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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vasco Da Gama
portugese mariner, went to India to trade, opened door to maritime trade between Europe and Asia
pepper, ginger, cinnamon, rubies, gold, cotton
the items avaible in India for trade
Da Gama's problem with trade
indian people did not want or need anything he had to offer them
African gold, ivory and slaves
metals important b/c they were primary form of payment for asian goods;
slaves needed for plantation owners
missionary religion
xtians wanted to spread their religion throughout the world b/c the new testament told them to do so
Reconquista in Spain
wiped out after xtians waged wars and crusaded to make people convert to xtianity
Prince Henry the navigator
Don Enrique; tried to navigate to convert people or xtianity, gain intelligence, get gold, and make alliances w/ xtian rulers
sturdy ships
needed to sail on the ocean to prevent drowning; built in rudder to better control the ships
invented by the chinese and used first by Arabs then by xtians; used to steer and control ships
square sails
only took advantage of wind from behind... so ship only could travel in direction of the wind
lateen sails
triangular, caught wind from the side, made it possible to steer
compasses and astrolobes
astrolobes - latitude

compasses - heading
problem of measuring longitude
need to be able to measure time exactly and they could not do so back then
volta do mar
"return through the sea", when one sails off course until the winds blow in the direction of your target
when columbus reached the islands of America, he thought that the inhabitants were indians of asia
spanish military commander in 1573, found the pacific ocean when searching for gold in Panama
portugese navigator, led reconaissance of the pac. ocean in 1519-1522, tried to pursue columbuses attempts to establish a west. route to eurasia
one ship and 18 men
the only crewmembers of the original 280 men and 5 ships to return through the pacific ocean route (the rest returned through the indian ocean
northwest passage
european explorers were searching for a northern passage between europe and asia; it exists but is so far north that most times ice clogs up the water.
James Cook
led 3 expeditions to the pac. ocean; charted east. Australia, New Zealand, and tropical islands; at end of his voyages, europeans had charted most of the water in the world
smallpox, measles, diptheria, whooping cough, influenza
diseases that brought huge losses to people of America and the Pacific Islands; came from the eastern hemisphere
prevalent in a certain area, region, lacality, or people
wheat and vines
traded from europe to america; and became local to the americas also
cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and chickens
transformed grass and wheat into forms digestible by humans suah as milk and meat
potatoes, beans, tomatoes, peppers
took root in Africa; also grew in america; America used these items to trade for other products
enslavement of Africans
traded for textiles, guns and other manufactured goods; worked on plantations in west. hemisphere
manilla galleons
sleek, fast, heavily armed, capable of carrying large quantities of cargo; took goods between mexico, asia and europe
global trade
arose from european efforts to explore and chart the world's waterways
deadly illness
many of magellans men died from it
voyages of columbus
thought he had reached Asia and never actually made it to asia
he discovered Americas in the process by accident
unified land mass of Africa, Asia and Europe
temperate zone
north of the equator
where most people live
disorder, insecurity, violence
cowardcie of men medieval times; people flew to nunneries and monasteries to escape the devil
Last Judgement
the balance between tribulation and hope the softens bereavement, balance tribulation, and inspire significance in human existence
portrayal of the devil
'devil bound to burning gridiron by red-hot chains, his screams of agony never ended, his hands reached out and seized the damned and crushed them with his teeth"
holy water and the cross
thought to ward off the devil, xtian beliefs in religious practice
xtian took in answers given to them by church w/out question b/c they were worried they might lose confidence in their faith
"pple ruled by a power greater than knowledge"
pple believed that god should not be questioned b/c he will bring one salvation no matter what their fault
the judgement of god
pple thought about whether god was good or evil and wondered why he allowed this Black Death to occur
rats and fleas
fleas and rats infested the towns with the black plague
role of the church during the Black Death
pple turned to church but most of the clergy fled to save themselves;
the pple lost faith in the church and church lost contact w/ the pple
Dance of Death
the way in which artists were influenced by the Black Death
attacks against the jews
Wat Tyler
led a pesant rebellion to raise their wages and rights
Impact of Black Death
economy suffered, church lost contact w/ pple, death of hundreds of thousands, divisionof pple, uprisings by peasants, anti-semitic views
transplant from Africa
impact of diseases on the Aztecs
declined by 95% due to epidemic smallpox
Spanish took over Mexico
fear of hell
xtians believed that on Last Judgement they would be:
doomed by hell, or saved by eternal bliss of heaven
disasters blamed on the devil
500 BC
Middle Ages, Fall Of Rome

fear of barbarians, frequent wars, lawlessness
cities in decline, pop. loss
decline in trade
1000 BC
end of barbarian invasions
romanesque style
1095 BC
crusades- europeans trying to get holy land from muslims...failed to do so

order as opposed to lawlessness
1194 BC
building of Chartres Cathedral

no more fear of barbarians
economic improvement, stability, trade
1347-1351 BC
Black Death

plague spread across Europe, 1/3 died, pogroms began
economic instability, peasant rebellions
church lost devotees
vast plain with no trees
Chingghis Khan
created largest Mongol Empire ever
known as the universal leader
"a willingness to betray allies or superiors to improve one's positions"
the art of steppe diplomacy
supported by Chingghis Khan
importance of army to mongols
magnified their power
Great Person Theory
theory that one person can change the path of history
equestran skills of mongols
hunted to increase skills, had great training on horseback for war
psychological warfare
live = surrender w/out resistence

die = resistence of any kind

sometimes wiped out whole cities
mongol conquest of N. China
prevented any attacks by other nomads
mongol conquest of Persia
laid foundation for empire
killed the shah and thousands of people
4 regional empires
Golden Hordes
dominated russia after Chingghis Khan's death
Khubilai Khan
grandson of Chingghis
built roads and presided over empire at its height
Marco Polo
famous Venetian Traveler

lived 2 decades at Khubilai's court
praised Khubilai's generosity
divine winds; japanese thanked the kamikaze for sparing their nation from conqueest by the mongols
mongol view of religion
tolerated all religion,
at one pt they massacred xtains and jews
belief in meditation being affcted by Shamas
long distance trade (mongol empire)
not risky b/c Khans allowed safe passage through their empire
highways for missionaries
routes in afrasia allowed turkish to popularize islam
Pax Mongolia
200 yr peace from mongol rule

promoted trade and prosperity
the lion prince

founder of the mali empire in the 13th century
African singers and storytellers
african harbors
not many harbors because the majority of Africa is Desert
African singers and storytellers
impact of cataracts on trade
complicated travel on the continent's major rivers
Bantu migrations
settled south of the equator

societies built on foundation of of small communities of migrants
yams, sorghum, millet
dietary staples of s. african pple
entered Africa through sea lanes

nutritious, allowed pple to move, provided a lot of food
stateless societies
when the Bantus governed themselves through kinship groups
governing by family/ kinship groups
men were head of family and decided the pubil affairs for the entire family
leadership by powerful chiefs (in Bantu times)
chiefs led more than one village/
kinship group

overrode the kinship groups
shells that were used as money by the Bantu people
when something is dried or drained of water
gold trade and ghana
gold found in ghana; gold was in demand; ghana becane important; gold taxed to enrich ghana and its kings
muslim judge
Mansa Musa
was ruler at the high point of the empire

muslim, mali declined after his rule
private property
private - house and household items

communal - land
role of women in africa
highly honored as bringers of life
Pope Leo

pope at time of protestant revolution

raised money to build greatest church (st. peters cathedral)

excommunicated Luther