• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who believed the sun not the earth is the center of our galaxy. in 1543 he wrote on the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.
Galileo
Italian scientist who came up with the idea of the Experimental Method, and the Law of Inertia. Refined the telescope.
Newton
Englishman who wrote Principia Mathematica in 1687. He also invented the Law of Universal Gravitation.
Enlightenment
The intellectual movement of the 18th century that introduced a new worldview based on the use of reason, the scientific method, and progress.
John Locke
Englishman who believed that all ideas derive from experiences. The senses are also key. Coined the phrase "Tabula Rasa." Founder of Empiricism.
Voltairre
French Philosopher of the 18th century who advocated for civil liberties like freedom of religion and free trade. He wrote over 2000 essays attacking the French government and the Catholic church.
Rossou
A Swiss philosopher who believed that civilization corrupts humans. he believed humans need to trust their inner child. He also advocated for educational reforms.
Rene de cart
A French Rationalist who is credited with being the Father of Modern Philosophy. Believed in Deductive Reasoning. He said "I think, therefore I am."
Frederick the Great
Leader of Prussia in the late 18th century. He was obsessed with improving the military in his country. He allowed limited social reforms.
Catherine the Great
Ruler of Russia from 1762-1796. She introduced limited social reforms, but stopped reforms after Pugachev's rebellion
Protectorate
The English military dictatorship of 1653-1658, established by Oliver Cromwell following the execution of Charles I.
Puritans
Members of a 16th and 17th century reform movement within the Church of England that advocated purifying it of Catholic elements, such as having bishops and exchanging wedding rings.
Peter the Great
The ruler of Russia who reigned 1682-1725, who modernized and westernized the Russian military and society. He built a new western style city.
Boyars
The highest ranking members of the Russian nobility.
Cossack
Outlaw armies living on the borders of Russian territory from the 14th century onward. Respected, feared, and difficult to control.
Versailes
French royal palace built to awe and inspire. It contains the famous Hall of Mirrors.
Louis XIV
The sun King. He reigned in France from 1643-1715, the longest reign in European history.
Constitutionalism
A form of government in which power is limited by law. Power is balanced between citizens and the government.
Louis XVI
The ruler of the Ottoman Empire. He owned all of the land, and was served by an army of slaves.
Baroque
A style of at, music and architecture. Characterized by emotionalism and ornamentation
Putting out System
The 18th century system of rural industry in which a merchant loaned raw materials to cottage workers, who processed them and returned them to the merchant.
Enclosure movement
The movement to fence in fields in order to farm more effectively at the expense of poor peasants who relied on common fields for farming and pasture.
Industrial Revolution
The shift that occurred as families in northwestern Europe focused on earning wages instead of producing goods for household consumption.
Guild System
The organization of artisan production into trade-based associations. Each of these received a monopoly over its trade and a right to train apprentices.
Economic liberalism
A belief in free trade and competition based on the idea that both would benefit all individuals, rich, and poor.
Adam Smith
A Scottish professor of philosophy of the 18th century who wrote the "Wealth of Nations" and is credited with being the founder of Modern Economics.
Navigation Acts
A series of English laws that controlled the import of goods to Britain and the British colonies.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty that ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the colonies in 1763, and ratified British victory on all colonial fronts.
Debt peonage
A form of serfdom that allowed a planter to keep his workers in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money.
Atlantic Slave
The forced migration of Africans across the Atlantic for slave labor on plantations. It reached its peak in the 18th century.
Blood sports
Popular with the 18th century masses, events such as bull-baiting and cockfighting that inflicted violence on animals.
Carnival
The few days of revelry in Catholic countries that preceded Lent and that included drinking, masquerading, and rowdy spectacles that turned the established order upside down.
Hot chocolate
An imported drink, which the Spanish brought back from the New World. Served warm, and was very popular.
Consumer Revolution
The term referring to the wide-ranging growth in consumption, and new attitudes toward consumer goods that emerged in the cities of north-western Europe in the second half of the 18th century.
Methodist
A Protestant revival movement in early 18th century Germany that emphasized a warm and emotional religions, the priesthood of all believers, and the power of Christian rebirth, in everyday affairs.
Pietism
Members of a Protestant revival movement started by John Wesley, so called because they were so methodical in their devotion.
Jansenism
A sect of Catholicism originating with Cornelius Jansen, that emphasized the heavy weight of original sin and accepted the doctrine of predestination.. it was outlawed as heresy by the Pope.
Just Price
The idea that prices should be fair, protecting both consumers and producers, and that they should be imposed by government decree if necessary.
Communities controls
A pattern of cooperation and common action in a traditional village that sought to uphold the economic, social, and moral stability of the closely knit community.
illegitimacy
The sharp increase in out of wedlock births that occurred in Europe between 1750 and 1850, caused by low wages and the breakdown of traditional controls.
Estates
the three legal categories, or orders, of France's inhabitants: The clergy, the nobility, and everyone else.
Estates General
A legislative body in pre revolutionary France made up of representatives of each of the three classes, or estates. It was called into session in 1789for the first time since 1614.
National Assembly
The first French revolutionary legislature, made up primarily of representative of the third estate and a few from the nobility and clergy, in session from 1789-1791.
Great Fear
The fear of noble reprisals against peasant uprisings that seized the French countryside and led to further revolt.
Constitutional Monarchy
A form of government in which the king retains his position as head of state, while the authority to tax and make new laws resides in an elected body.
Grand Empire
The empire over which Napoleon and his allies ruled, encompassing virtually all of Europe except Great Britain and Russia.
Continental System
A blockade imposed by Napoleon to halt all trade between continental Europe and Britain, thereby weakening the British economy and military.
Napoleonic Code
French civil code promulgated in 1804 that reasserted the 1789 principles of the equality of all male citizens before the law and the absolute security of wealth and private property as well as restricting rights accorded to women by previous revolutionary laws.
Thermidorian reaction
A reaction to the violence of the Reign of Terror in 1794, resulting in the execution of Robespierre and the loosening of economic controls.
Reign of Terror
The period from 1793 to 1794 during which Robespierre Committee of Public Safety tried and executed thousands suspected of treason and a new revolutionary culture was imposed.