
Constitutional Convention
1787. met to fix articles of confederation. constitution- called for bicameral legislature. anti-federalists- opposed consitution.
Shays' Rebellion
1787. army of 1500 farmers marched on boston to protest a number of unfair policies, both economic and political. these farmers were people who couldn't pay off their debt. Daniel Shays led them. taught lesson that need stronger central govt.
Great Compromise
larger states were conceded representation by population in the house of representatives and the smaller states were appeased by equal representation in senate. each state would have two senators. every tax bill or revenue measure must originate in house.
Macon's Bill No. 2
if either England of France repealed its commercial restrictions, america would restore nonimportation against the nonrepealing nation. U.S. would bribe the belligerents into respecting its rights.
Great Compromise
larger states were conceded representation by population in the House of Representatives and the smaller states were appeased by equal representation in the Senate. each state, no matter how poor or small, would have two senators. the big states would have to beat the major burden of taxation. delegates agreed that every tax bill or revenue measure must originate in the House, where the population counted more heavily.
Federalist Papers
1787&8. written by John Jay (federalist), Hamilton (federalist), and Madison (republican). articles to convinces people to ratify constitution. widely read. they say that we need a strong federal govt. 9 states ratify it. 4 dont until the bill of rights is added.
loose construction
believed that what the constitution did not state, it allowed. elastic clause.
strict construction
believe that what the constitution did not state, it forbade.
What did Washington warn against in his farewell address?
warned against foreign entanglements and political parties.
Judiciary Act of 1789
organized Supreme Court with a chief justice and five associates, as well as federal district and circuit courts, and established the office of attorney general.
Whiskey Rebellion
1794. flared up in southwestern pennsylvania. sharply challenged the new national govt. hamilton's high excise tax bore harshly on these homespun pioneer folk. they regarded it not as a tax on frivolous luxury but as a burden on an economic necessity and a medium of exchange. they tarred and feathered revenue officers and brought collections to a halt.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Naturalization Act: 5 to 14 years to become a citizen.
Alien Act: pres could deport anyone in country at risk.
Enemy Alien Act: legislative branch could deport or imprison anyone who is from the country we are at war with.
Sedition Act: people couldn't write or speak badly about pres, congress, or govt. 10 men convicted. all worked for republican newspaper.
Citizen Genet affair
French republican edmond genet. landed at charleston, south carolina. came to take advantage of the existing Franco-American alliance. he believed that the neutrality proclamation did not reflect the true wishes of the american people and he consequently embarked upon unneutral activity not authorized by the french alliance.
XYZ affair
the french spokesmen demanded an unneutral loan of 32 million florins plus what amounted to a bribe of $250,000 for the privilege of merely talking with talleyrand. terms were intolerable. slogan- "millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute".
Revolution of 1800
election of 1800. switch of political parties. new politcal party came to power without bloodshed. federalists thought that with jefferson as pres it would be a national catastrophe. but jefferson keeps most of the hamilton plan.
Edward Gallatin
Jefferson's secretary of state.
Virgina and Kentucky Resolutions
written in response to alien and sedition acts. made alien and sedition acts unconstitutional. states dont have to abide by it if govt oversteps its bounds=nullification. written by madison and jefferson. state has right to nullify/make void/cancel out a federal law.
Compact Theory
federal govt acts as an instrument of the states. states have more power. states rights.
Midnight Judges
the night before adams left office, he appts justices to the court to keep some federalists in the court. john marshall was one of these judges.
Marbury vs. Madison
1803. showed supreme court had power to decide if things were constitutional. judicial review. gives them a lot of power.
Hartford Convention
group of federalists who dont want to go to war and talk about joining british and seceeding from union.
Dartmouth vs. Woodward
1819. dartmouth established in 1769 in contract with britain. 1816- state legislature of new hampshire took over dartmouth college. board of directors of dartmouth sues to regain control. supreme court rules that dartmouth charter of 1769 was protected by the constitution and couldnt be altered by the state. daniel webster hired by dartmouth wins the case and during is climactic concluding remarks uttered his famous plea for school stating: "it is sir, as i have said, a small college. and yet there are those who love it."
Treaty of Ghent
signed on Christmas Eve in 1814. was an armistice. both sides simply agreed to stop fighting and to restore conquered territory. no mention was made of those grievances for which america had ostensibly fought: the indian menace, search and seizure, orders in council, impressment, and confiscations. "not one inch of territory ceded or lost"
Worcester vs. Georgia and Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
1832 and 1831. both cases concern georgia pushing the cherokee indians westward. marshall rules in favor of sovereign state of cherokee nation. court rules that georgia has no force within territorial boundaries of cherokee nation. pres jackson sides with georgia and against supreme court.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were "honorable and peaceful".
Lousiana Purchase
1803. lousiana belonged to spain but then france got it. jefferson tells livingston to go and buy new orleans for $10 million. napoleon offers livingston $15 millino for louisiana territory- would double the size of the united states. congress wants to buy it. we buy it. lewis and clark sent to see what is out there. jefferson starts acting like a loose constructionist.
forcible enlistment of sailors. 1807. leopard- british ship, crosses chesapeake- american. british trying to go on chesapeake. british say some men on chesapeake were british soldiers. wanted them back on british side. huge reason for war in 1812.
Orders of Council
issued by london govt in 1806. these edicts closed the ports under french continental control to foreign shipping unless the vessels first stopped at a british port.
Embargo Act
1807. peaceful coersion. stops export of all american goods.
Non-intercourse Act
reopened trade with all nations of the world, except England and France.
Rush Bagot Agreement
limits number of war ships on great lakes
Era of good feelings
not at war. solid politically. slavery not a big issue yet, indians no longer threat, and have laws that have strengthened govt.
Virtual representation
Theory that claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even those Americans in Boston or Charleston who had never voted for a member of the London Parliament.
Middle Colonies
aka bread colonies. compromise between religious beliefs and money. most diverse and easiest to settle. in south- not too many jobs.
Paxton boys
western pennsylvania. 1764. thought quakers in church were being too easy on indians. they needed more protection.
Regulators uprising
1768-1771. in North Carolina. attacks on Eastern settlement.
governor. sets up dominion of new england. colonies don't like this. tells people that the colonists will abide by what they tell them. troops will be put in to make sure people follow orders.
"give me liberty or give me death"
Patrick Henry during a speech at the House of Burgesses.
want to wait for Bill of Rights to be passed before ratify consitution. wants states to have more power than federal govt. strict construction. Jefferson, Burr, Madison. favored france. common men favored (farmers). strong hold in south.
for ratification of the constitution. want the federal govt to be more powerful. loose construction. Hamilton, Adams, Washington. favored britain. "rich and well borns" favored (merchants, industrialists). strong hold in north.
Pickney's Treaty
1795. with Spain. granted americans virtually everything they demanded including free navigation of mississippi and large disputed territory north of florida.
Major reasons for going to war with england in 1812
1.) afraid getting too close to france. 2.) impressment. 3.)indians are being fortified by british against land hungry americans. 4.) want land in canada. 5.) we want to prove ourselves.
American System
written by henry clay. 1.) protective tariffs. 2.) revival of national bank. 3.) internal improvements.
American Colonization Society
set up colony for black people to return to in africa- monrovia, liberia. done to solve problem of slave insurrection by shipping them back to africa.
American Anti-Slave Society
abolition group who sent 187 petitions to Congress.
Reconstruction Amendments
13) abolishes slavery. 14) guarantees citizenship rights to freedmen. 15) gives black men the right to vote.
states must ratify these amendments before they could come back into the Union.
Wade Davis Bill
instead of 10% oath of loyalty to come back to Union, it changes to 50% before they are readmitted. slavery needs to be abolished. southerners aren't represented in govt. confederate leaders couldn't be in office.
John Rolfe
an Englishman who became a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia. He is best known as the man who married the Native American, Pocahontas, and took her to his homeland of England. Rolfe was also the savior of the Virginia colony by perfecting the tobacco industry in North America. Rolfe died in 1622, during one of many Indian attacks on the colony.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
1819. principle of implied powers. decision to uphold the constitutionality of the bank of the u.s., citing the "necessary and proper" clause. ruled the bank was necessary to fulfill govt's duties to tax, borrow, and coin money. broadened powers of congress to include implied powers. court rules that the act of congress creating the bank was constituional. states cannot tax a federal insitution and furthermore, marshall said, "the power to tax is the power to destroy".
British customs boat that british sent over to stop smuggling. colonists jump on board and set it on fire.
"Liberty and union- now and forever, one and inseparable"
Joint-stock company
known as Virginia Company of London. got a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in New World.
Peter Zenger case
1734-1735. he was the editor of a newspaper. he wrote something against the royal governor. people argued that he couldn't say stuff like that. freedom of press. you can't convict someone because of their opinion.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
1824. gave federal govt power of interstate commerce. congress has power to regulate interstate commerce over states rights. new york gave ogden exclusive permit to carry steamboat passengers on hudson river. federal govt gave coasting license to gibbons for smae route. ogden sues gibbons in NY court and wins. gibbons appeals to supreme court and gibbons wins citing federal govt power to regulate interstate commerce.
Powhatan Confederacy
Powhatan's supremacy. he was an indian chieftain that wanted to execute John Smith. he dominated native people in James River area.
Ostend Manifesto
Thtook place in 1854. A group of southerners met with Spanish officials in Belgium to attempt to get more slave territory. They felt this would balance out congress. They tried to buy Cuba but the Spanish would not sell it. Southerners wanted to take it by force and the northerners were outraged by this thought.
slavery comes to America.
House of Burgesses established- 1st representative assemly in New World. people go and discuss problems.