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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the American diplomat who wrote the "long telegram"
George Kennan
What is the term given to George Kennan's plan to combat the perceived Russian threat?
What 4 things did George Kennan predict that the Russians would attempt to do?
1. perpetually seek to expand
2. undermine western colonial development
3. Develop their own economic block
4. Attempt to penetrate Western civil society to promote Soviet interests
What 3 things did George Kennan recommend that the US and its allies do to counter Russia?
1. Educate the public on the Soviet Threat
2. Work to solve their own social problems
3. Not let it advance any furthur
What 4 things did the National Security Act create?
1. Department of Defense
2. U.S. Air Force
3. CIA
4. National Security Council
What is the name given to Truman's plan to provide money to countries to fight communist takeover?
Truman Doctrine
What was the economic recovery program for western Europe called?
Marshall Plan
Explain the background and US reaction to Russian provacations.
Berlin divided into 4 zones, but was in Russian territory. Russians cut supply train to Berlin. US airlifted supplies.
What is the 1949 treaty of alliance between western Europe and the US?
NATO. Alliance of Western nations. Attack against one is an attack against all.
In 1949 who took control of China? Where did the "nationalists" withdraw to?
Mao Zedong/Communists
Who won the 1952 election in part by promising to end the war?
What did NSC-68 call for?
recommended to stop the threat included massive military build up, creation of hydrogen bombs, and the rooting out of all communists on American soil.
What happened on June 25, 1950?
North Korea invaded South Korea
Who was the commander of the US/UN forces in Korea when the war began? Why was he eventually fired?
Douglas Macarthur. Macarthur badmouthed the president for not allowing nuclear weapons.
Why did China intervene in the war?
They got too close to the chinese border in Korea.
What was the original dividing line between N. and S. Korea?
38th parallel
Who won the 1952 election in part by promising to end the war?
What did Eisenhower use as a metaphor to refer to unstable countries susceptible to communist takeover? What 3 things did he depend on to maintain US superiority?
Cold War.
1. Covert operations
2. Formal alliances
3. presence of nuclear weapons
Eisenhowers emphasis on overwhelming military strength and massive retaliation against Russia led to an arms race named what?
MAD "mutually assured destruction"
In what 4 ways did the Cold War shape American domestic life?
1. Kept the economy hot
2. inspired Red scare/Religious revival
3. Tide of conservatism
4. Diminished momentum of post war liberals
What was Truman's 21 point domestic program called? What were 7 things he sought to do?
increase minimum wage
federal assistance in building homes
federal support for education and healthcare
renewed Fair employment practices commission.
What were 3 reasons for Truman's lack of success with his 21 point domestic program?
1. Not popular as a president
2. Hostile congress led by a informal coalition of conservatives.
3. Tempestuous post war economy.
Provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act
1. Banned the closed shop (non union members)
2. Outlawed collective bargaining
3. Authorized the president to delay strikes by declaring a "cooling off" period.
Explain who opposed Trumain in the elction of 1948. How did he win?
Dewey (R)
Wallace (Progressive)

Went out and "met the people"
Made Republicans go against their campaign promises.
What was the Federal Loyalty Security Program?
Investigated the backgrounds of all federal employees and barred hiring anyone who was deemed a security risk.
What U.S Senator led the 2nd Red Scare of 1950?
Senator McCarthy
What did To Secure These Rights recommend?
elimination of segregation based on race, color, creed, or national origin from American life."
As a result to " To Secure These Rights", what executive action did Truman take?
Desegregated the military
Who was the first black major league baseball player?
Jacke Robinson
Explain the Supreme Court's decision in Brown V. Bd of Ed.
Supreme Court ruled that separate educational facilities for black and white people were " inherently unequal"
What happened to Emmitt Till and his influence on civil rights?
beatened and murdered for whistling at a white woman in a grocery store.

When the murderers were acquitted the north and the rest of the world was outraged. Heated up the cause for integration.
What did Rosa Parks do?
Refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white person.
Who led SCLC and what was his philosophy of social progress based on?
Martin Luther King Jr.
Peaceful integration and nonviolence.
Who were the candidates in the 1960 election? Who won?
Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy.
Who took control of Cuba in 1959?
Fidel Castro
Describe the plan that the CIA had developed to take out the Cuban leader.
sent American-trained Cuban exiles back to their homeland to spark rebellion.
Give 3 reasons why the CIA's plan to out Castro failed. What was the name of the invasion?
1.Castro knew it was coming via immigrants
2. Inadequate air cover
3. Treacherousess reefs

Bay of Pigs Invasion
Kennedy's failure led to what other crisis in Cuba? Explain it. What was the agreement which ended the stalemate over Cuba?
Cuban Missile Crisis. Castro agreed to have some Russian Nuclear missles based in Cuba. These installations were seen in a flyby. Quarintined Cuba.

Soviets agreed to remove their missles. American promised not to invade Cuba, and secretly to dismantle nuclear installations in Turkey.
Identify Ngo Diem and Ho Chi Minh
Ngo Diem - Leader of South Vietnam, US supported
Ho Chi Minh - Leader of North Vietnam, getting aid from Stalin
4 actions taken by the U.S. to keep Vietnam from communism
1. Cancelled the 1956 Elections
2. Devoted resources to South Vietnamese Government to improve the police force
3. Increased Military presence
4. Backed a coup against Diem who was persecuting Budhists.
Results/Contribution of 1960's Sit ins
young black men would not leave until served a cup of coffee. Cryout against segregation.

Many business owners agreed to desegregate because sales had dipped so low.
Results/Contribution of SNCC
Made up of primarily college students, helped to coordinate the sit in movement.
Results/Contribution of Freedom Riders
People interested in promoting desgregation got on a bus. Bus was attacked, Attackers not prosecuted.

Busses required to have signs saying desegregation was important
Results/Contribution of James Meredith, Project C, Children'ts Crusade
Sought to go to an "all white" college. Kennedy sent in troops to ensure he could attend.

White leaders met with black leaders. Came up with a desegregation plan. Blacks could access city jobs previously denied them.
Results/Contribution of March on Washington
The I have a dream speech. Blended Christian and American symbolism. Very forceful
Result of Freedom of Summer
Attempted to dismantle discriminatory southern voting system.

Black and white volunteers headed south to establish "freedom Schools" and register southern black people.

KKK killed 2 young volunteers. Deaths created images of an interracial struggle against southern barbarity.
Who succeeded Kennedy after his assassination? What was his domestic policy to end hunger and poverty and expand education called?
Lyndon Johnson. "war on poverty" Economic Opportunity Act.
24th Amendment?
Outlawed the the use of the poll tax in federal elections (and later state elections)
Civil Rights Act of 1964?
Outlawed all discrimination in public facilities based on color, religion, sex, and national origin
Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to investigate violations of the law in employment.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Outlawed attempts to deny suffrage to African Americans through literacy tests, poll taxes, or any other attempt to disfranchise citizens.
List the Great Society Programs.
Elementary and Secondary School Act
Educational Opportunity Act
Child Health and Improvement Act
Hart-Cellar Act- Curtailed quotas
Background of Tonkin Gulf Episode
US Destroyer Crusing Tonkin Gulf to support South Vietnamese coastal raids. North Vietnamese patrol boats fired torpedoes at the Maddox torpedoes was destroyed.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Allowed the president to "take all necessary measures to repel armed attacks against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression
US military tactics in Vietnam
war of attrition. Tried to inflict as much pain to the opposing forces as possible. Progress determined by body count. Our forces would encounter troops, then call in air strikes. "war from afar"
Effect of the Tet Offensive on Johnson administration?
called for peace talks to take place in Paris. Johnson withdrew from the presidential campaign.
Who won the 1968 Election?
Richard Nixon. Argued for a restoration of "Law and order" and "traditional values".
Define Vietnamization.
attempted to replace US troops with South Vietnamese forces and keep Vietnam from falling to communists. (Encourage South Vietnamese troops to take on more responsibility)
Result of the 1970 invasion of Cambodia?
reinvigorated anti-war protests, which shutdown more than 400 college campuses and more than 100,00 demonstrators converged on Washington.
What 3 events led to the public conclusion that Vietnam was a mistake?
1. News of American troops' abuses of Vietnamese Civilians
2. Revealed that American public had been lied to over major events to manipulate public opinion.
3. Questioned whether communism in south Asia was worth american blood.
How was the South able to re institute Virtual slavery on blacks?
1. Sharecropping
2. Violent Intimidation
3. Limiting rights to vote. Poll tax, Literacy test.
What accounts for the rapid industrialization of the US during the Gilded Age?
1. Cheap labor. 23 million immigrants.
2. Laisssez-faire govt.
3. Raw materials newly accessible in the west.
Why were railroads important to the economic development of the US?
1. Bound natin together ending isolation and sectionalism
2. Introduced different time zones
3. encouraged city specialization (Chicago - meat packing, Pittsburgh - steel)
What factors influenced the US shift in foreign policy to one of imperialism in the late 1800's?
1. Mahan, Great countries need great navies...and colonies.
2. Manifest Destiny
3. Need for natural resources and markets
What were major reforms of the Progressive Era?
1. Federal Aid to Roads Act
2. Federal Reserve Act
3. Antiquities Act
Why did the US enter World War I?
1. Germany announced unrestricted submarine warfare
2. Had to protect billions of dollars worth of loans
3. Common history with England
What characterized the 1920's?
1. New Economy (consumer based, advertising)
2. New woman (College educated, Flapper)
3. Leisure (Baseball, movies, jazz)
What caused the Great Depression?
1. Workers' wages did not keep pace with rising prices
2. Consumer credit buying based on loans not backed by adequate collateral
3. Foreign trade decreased due to high tariff, preventing other nations from selling goods to the US
What were pros/cons of the New Deal?
1. new idea of government aid to citizens
2. set base mark below which no conservative government may go
3. split Democrat party between liberal and conservative wings
What actions did the US take which showed it was not really neutral prior to World War II?
1. Atlantic Charter (lays out war objectives for a nation not at war)
2. Lend-lease Act
3. Destroyer Deal
What were the origins of the cold war?
1. World views at odds (spheres of influence vs. one world relative equals)
2. Stalin pledged democratically elected governments in occupied countries, but that never happened.
3. US unable to accept USSR views, developed a policy to isolate it.
Why did the US become involved in Vietnam?
1. Part of a policy to combat communism everywhere.
2. Kennedy wanted to look tough after Bay of pigs
3. Once commitment made couldn't desert a friend- lose world credibility.
Why did the US fail in Vietnam?
1. image-cover of the war by television-loss of public opinion
2. fought a limited war in traditional ways
3. government never provided convincing explanation or justification for american involvement - credibility gap
What events served as the background of the Civil Rights movement of the 1960's?
What were the effects of WWII on the nation?
1. Economy skyrocketed
2. The Cold War
3. Accelerated demand for civil rights.