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49 Cards in this Set

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(1809-1913) Chief of the Shawnee Tribe, brother of Daniel Boone. They settled W of lake Michigan/Ontario in Kentucky. 1860 they were forced out and decided to build a pan-Indian confederation. The members of all the tribes would ban together to stop military expansion and aid canada. He was killed in battle in 1913. He could not secure allies with neighboring tribes.
Tecumseh
(1828) He was elected president and wanted to implement manifest destiny, removing indians. Prior to 1812 war, he was an evangelicalist who ranked in the army and fought against the Spanish creeks. He was born in Tenessee. He was a politician for the "common man." He believed in "open soil" where the best way to preserve open access was to grant access to the land and grant power to states to encourage mobility. He wanted to abolish Indian tribal units for white deaths at Creek. He refused the courts.
Andrew Jackson
(1802) No land cessions could be made except by treaty with a tribe, and that federal rather than state law would operate in Indian territory. This lead to the lawsuits of John Ross, who sued Georgia in Webster v. Georgia that federal government negotiates treaties with tribes, not the states.
Indian Trade and Intercourse Act
(1836) The choctaw were victims and were coerced to sell land to Alabama. Alabama allowed homestead of 140 acres for Indians. Problems: lower ability for credit and selling of land. They moved to Oklahoma because of manifest destiny and in 1910 found oil and became prosperous. White expansion increased.
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
1829, Georgia passed a law extending state authority over the Cherokee nation. They had to leave the state or follow white rule. John Ross protested against Jackson in Webster v. Georgia. Jackson defied the court rule and ordered the removal of the Cherokee. Not all the Cherokee were there and they were forced into leaving. They marched west in dead winter, 1 out of 5 died bc/ of malnutrition
Trail of Tears
1867 the U.S built a northern trail in North Dakota and went from Fort Laramie to the black hills, the Bozeman Trail. The U.S army attacked the Sioux and lost. Chief Red Cloud postponed the construction of the trail. The Sioux needed give up their rights and claims to the land in order to keep the black hills.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
1887, Frances Walker was the director of Indian Affairs. If the Indians were left alone they would die, so they were forced to adopt anglo values and convert to christianity. They were given 160 acres each, but it was open to white settlement. This lead to a decrease in tribal lands/indian control.
Dawes Act
1805, They have been horticulturalists forever. Planting and harvesting their main crop of corn. They practiced communalism, lived in towns and hunted in groups. Stock raising and cotton became new crops. 1830, they were bannished from Mississippi and if they did not leave they would be fined $1000 and a year in prison.
Choctaws
1846, The revolt to take California from Mexico and establish American westward expansion. Mostly frontiersmen were claiming territories from the mexicans. The homemade flag of the bear, representing "theft" was to be the new symbol of California. Means "los osos- the bears"
Bear Flag Republic
1836, Americans in Texas began to fight the Mexican authority. San Antonio was the center for the rebellion of independence. The mission had been converted into a fort, The Alamo. 175 Texas rebels fought for what would be called this...
Lone Star Republic
1836, 175 soldiers barracaded themselves into the fort, where they fought the Mexican authorities. Gen. Antonion Santa Anna and his soldiers stormed the fort and killed most of the rebels including davey crockett and Jim Bowie. Then Anna captured the city of Goliad, where he was ambushed by Sam Houston's army, 2 americans and 630 Mexicans lay dead. Texas became independent.
The Alamo
1848, General Winfield scott's army occupied Mex. city. Mexico accepted the Rio Grande as the Texas border and ceded the SW territories to the U.S for $15 million. (California, New Mex, Nevada, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah)
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
1845, Jackson embraced a belief in American Anglo-saxon superiority "the Lovely white." He wanted to remove the Indians and bring back slavery and establish towns.
Manifest destiny
1850, A tax of $20 a month was taken from Spanish speaking miners. 1852, $3 monthly payment was for the Chinese miners .
Foreign Miners Tax
1901, 200 Mexican construction workers of the El Paso Electric Street Car Company struck, demanding a wage increaseand end replacing with lower paid workers. They did not get the raise, but protected their jobs. 200 mexicans joined together with hundreds of japanese in 1903 strike in Oxnard.
Japanese-Mexican Labor Association
1903, these are benevolent associations, that belong to numerous societies that are organized and stand together. The members were laborers. Mexicans could resisted labor explotation and racism, and they were reminded of their common mexican origins.
mutualistas
1865, after the Chinese left the gold fields, they headed over to join thousands of other chinese migrant workers. They helped lay the tracks for the transcontinental line leading east from sacramento. They made up 90% of the working force. After spring, the workers went on strike for pay increase because of their hard labor. They were denied and fled to San francisco.
Central Pacific Railroad
1881, Congress prohibited chinese immigration b/c there were problems in American, economic opportunity was coming to an end. Thousands of workers were thrown out of their jobs. Chinese were not allowed to enter the U.S for the next 10 years and denied naturalized citizenship to the chinese already in the U.S. and remained until 1902.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1868, this treaty recognized the "free migration and emigration" of the Chinese to the U.S as visitors, traders, or residents and they were allowed the same priviledges as other citizens. The chinese lobbied congress to protect their civil rights.
Burlingame Treaty
1852, These were organizations in chinatown, founded in california. They used to be underground antigovernments movements in the homeland. Protection was provided. They controlled the opium trade as well as gambling/prostitution in chinese communities.
Tongs
1970, california supreme court ruled that while the Chinese could be taxed as other residents, they could not be set apart for special taxation. It violated the U.S constitution. The civil rights for the chinese was now under federal protection.
Ling Sing v. Washborn
1890, Washington identified the leaders of the Ghost Dance and ordered the army to arrest them. Sitting Bull's chief was killed and when Big Foot found out he tried to escape with his people. Mostly women and children, and they were intercepted by the calvary. They surrendered and were escorted to a camp.
Wounded Knee
1870's, he was the leader of Indian Affairs. He wanted to avoid the use of armed forces against Indians. He wanted the government to persue a peace policy to buy off the Indians and avoid violent conflict. He also wanted to relocate the indians on reservations. His utlimate goal was to assimilate the indians.
Frances A. Walker
1933, Collier thought that it would be best for the Navajos to reduce their stock. Concerns for their survival and the protection of Boulder Dam, the fed. govnt. was going to purchase 400,000 sheep. The Navajos said no, because they depended on the sheep for their livelihood. They tried to resist, but Collier carried out the policy. By 1935, they lost their sheep and became dependent on the New Deal for income.
Navajo Sheep Reduction
1920's, After the strike for higher wages among the Filipino and Japanese workers, they branched out and formed this association. They stated that all workers regardless of race, should participate in guarding their standard of living. They wanted to build a powerful, non-racial labor organization in which they could cooperate with whites.
Hawaii Labor Association
1887, the most susccessful Japanese farmer, worked as a potatoe picker. Soon after he became a labor contractor supplying jap.workers to white farmers. 1912, he controlled 10,000 acres of potatoes. Called "the Potatoe King"
George Shima
1908, Mexicans worked in agriculture, and in california many workers turned to mexicans for labor. This was an immigration law that allowed mexicans to work in california on farms. By 1920, 3/4ths of the 200,000 workers were mexican.
Gentleman's Agreement
1964, Grew up in the ghettos of the North, pursuing a life of drugs and crime. He was arrested and found guilty of burglary and served 8 years. While in jail he converted to Islam and became the leader of the Black Muslims. He advised blacks to use violence to defend their rights and mocked King.
Malcom X
1924, Congress passed this restrictionist act. President Lowell was one of the bill's supporters. This law established immigration quotas designed to reduce immigration from S and E Europe. Jews became the alienated group because they were threatening America.
Immigration Act of 1924
early 1900's, he founded the University of Alabama, where he emphasized vocational occupations, like business, and wanted to become skilled. He felt that the blk community should economically adv. and be wise with their money. He had support from the blks and upper class whites. He didn't want them to fight Jim Crow and that there wouldn't be civil equality.
Booker T. Washington
early 1900's, he believed that blks should do whatever they want. as long as the PUSH factors exsisted, the blks would never achieve economic self worth. He fought for civil rights in the Niagra Movement. There he provided scholarships for blk students. 1909 became associated with NWACP and was the only blk member on board. He wrote "The Crisis" and wanted to promote blk accomplishments.
W.E.B Dubois
1920's, a Jamaican leader of the UNIA. There he wanted to promote African identity in urban context. He believed that blks need to learn how to thrive and not adapt to white consumption, taking pride in their own history, "Black is beautiful."
Marcus Garvey
1920's, a black man that wrote about his experience in the North. He wanted to educate the people about American culture so that they would appreciate the city of the roaring 20's.
Langsten Huges
1937, This novel was published by Zora Neale Hurston. It was a story about a girl born out of wedlock, her tribulations throughout her life growing up, trying to find love, etc. Hurston is telling the reader that it does not matter upon your race, but gender is the real issue.
"Their Eyes Were Watching God."
1942, He lead the mass removal of the Japanese Americans. He ignored the reports of Japanese loyalty. Because of the attack on Pearl Harbor, he felt that the japanese could not be trusted. President Roosevelt allowed the mass removal of Japanese into concentration camps.
General John Dewitt
1945, The most decorated unit in the United States history. They earned over 18,000 decorations along with a medal of honor, 3,500 purple hearts, 50 Service crosses, 400 silver stars, and 800 bronze stars.
The 442nd Regiment
1942, this program was established to meet new demands for agricultural production. Mexicans were to be imported as contract laborers who would return to mexico at the end of their term. They assisted war efforts, by growing food and building the R.R.
Bracero Program
1943, antagonism against the Mexicans exploded in LA. Hundreds of Anglo servicemen went on a rampage, beating up mexican americans, who were stereotyped as gang members.
Zoot Suit Riots
1930's, he was the president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters BOSCP, where the blks worked on the R.R. that were privately owned and restricted specifically for blks. He was involved in the C.I.O and in 1942 organized the Million-Man march from the country to Washington D.C to demand the protection of blk rights.
Phillip Randolph
1948, the Japanese challanged the Alien Land Law Act. In this case, the U.S supreme court ruled that the law prohibiting Japanese from owning and leasing land was racial discrimination. The 14th amendment was designed to bar states from denying any group, rights or priviledges that are given to other groups.
Kajiro Oyama Case
1942, Signed by Roosevelt, that instructs labor to work with blks, preventing discrimination in the work place, bc/ of race. It is illegal for the government to run companies to discriminate based upon race. The FEPC Fair employment practices commission was created to fine companies that violated this order.
Executive Order 8802
1948, a significant act because it was meant to end discrimination in federal government, it wrote the EO.8802 in the federal law., and it established the power to review civil rights cases within the justice department.
Civil Rights Act of 1948
1964, rules that you cannot discriminate or segregate public facilities. It expands the power of civil rights. This act also prohibits gender discrimination.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
1965, prohibits literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clauses, that discriminate against minority voters. The Federal government has the power to watch the states on their voting irregularities.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1954, a girl lived a mile from the school in her neighborhood, but she had to walk eight miles to get to her black school. The psycological outlook was determined to be UNEQUAL and the supreme court overturned the plessy case based on racial integration.
Brown v. Board of Education
1956, M.I.A a non-violence act by Rosa Parks, who did not give up her seat to a white person. Blks were 70% of the bus traffic. She was an activist on the NWACP and trained on non-violent acts. The buses were chosen because they were run by the federal government and the states could not interfere.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1959, this group was run by college students. They acted independently in North Carolina. These students would do sit-ins in order to be recognized by the city.
S.N.C.C (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee)
1957, He was a great speaker and incredible civil rights activist. He was religious because he grew up in his father's church. He encouraged non-violence and helped to encourage the bus boycott. He was a late comer to the NWACP and evolved into the chief spokesman. He founded the National Rights Movement to win conscienous by non-violence.
Martin Luther King Jr.
1959, these christians just wanted to win the ending of segregation and discrimination by conscienousness and not violence for social justice. Martin Luther King was the leader.
S.C.L.C (Southern Christian Leadership Confrence)