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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Election of 1912
-Taft (rep.): hand chosen by roosevelt, but was not doing things his way
-debs (soc.) wanted public ownership
-wilson (dem.): conservative, moderate progressive, thought big corps should be punished
-Roosevelt (prog./bull-moose):relationship b/t bit corops and american govt.

-Wilson=anti-corp. and TR=pro-corp.

-Wilson won
Radical Republicans
-bent on stern peace and the rights of freedmen
-liked stern treatment of cofederate leaders
-in 1866 congressional elections put a 3:1 rep. majority in conress
-centered around radical
-believed that reconstruction was concerned with remaking southern society
-wanted southern society competely changed as well as the union to be reunited during the reconstruciton
-wanted plantations broken into small farms
-wanted blacks to have civil and political rights -- right to vote
-grant was rep. reps. and replaced by hayes
-eventually lost its power and was accused of
-Opposed Abe Lincoln and pursued impeachment of Andrew Johnson
-Helped establish the 14th Amendment with the Moderate Republicans
-Party fell apart with election of President Rutherford B. Hayes
Members: Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, John C. Fremont, Ulysses S. Grant
Thirteenth Amendment
Abolished Slavery
Presidential election of 1876
-Hayes (rep.) vs. Tilden (dem.)
-tilden led in popular vote, but rep. govt. accused dem. govt. of intimdiation and fraud since it was their machinery
-ended up being 2 sets of votes for FL, SC, and LA
-1877 congress put together an electoral commission to settle it (7 rep. 7. dem., Joeseph B. Bradley (deciding member)
-dem. stalled final count, but hayes won and was still inagugerated
-As a compromise, the Republicans agreed to withdrawal troops from the South, ending reconstruction.
-Another result, the compromise of 1877 pushed Black's out of political power by allowing southerners to place poll taxes and literacy tests.
Fourteenth Amendment
Citizenship for Blacks and equal protection under the law.
Transcontinental Railroad
-help to connect pacific territories to the rest of the country
-north and south fought over where terminus should be
-fed. govt. awarded land grants and millions of dollars to the companies building it
-union pacific built westward from Omaha
-central pacific built eastward from Sacramento
-rr finally met at Promontory, UT and was joined by a golden spike
-economy improved in 1878 and more track was built
-brought opportunity to the west
-much of labor used was Chinese immigrants
-1756 miles long
Fifteenth Amendment
Voting Rights act.
Wounded Knee
-last tragic episode of the plains Dakota Sioux
-occurred at wounded knee, SD
-4 Hotchkiss Guns and 500 troops from the 7th Cavalry surrounded the tribe.
-soldiers attempted to disarm the sioux and a fight broke out
-300 Sioux died and 25 americans died (American casualties due to "Friendly Fire")
-marked the end of the war against the plains indians
jus soli
Citizenship through place of birth
Frederick Taylor
-believed that the engineers appraoch should be taken when managing workers
-Enforced Standardization, Adaptation, and Cooperation
-invented scientific management
-engineers would do time and motion studies to see who worked the fastest
-the faster a person worked, the more they got paid
-scientific management itself was not a huge success, but it changed the face of management
-Le Chatelier introduced Taylor's work in France.
Panama Canal
US lent assistance to Panama during their fight for independence, which led them to be able to get a strip of land that they needed to build the canal; opened in 1914to give the US a commanding strategic position.
jus sanguinis
Citizenship through parental lineage
Pullman Strike
-georga w pullman lowered his employees salaries but not their rents
-workers belonged to the american railway union
-members were urged not use pullman's sleeping cars
-had a negative effect on postal service b/c his sleeping cars were always attatched to mail cars
-eventually leads of the strike, including debs, were jailed and the strike ended
-a generic term in U.S. politics for politics which appeals to the common person in opposition to established interests.
-flourished particularly among western farmers
-opposition to the gold standard.
-"The world can get better if we take intelligent action"
-"An orderly society is a good society"
-Started with Progressive Party of 1912, led by Teddy Roosevelt.
-Ex. Father Coughlin, Teddy Roosevelt, "Share Our Wealth" by Huey Long
Dawes Act
-indians became US citizens
-tribal govts. established
-communal lands partitioned
-indian lands sold to finance indian boarding schools
Indian reorganization act
Indian new deal; reversed that Dawes Act of 1887; promoted more self govt. through tribes; promoted cultural pluralism rather than assimilation; the main problem was that it tried to treat all tribes as identical when they were not; it really helped some tribes while it hurt others
Jane Addams
-believed that uplifting would make her feel uplifted
-helped to establish the hull house
-also led battles for garbage removal, playgrounds, better street lights, and police protection
-believed that women should stand for peace
-First woman to receive Nobel Peace Prize
-Member of NAACP
Chinese Exclusion Act
Immigration from China
mainly men
gold rush in CA
came to work on RRs
originally they did not need to be citizens to come in or citizens to stay
-Economic depression in US
-Workingman's party of CA: basic goal ad opinion was "get the chinese out"
-made up of primarily irish
prohibited chinese from entering the U for 10 yrs.
no naturalization for chinese already here
if Chinese returned to china, they could not come back the US
first immigration restriction placed on a certain group
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Ameria's leading naval strategist
believed that control of the sea was a key to imperial power
advocated builing a canal across central america
wanted to colonize strategic naval points
proposed a battle ship fleet capable of striking and enemy far from shore
Helped prompt naval build-up before the war.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Established separate but equal
Open-Door Policy
is a concept in foreign affairs stating that, in principle, all nations should have equal commercial and industrial trade rights in China
Elk v. Wilkins
despite jus soli, indians still are not citizens
-big business
-corrupt govt.
-social problems
-big business
-big labor
Zimmerman telegram
-wanted Mexico to join the central powers of the war
-in return germany promised to help mexico regain the terriory that it had lost to america
-this info. was leaked via. telegram
Bay of Pigs
-after landing at Cuba's bay of pigs on April 17 the tiny force of 1400 men was crushed by Castro's troops
-after this, US-Soviet relations weakened even more
-after the failed invasion, the Kennedy administration increased economic pressure for Cuba to overthrow Castro
the Great Migration
-1915-1920: african american leave the south
-after 1920: millions more
-sharecroppers go to industrial north
-some middle class went west
-largest movement of blacks in history
Major Significance
-black life shifts from farms to cities
-black political power rose
-major cultural developmentin the Harlem Rennasance
-social freedom
-the vote
-white backlash
-ghetto formation
Marshall Plan
provide economic support as well as military aide to Europe; believed it would help the Us to forestall severe economic dislocation; required that foreign aide dollar be spend on US goods and services; thought that a stronger west german economy would provide a good market for US goods;did not specifically exclude eastern Europe or the soviet untion, but required that all participating nations exhange economic info. and work towards eliminating tariffs and trade barriers; accleterated American and European efforts to rebuild wesetern germany;
Event that caused support for Marshal Plan
a coup in Czechoslovakia in 1948
Taft-Hartley Act, 1947
A rollback of the national labor relations act; unions disliked section 14b which outlawed closed shop and allowed states to pass right to work laws that further limited unions operations; by prohibiting the use of their dues for political activity and alloed the presdisent to declare an 80 day cooling off period; in strikes that had national impact; Truman vetoed it and overrode it; northern liberals wanted it repealed
House committee on Un-American Activites
alleged Facist and Communist influence in labor unions and new deal agencies; gained heightened visability after the war, especiallyafter revelations in 1946 of a soviet spy ring operating in Canada accentuated US fears of soviet subversion; help to spark the great fea by holding widely publicized hearings on alleged communist infiltration in the film industry; “Hollywood 10” people were blacklisted because of this so they could nt get work or they were put in jail; alger hiss case.
Atlantic Charter
-created by roosevelt and churchill
-conferrd secretly to discuss military strategy known as atlantic charter
-provided ideological foundation of the western economic and of the peave to follow
-called for economic collaboration for gauranteed political stability after war
-supported free trade, national self-determination, and the principle of collective security
was a Nixon White House fundraising organization. This organization was found to have employed money laundering and slush funds. It was also involved in the Watergate Scandal
Phyllis Schafly
is an American conservative political activist known for her best-selling 1964 book A Choice, Not An Echo and her opposition to feminism (see antifeminism) in general and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) in particular.
-froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels
-Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
Betty Friedan
was an American feminist, activist and writer, best known for starting what is commonly known as the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book The Feminine Mystique.
The Iran hostage crisis
a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States that was triggered by a group of militant university students who took over the American diplomatic mission in Tehran, Iran on November 4, 1979. The students were supported by Iran's post-revolutionary regime that was in the midst of solidifying power. The students objected to U.S. influence in Iran and its support of the recently fallen Shah of Iran, who was in the US for cancer treatment.
New Deal
-to repair economy
-provide immediate relief
-save capitalism by reforming it

2nd New Deal: Key programs
-social security: old age pension and unemployment insurance
-wagner act: strong protection for unions; natl. labor relations board
sought to apply the principles of nonviolence as a tactic against segregation.
Sponsored most "Freedom Rides."
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
1973 oil crisis
as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, OPEC would no longer ship petroleum to nations that had supported Israel in its conflict with Syria and Egypt
SCLC (Tactics)
Since its establishment, SCLC has been committed to the use of nonviolent civil disobedience as a means of securing equal rights for African Americans.
SCLC (Events)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
“Reagan Democrats”
an American political term used by political analysts to denote traditionally Democratic voters, especially white working-class Northerners, who defected from their party to support Republican President Ronald Reagan in both the 1980 and 1984 elections.
Non-violent organization played a leading role in the Freedom Rides, the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, also coordinated sit-ins
headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the separate but equal doctrine
Clinton’s impeachment
Charges were for perjury and obstruction of justice. The perjury charge arose from Clinton's testimony about his relationship to Monica Lewinsky during a sexual harassment lawsuit.
The obstruction charge was based on his actions during the subsequent investigation of that testimony.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
was one of the main leaders of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, a Baptist minister, and is regarded as one of America's greatest orators.
Leader of SCLC.
King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Malcom X
one of the most prominent black nationalist leaders in the United States. As a militant leader, Malcolm X advocated black pride, black power, economic self-reliance,
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Planned by Edgar Nixon and led by MLK,jr.
Lasted 382 days
Supreme court ultimately outlawed racial segregation on public transport
Lyndon B Johnson
VP for JFK and succeeded JFK as president after JFK was assassinated.
he escalated the American involvement in the Vietnam War, from 16,000 American soldiers in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968.
Established his "Great Society"
LBJs "Great Society"
a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United States on the initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969). Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice.
Federal Aid to Education because he thought it would cure ignorance and poverty
War on Poverty - Lowered taxes and created Economic Opportunity Act
Medicare and Medicaid added to Social Security Act
Other activities included Urban Renewal and the Space Race (NASAs successful moon orbit)
National Organization for Women
promoted the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The organization's membership is not limited to women, and has included many men who support its goals
Founded by Betty Friedan
A process of transferring combat roles to the South Vietnamese military.
the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it was to stop what it called the domino effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based communism, rather than European-American-based capitalism
Gulf of Tonkin
In August of 1964, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson claimed that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. Although there was a first attack (in response to U.S. equipped and orchestrated South Vietnam's commando raids on the coast [1]), claims of a second attack were later proven to be unfounded. Known today as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, this led to the open involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War, with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
"Southern Strategy"
refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states
the Great Society
a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United States on the initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969). Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice.
Executive Order 8802
prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry
Wagner Act
a 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
John Maynard Keynes
Huge deficit spending economist.
"In the long run we're all dead"
Dwight Eisenhower
the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe,
Eisenhower Doctrine
After the Suez Crisis, the United States became the protector of most Western interests in the Middle East. As a result, U.S. would be "prepared to use armed force...[to counter] aggression from any country controlled by international communism."
Barry Goldwater
He is the American politician most often credited for sparking the resurgence of the American conservative political movement in the 1960s.
New Federalism
refers to the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government to the U.S. states. The primary objective of New Federalism is the restoration to the states of some of the autonomy and power which they lost to the federal government as a consequence of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.
George McGovern
lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon.

most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. He is currently serving as the United Nations global ambassador on hunger.
Gerald Ford
Pardoned Nixon, Lost to Jimmy Carter, Powerless President
Ayatollah Khomeini
-Supreme Leader of Iran—the paramount symbolic political figure of the new Islamic Republic.
-Stagnant economy paired with inflation.
-Occured during the Carter Admin.
Supply-side economics
is a school of macroeconomic thought that argues that economic growth can be most effectively managed using incentives for people to produce (supply) goods and services, such as adjusting income tax and capital gains tax rates. This can be contrasted with the classic Keynesian economics or demand side economics, which argues that growth can be most effectively managed by controlling total demand for goods and services, typically by adjusting the level of Government spending. Supply-side economics is often conflated with trickle-down economics.
The Heritage Foundation
an influential conservative think tank.
"Contract with America"
detailed the actions the Republicans promised to take if they became the majority party
Mikhail Gorbachev
the last leader of the Soviet Union, serving from 1985 until its collapse in 1991. His attempts at reform helped end the Cold War, and also ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and dissolved the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.
a political movement that emerged as a rejection of liberalism and the New Left counter-culture of the 1960s.
The New Right
a conservative political movement that coalesced through grassroots organizing in the years preceding the 1964 presidential campaign of Barry Goldwater.
A lessening of arms build up because the economic burden of the nuclear arms race was unsustainable. The American economy was also in financial trouble as the Vietnam War drained government finances at the same time as Lyndon Johnson
Henry Kissinger
Secretary of State in the Nixon and Ford administrations. Pioneered Détente.
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader
led the Việt Minh independence movement
Founded the Democratic Republic of China
Ngo Dinh Diem
Diem proclaimed the formation of the Republic of Vietnam, naming himself President
Cancelled elections in South Vietnam against the Geneva Accords of 56.
Was assassinated by US government under the ambassador, Henry Cabot Lodge
CREEP was actually officially designated CRP and stands for the Committee to Reelect the President (President Nixon). In the Watergate Scandal, one of the five men arrested and convicted of burglarizing the Democratic headquarters in the Watergate Hotel (James W. McCord, Jr.) was Chief of Security for CRP. It was later found out that McCord received payments from CREEP.
Social Conservatism
refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or one's community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT 1)
froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.
Jimmy Carter
Created Department of Energy to fight the Energy crises and created the Department of Education
Created an Energy Policy
Last year of his term was dominated by Iran Hostage Crisis.
conservative egalitarianism
says that unequal individual outcomes are legitimate insofar as equal opportunities were provided
Iran-Contra Affair
a political scandal occurring in 1987 during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an a vowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua.
Theodore Roosevelt
leader of the Republican Party and of the Progressive Movement, as well as being the youngest President in United States history, at age 42
Attacked big business but supported labor unions
Square Deal
promised a fair shake for both the average citizen, including regulation of railroad rates and pure foods and drugs, and the businessmen
Woodrow Wilson
President during WWI.
Wrote his 14 points which emerged as the League of Nations
Supported Committee on Public Information (Headed by George Creel) which distributed anti-German propganda
Started with assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. US entered when Germany would not withdrawal from submarine warfare. US entered in order to preserve Democracy.

Ended with German surrender.
Started when Germany invaded Poland in late 1939 and France and the United Kingdom declared war.
Hitler and the Holocaust
U.S. supplied arms until the entered the war. They then fought both the European and Asian fronts. First war to utilize the Atomic Bomb. Ended with the bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima and the separation of Germany and the Nazi party.
Democratic Republic of Vietnam was opposed by the US-supported Republic of Vietnam.
U.S. forces were soon embroiled in a guerrilla war with the Viet Cong, the insurgents who were indigenous to South Vietnam.
The Viet Cong tried to invade the North during the Tet Offensive, but failed.
Overall failure and huge US losses.
Richard Nixon
Introduced Vietnamization
Behind Watergate Scandal
Only President to ever have Resigned
Reduction in the tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and a thawing of the Cold War
Ronald Reagan
Once a New Deal Democrat, Reagan switched parties and became a Republican
saw a number of scandals, most notably the Iran-Contra Affair
Reagan instituted his policy of "peace through strength" in an arms race with the Soviet Union. He rejected détente and confronted Communism
Bill Clinton
High approval ratings
Faced impeachment after affair with Monica
a 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. by members of President Richard Nixon's administration and the resulting cover-up which led to the resignation of the President
Truman Doctrine
It stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere. Historians often use it to mark the starting date of the Cold War.
Committee on Public Information
(Headed by George Creel)
was intended to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American intervention in World War I
Example of Pump Priming
Reconstruction Finance Corporation