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83 Cards in this Set

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N. America in 1492
Who: Native people
Where: N. America
When? 10,000 BC to 1492 AD
What? There were many natives and they vary
- They were farmers and sophisticated people
the Atlantic Islands
Who? Portugal, France, and Spain
Where? The tropic region of the Atlantic Ocean
When? 1450 to 1491 A.D
What? Conquered by the Iberians in the 15th century
Portuguese in Africa
Who? Portuguese explorers and adventurers with Prince Henry the Navigator and including Vasco Da Gama and Albuquerque
When? 1450 A.D to 1973 A.D
Where? Indian Ocean, the Cape, Angola
What? They desired to find an ocean to the Indies the Portuguese began sailing around Africa
Spanish exploration and conquest
Who? Spanish explorers and conquistadores
Where? Mexico, Peru, the Caribbean, Florida
When? 1492 to 1590 A.D
What? The Spanish recieved'title' to most of the New World of the Treaty of Tordesillas (1493 AD)
. Initially the Spaniards sought gold and glory to spread the Catholic faith
the Columbian Exchange
Who? Europeans and the native Americans
Where? The New World
When?1492 to 1600 AD
What? Refers to exchange of plants, animals between the New and Old World
- products, plants, & diseases
Sugar Cultivation
Who? English, French, Dutch, Spanish, Portugese, & Africans
Where? Caribbean islands and brazil
When 1550 A.D
What? Sugar was cultivated using slave labor on large plantation
Puritans & Separatists
Who? Religious dissenters in England
Where? England, Holland, Massachusetts
When? 1550-1600 A.D
What? These people wanted to reform the Church of England
-The Puritans wanted to remain in the Anglican church but reform it
The Founding of Virginia
Who? The Virginia Company and James I
Where? The Chesapeake region
When? 1606 AD
What? A charter from King James I to the Virgina Co. , commercial enterprise, to establish a settlement in N America
- As the settlers were mostly aristocrats and their servants the colony nearly starved
The Found of New England
Who? Puritan and Separatist dissidents, John Winthrop, the Massachusetts Bay Co.
Where? Massachusett's Bay
When? 1620 AD
What? Dissidents desiring to establish a religious refuge convient king James I to charter the Massachusetts Bay Co.
- But they did not intend to embark on a commercial venture
Governor John Winthrop
Who? Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony
When? 1630 AD
Where? Massachusetts Bay
What? Winthrop wanted to establish a religious refuge for Puritan dissenters in the New World
- He was instrumental in the founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony
the Pequot War
Who? Peqot Confederacy vs. English colonists and their Mohegan and Narragansett allies
When? 1637-38 AD
Where? Connecticut and Massachusetts
What? Conflict among the various Algonquian confederacies of New England
French expansion- Canada & Louisiana
Who? The French
Where? St. Lawrence Gulf to the Gulf of Mexico
When? 1650 to 1699
What? During the second half of the 17th Century the French established control over a vast area encompassing the entire middle of N. America
The Pueblo Revolt
Who? The Spanish, The Pueblo, the Navajo and Apache
Where? New Mexico
When? 1680 to 1692
What? Pubelo tribes rose in revolted against Spanish and had essentially enslaved them and tried to abolish their religion culture
King Philips War
Who? Wampanoag Confederacy, the English, the Pequots, the Narragansett and Mohegan

Where? New England

When? 1675-1676

What? This was one of the bloodiest wars and the Wampanoag Confederacy attacked the English colonies under King Philip
Bacon's Rebellion
Who? the Susquehannock, Occaneechee, Doag Indians, Nathaniel Bacon, Gov. Berkely, Virgians

Where? Virginia Colon
When 1676
What? Gov. Berkeley mishandled the response to a series of Indian raids triggering the colonists to attacked the wrong tribe in retaliation
Atlantic Slave Trade
Who? Africans and Euro-Americans
Where? the west coast Africa, Caribbean, and N. America
When?1500 to 1808 AD
What? West Africa provided a ready supply of slaves
.The colonies in N.America and the Caribbean provided a ready market with demand increasing as the importance of plantation agriculture grew
French expansion- Canada & Louisiana
Who? The French
Where? St. Lawrence Gulf to the Gulf of Mexico
When? 1650 to 1699
What? During the second half of the 17th Century the French established control over a vast area encompassing the entire middle of N. America
Mercantilism
Who? English, French, Dutch, Spanish, and Portugueses
Where? Europe and her colonies overseas
When?16th to 18th Centuries
What? A theory that national prosperity is based on gold and silver and that world trade is unchangeable
The Glorious Revolution in America
Who? James II, William and Mary, Parliment
Where? England and her colonies in N. America and the Caribbean
When? 1688
What? James II and admirer of Absolutism and Louis XIV, decided to maintain stronger rivals control over the colonies
King George's War and the colonies
Who? The British and the French and Spanish
Where? Europe and the New World
When? 1740 to 1748
What? The War of Austrian Succession was waged in both Europe and the colonies
-the war failed to resolve tension between British and French in their colonies
The enlightenment in the colonies
Who? The large percentage of the population who were literate, especially the middle classes
Where? The 13 Atlantic Colonies but especially New England
When? 1650-1770
What? The enlightment was perhaps even more influential in the British colonies than it was in the mother country
King George's War and the colonies
Who? The British and the French and Spanish
Where? Europe and the New World
When? 1740 to 1748
What? The War of Austrian Succession was waged in both Europe and the colonies
-the war failed to resolve tension between British and French in their colonies
colonial assemblies
Who? The gentry
Where? The Thirteen Atlantic Colonies
When? 1700-1770
What? Government in all the colonies was b poular representation
Slave Rebellion
Who? Slave and colonist
Where? South Carolina and New York
When? 1739-41
What? Slave rebellion occurred in the colonies from time to time

. This led to harsher laws being passed to keep the slaves passive
The Great Awakening
Who? George Whitefield, Jonathan
Where? New England
When? 1765
What? A religious revival which began in New England
. It was the first religious revival in American history
The First Worldwide War
Who? French, British, Native Americans, Colonist
Where? N. America, Europe, the Caribbean, India
When? 1756 to 1763 AD
What? Known as the Seven Years War in Europe and the French and Asian War in America
. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 gave all of Canada and Ohio to Great Britain
Pontiac's War
Who? N. Americans and British
Where? Canada, Great Lakes, and Ohio
When? 1763-4 AD
What? Dissatified with British policy after the French ceded Ohio and Canada to Great Britain the Native Americans, led by an Ottawa sachem named Pontiac rebelled

They were able to capture some forts but they accepted British ruling and in favor they changed their policies towards the Indians
Sugar and Currency Acts
Who? Parliment, the Colonist
Where? The Colonies, the Caribbean
When? 1764 AD
What? British wanted to control over colonial trade the trade so they put up the Sugar Act
. People didn't like the Sugar Act
. The Currency Act outlawed the paper money circulated by the colonies.
the Stamp Act Crisis
Who? Prime Minister George Grencille
Where? The Colonies
When? 1765 AD
What? People were not satisfied so colonists protested vigorously
Another protest was registered by Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
Who? A 29 year old lawyer in the House of Burgesses.
Where? Virginia
When? 1765AD
What?
. Wrote the Virginia Stamp Act Resolves
. Only the House of Burgesses could tax Virginians as they could be taxed without their consent and Parliment could not obtain their consent.
Boston Massacre
Who? The British army and the mob

Where? Boston, Massachusetts

When? March 5th, 1770 AD

What? Despite the pending repeal of the Townshend Act peple the colonies were angry over British enforcementof the customs laws
. Inexperienced soldiers fired into the crowd and killed some
Tea and Coercive Acts
Who? The East India Company and Parliament
Where? The 13 colonies
When? 1773 AD
What? To save the E. India Company, Parliament decided to grant the Tea Act which granted a virtual monopoly
Lexington and Concords
Who? Patriots and the British army under Gage

Where? Lexington and Concord Massachusetts

When? 1775

What? The British decided to take weapons from Lexington and Concordat stop uprising.
-272 British died and 93 Americans died.

- the 'shot heard round the world'
Common Sense
Who? Thomas Paine
Where? The 13 Colonies
When? 1776

What? An English radical, Paine wrote Common Sense and called for a republic for a government.

. His radical ideas were expressed in powerful

. He attacked King George personally
George Washington
Who? A Virginia planter and officer in the colonial militia

Where? Virginia and the 13 colonies

When? 1776- 1783

What? He proved to be the ideal choice to create and lead the Continental Army

. he had great stamina, personality, calm demeanor, imposing stature, and military experience
The Declaration of Independence
Who? Thomas Jefferson and the Second Continental Congress

Where? Philadelphia

When? 1776

Wht? The patriots were anxious not to appear as rebels but as Englishmen lawfully defending their rights

. ' we hold these truthes to be self evident..' were the key element in the Declaration of Independence
Battle of Saratoga
Who? John Burgoyne and Hortio Gates

Where? Upstate New York

When? 1777

What? The strategy of the British was to cuut off the colonies from New England, seen as the seat rebellion
Yorktown
Who? Washington and Cornwallis

Where? Yorktown Virginia

When? 1781

What?
Cornwallis, suffered alot during war surrendered to Washington

. His surrender led to the fall of Lord North's government and Parliament to an increasing unpopular war
Treaty of Paris
Who? British, Americans, French

Where? Paris

When? 1782-1783

What? Peace negotiation led to the Treaty of Paris being signed Britain recognized the independence of the colonies


. British agreed to vast boundaries

. Florida was reverted to Spain
Articles of Confederation
Who? Congress
Where? Philadelphia
When? 1777
What? The outline of a national government

. A weak federal authority and strong state governments
. The results were weak that they suffered from financial and foreign policy setbacks
Northwest Ordinance
Who? Congress
Where? Northwest Territories
When ? 1787
What?This established a bill of rights for settlers; freedom of religion and a right to jury trial, forbade cruel and uncual punishments... etc
Shay's Rebellion
Who? Daniel Shay
Where Massachusetts
When?1787
What? A rebellion led by a former officer in the Continental Army
. Shay's Rebellion was quickly put down but convinced many the need for a NEW CONSTITUTION
The Constitution Convention
Who? Delegated from all states except Rhode Island, James Madison
Where? Philadelphia
When? 1787
What? The United States needed a stronger government, so they rewrote the Constitution

. the key would be to make checks against federalism and tyranny

. There was a distinction between federal powere and state rights
Virginia and New Jersey Plans
Who? Edmund Randolph & William Paterson

Where? Philadelphia

When? 1787

What? This held the concept of national government
. This was also known as th Great Compromise
Slavery and the Constitution
Who? Madison Randolph, Paterson

Where? Philadelphia

When? 1787

What? As a census was taken every ten years there were things to consider .. N. Americans were not couunted as people &Slaves were 3/5 of a person
The Bill of Rights
Who? The Anti-Federalists
Where? Philadelphia
When? 1789-91

What? If the Constitution is a Federalist document; the Bill of Right is an Anti-Federaist document

. Even though the constitution was much weaker then they thought, Anti-Federalists were still leery
Republicans & Federalists
Who? Hamilton, Adams, Madison, Jefferson, Randolph

Where? America

When? 1790 - 1800

What? Partisan politics

.Federalists stood strong for a strong national government and a weak state government
Jay's Treaty
Who? John Jay and the British

Where? London

When ? 1794

What? Jay sought out removal of British posts in the Northwest Territory

. He was sent to London to negotiate by Washington
The Alien and Sedition Acts
Who? The Federalist

Where? America

When? 1798

What? The federalists attempted to codify into law the belief that Republicans were subversive

. Sedition Act was to control both citizens and aliens
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Who? Jefferson and Madison

Where? Virginia and Kentucky

When 1798

What? Jefferson and Madison turned to the state legislatures to combat the Alien and Sedition
The Election of 1800
Who? Jefferson and Adams
Where? America

When? 1800

What? The peaceful transition of power despite such fierce partisanship showed that the American experiment in representative government held great promised
Judicial Review
Who? John Marshall, William Marbury & James Madison

Where? Supreme Court, Washington DC

When? 1801

What?'Midnight appointments' by John adams were engaged by James Madison.

By ruling out that the Supreme Court had no writes to issue writs of mandamus -- this established an enhance independece of the judiciary
The Louisiana Purchase
Who? Jefferson, Congress, and Napoleon

Where? Louisiana

When? 1804-05

What? Napoleon insisted that Jefferson would buy all of Louisiana and give a generous price of $15 million dollars.

. By purchasing this it doubled the size of the US
The War of 1812
Who? British and Americans

Where? Canada, Ohio Valley, Louisiana, Atlantic Ocean, Great Lakes

When? 1812-1815

What? . The second American War of Independence

.British were sent to Canada and Louisiana but was defeated in the battle of New Orleans
The American System
Who? James Madison, Henry Clay & John Calhoun

Where? America

When 1815 to 1816

What? When Clay called Madison for an American system it called for a national tax,

. by 1816 a Second Bank of the US was chartered
The Era of Good Feeling
Who? James Monroe

Where? America

When 1816 to 1824

What? Federalists ere weakened after Monroe defeated the Federalist opponent in 1816

. Boston newspaper names it as a period of era of Good Feeling
The Monroe Doctrine
Who? James Monroe

Where? Western Hemisphere

When? 1823

What? . President Monroe gave a speach that said that we US shouldn't be subjected to European power

. This helped grow nationalism of the American people
The Missouri Compromise
Who? North and South

Where? Missouri

When? 1820

What?
One issue that was dealt with was if Missouri was registered as a slave state then it would throw off the balance between slave states and free states

. Clay decided to offer up a compromise which seemed to temporarily fix the issue
Mormons
Who? Joseph Smith and Brigham Young

Where? New York, Illinois, Utah

When? 1820 to present

What? Smith claims of finding golden plates from an angel Moroni

. They were driven out by angry mobs

. Smith and his brother were jailed and murdered for there actions, Mormons fled and settled in Utah
abolitionism
Who? Abolitionists, free blacks, escaped slaves, northern evangelicals

Where? New England?

When? 1820 to 1860

What? . Evangelicals believed that slavery was a sin amongst the US

.the first couple violent over throw was led by David Walker
Democrats
Who? Supporters of Jackson, mosty westerners and the poor

Where? America

When 1830 and 1840

What? They believe in a limited government, limited paper currency, state banks over federal, and common man
Nullification
Who? John C Calhoun

Where? South Carolina

When 1828 and 1832

What? This doctrine held that states can nulify federal laws that can harm their interest.

. Congress passed the Force Act enabling the President to use force to collect federal revenues from the states
Second Back of the US
Who? Nicholas Biddle and Andrew Jackson

Where? Philadelphia

When 1816 to 1841

What? Jacksonians democrats hated the Bank as a symbol of elitism.

. Jackson was determined to destroy it

. The Bank issue led to the formation of the Whig Party
William Henry Harrison

the election of 1840
Who? William Henry Harrison and Van Buren

Where? America

When ? 1840

What? Harrison was a a hero

. He was a war hero and an Indian fighter
The West in the American Imagination
Who? Americans

Where? The trans-Mississippi West

When? First half of the 19th Century

What?
. West was inhabited by the native american tribes

. Individual mountain men went into the West to leave civilization.
Black Hawk War
Who? Black Hawk?
Where? Illnois
When? 1832

What? . Henry Harrison, the governor of indian territory, convinced the Sac and Fox leaders to sign away lands for ammunities

.Black hawk and followers battled after the Bad Axe battle which was basically a massacre and Black Hawks surrendered
The Fur Trade
Who? Trapper, Native Americans

Where? The West, especially the Rockies

When? 1820 to 1849

What? Hudson's Bay Company by 1846 succeesded in destroying it's American rivals by making better quality and chaper goods to get the best furs
The Lone Star Republic
Who? Sam Houston & Stephan Austin

Where? The Southwest

When 1836 to 1848

What? The Spanish and Mexicans encouraged Anglo- Americans to settle in Tejas

.The Texicans defeated Mexican government forces victory at the Alamo, at San Jacinto and forced the Mexican government to recognize Texas' independance
Oregon Trail
Who? Immigrans and native Americans

Where? The Great Plains to the Pacfic Coast

When 1841 to 1869

What? The Great Migration of 1843 showed wagons could move alot of stuff all the way to Oregon

.Emigrants along the trail had to contend with sudden storms, breakdowns, etc
Gold Rush
Who? 49ers

Where? Sutter's mill, California

When 1849

What ? . This allowed California to become admitted as a state in 1850 and called it the Compromise of 1850
Manifest Destiny
Who ? John L O'Sullican, Jacksonian Democrats

Where? The West

When? 1840 to 1890

What? O' Sullivan believed that God had blessed us with Americas and that we should embrace the prosperous land.

. He believed that the US is a 'divine destiny'

. He urged for Texas to be annexed
The Mexican War
Who? America, Mexico

Where? Southwest and Northern Mexico

When? 1846 to 1848

What? .Mexico had a large army
& Europe had trained officers it seemed like they would win the war

. Because America has such a GREAT population America won the war

. Prize was California, Texas, and the Southwest -- this was the treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
Comproimise of 1850
Where? California

Who? Henry Clay, Stephn Douglas, Daniel Webster

What? This admitted California as a state in the 1850

. There were a couple laws. .California was a free state
.Texas was a slave state
.Slave trade in the District Columbia was ended
Fugitive Slave Act
Who? Slave states and Free Soilers

Where? America

When? 1850

What? This law, which was controversial, needed escaped slaves to be returned

.Slave catchers were involved

. Free states were bitter and angry because slave power was extended to the North
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Who?Harriet Stowe

Where? Conneticut

When? 1852

What? Anti Slave novel by Stowe, this helped break the ground of the civil war

. Best selling novel in the 19th century
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Who? Stephen Douglas

Where? Nebraska Territory

When? 1854

What? Douglas proposed allowing the issue to be decided by popular sovereignty

. This angered Free Soilers who accused him of weakening the Missouri Compromise and giving in to slave power
Dred Scott case
Who? Dr. John Emerson, Dred Scott

Where? St Louis, Missouri

When? 1846-58

What? Dred scott, a slave, sued for his freedom since he lived in a free state

. Supreme court decided that any type of slave could not be citizens... and they could not sue the Federal Court

. The ruling showed that Slave Power was on the march
The Election of 1860
Who? Abraham Lincoln, John C. Breckenridge, John Bell

Where? Washington DC

Where? 1860

What? Lincoln's election, despite the almost total lack of support from the Republican Party in the slave states,

. The Democratic party split when deciding on reps.

. This allowed Lincoln to win and the civil war to be inevitable
The Anaconda Plan
Who? Winfield Scott

Where? The Mississippi Valley, Southern ports

When? 1861

What? The Union planned on winning the war so they named it the Anaconda Plan.

. They would be like an anaconda and suffocate their pray

. Scott blockaded all ports in the US both southern and mississippi ports

. It was unsuccessful
The Emancipation of Proclamation
Who? Abraham Lincoln

Where? Washington D.C

Wen 1862 -63

What? A speech given by Lincoln adter the battle of Antietam

. It did not free any slave but exempted states

. The main purpose was to make the war an anti slvery crusade
The Battle of Gettysburg
Who? Robert E Lee vs George Meade

Where? Gettysburg, Penn.

When 1863

What?
. The battle lasted 3 days and gave the Union victory

. Lee failed and doomed the Confederacy and lessened their chance of winning

. Lincoln could give the Gettysburg address, his manifesto
Sherman's March to the Sea
Who? William Sherman

Where? Georgia

When? 1864

What? Sherman devised a strategy to bring Confederacy to it's knees

. This demoralized the Confederacy

. Sherman's victories contributed to the victory of Lincolns election
Appomattox
Who? Ulysses Grant and Robert E Lee

Where? Appomottox Courthouse, Virginia

When? 1865

What? The FAMOUS surrender of Lee to Grant maked the end of the Civil war

. This cost 500,00 death & was one of the bloodiest wars in U.S History