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176 Cards in this Set

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A. Phillip Randoph
Icon of WWII. He wanted to desegregate the workplace so he participated in the March on Washington.
Appeasment
Right before WWII, democratic nations tried to appease Hitler until Germany attacked Poland, thus formally begining the war.
"Cash and Carry"
One of the democratic responses of the US right before and at the begining of WWII. C&C (1939) meant that Britain could buy war material as long as they paid for it up front and brought their own transportation.
Lend Lease
WWII policy (1941) that stated that GB didn't need to have money to get weapons from the US; the goods could be loaned.
Military-Industrial Complex
meant that the US economy was almost entirely dependent upon WWII. Kenesianism gave rise to the MIC. The MIC will ultimately give rise to the manhattan project, an endeavor which attempted to develop an atomic bomb.
Pearl Harbor
Dec 1941. Japanese forces attack Pearl Harbor and their allies, Germany and Italy, declare war on the US. Pearl Harbor marks the begining of US involvement in WWII
Manhattan Project
involved the development of an atomic bomb; came as a consequence of the US's Millitary-Industrial complex.
A. Phillip Randoph
icon of WWII age. He wanted to desegregate the workplace so he participated in the March on Washington.
March on Washington
The fair employment practices comission came out of the March on Washington. A. Phillip Randoph participated.
Double V campaign
This was another attempt at desegregation. It was said that we were winning victory abroad but loosing victory at home.
Code Talkers
A role occupied by the Navajo in WWII. The Navajo language was the only US code left unbroken by the end of the war.
Japenese Internment
Japenese-Americans, many of whom were US citizens, were confined in camps during WWII
Rosie the Riveter
She was the emblem of the working woman in WWII. Women became 1/3 of the labor force during WWII.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Many people killed because of an atomic bomb
atomic bomb
used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
D-Day
June 6, 1944. Day on which the allies tried to free mainland europe from the grasp of the Nazis.
VE Day
victory in europe day. Surrender of Germans was announced in Europe
Yalta Conference
The Yalta conference was held completely in secret before the end of the war to determine in advance how to deal with Germany. It served as one of the origins of the cold war.
Decisions from the Yalta conference were as follows:
1. Unconditional German surrender
2. Germany divided into 4 zones, one for each of the following countries: France UK Russia US
3. Berlin partitioned into 4 zones
4. Russia received a Polish buffer zone
5. *Not Met* Stalin agreed to hold free elections in Europe in return for fighting against Japan.
6. USSR received lands lost in Russo-Japanese war
7. Set up another meeting to discuss the creation of the UN.
The big three
the principal Allies in World War II (the United States, the USSR, and Great Britain)
Probs w/ Yalta
~most of the agreements were kept secret
~Poland vehemently objected to the loss of land.
~Stalin did not allow for free elections
~Berlin blockade occured.
Postdam conference
Another meeting of the Big three but with Truman instead of FDR. Truman held the trump card, the atomic bomb.
Decisions:
1. Partitioning of the postwar world including Europe and the middle east.
2. The Postdam declaration demanded Japan's surrender.
Long telegraph
This was an anonymous article describing the USSR and USA battling and proposed containing communism. Somehow associated with George Kennan
Truman Doctrine
Truman doctrine formalized containment. Aid to Greece was the first use of containment.
Marshall Plan
US agreed to provide money to European nations if both agreed; this was seen as a way to protect democracy. This occured during the containment period.
NATO
North Atlantic treaty organization. Appeared during containment period.
Weapons of containment
1. Nat'l security act, which created the Nat'l Security council ( a way for top cabinent to act quickly) and the CIA)
2. Peacetime draft
3. Foreign Aid
1949
Bad year for Truman. We supposedly "lost" China because they went communist.
NSC-68
NSC-68 was a report of the national security council in 1950. It was a plan for response to a perceived crisis in national security. Is featured in RTAP
Korean War
represents the phrase "from contiainment to rollback." China enters this war and Truman fires MacAurthur.
~A conflict that lasted from 1950 to 1953 between North Korea, aided by China, and South Korea, aided by United Nations forces consisting primarily of U.S. troops.
HUAC
the house un-American activities committee of the house of representatives. Famous participants included Regan and Nixon. HUAC busted the "Hollywood Ten."
The second red scare
aka McCarthyism. HUAC represented the last of the Red scares.
Domino Theory
prevelant during the "Eisenhower and the cold war" period. Domino theory stated that if one country falls to communism, then all of them will. Vietnam was an example of the domino theory in practice.
affluent society
1945-1966
measures of prosperity
GNP doubled
avg worker's income grew
American's consume a substantial portion of the world's production
GI bill democratized education
explaining prosperity
*the biggest reason for prosperity in the 50s and early 60s was WWII (1939-1945) defense spending*
-federal spending was a bigger chunk of the GNP
-new technologies, new industries
-automation led to rising productivity
-there was a global demand for US products
-consumer credit went up
-governemnt programs (GI bill, social security, labor unions) boosted consumption
Truman's fair deal
-nat'l health insurance
-increased security
-increased minimum wage
-integrate armed forces
-stand for civil rights
-pioneered some housing programs.
GI Bill - 1944
-Servicemen's readjustment act
-funds for higher education
-funds for sm. businesses
-funds for home ownership
-creation of veteran's administration
Growth of Suburbia
-mass production, construction
-gov't subsidies thru loans, income tax deductions, highway construction
-car centered
-homogeneity
Baby Boom
increased number of children peaking in 1965 when 40% of the population was under 21.
nuclear family
was important during the affluent society era. Communists were perceived as not having families. Strict gender roles existed and early marriage. In reality, by 1960 as many women worked outside of the home as in 1940; 1/3 of married women were employed.
Interstate and Highway act
1956
the beats
critics of the consumer culture. Included Jack kerouwac, Andy Warhol (art), Roy Lichenstein (art)
pop art
andy warhol, Roy Lichenstein criticized cultural excesses with their art.
the civil rights movement
2 begining dates:
1954 Brown vs. BofE - outlaws separate but equal
1955 Montgomery bus boycott
two ending dates
1965 voting rights act
1968 assasination of MLK
Brown vs. Board of education
outlaws separate but equal clause
held that racial segregation in public education is unconsti- tutional.
Montgomery Bus boycott
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political protest campaign in started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 5, 1955 to December 21, 1956 and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared illegal the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses.
NAACP
Founded in 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is the oldest and largest civil rights organization in the United States. The interracial NAACP works for the elimination of racial discrimination through lobbying, legal action, and education. With its victories in landmark Supreme Court cases such as Brown v. Board of Education, as well as its sponsorship of grassroots social programs, the NAACP has been a leader in the effort to guarantee that African Americans and members of other racial minorities receive equal protection under the law.
Emmet Till
Emmett Louis "Bobo" Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was an African-American teenager from Chicago, Illinois who was brutally lynched in a region of Mississippi known as the Mississippi Delta near the small town of Drew in Sunflower County. His murder was one of the key events which energized the nascent American Civil Rights Movement. Although the main suspects for the crime were acquitted, a federal investigation into his murder was initiated in 2004.
SCLC (Southern Christain Leadership conference)
MLK's main alabama grp
Rosa Parks
woman who refused to give up her seat on bus, an act which sparked the montgomery bus boycott.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was an African-American clergyman who advocated social change through non-violent means. His writings and public appearances shaped the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and '60s. A powerful speaker and a man of great spiritual strength, he became the public face of civil rights. In 1963 (the 100th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation), King organized a march on Washington, D.C. that drew 200,000 people demanding equal rights for minorities. In 1964 King won the Nobel Peace Prize, becoming at the time the youngest recipient ever. He was shot to death by James Earl Ray in 1968 while visiting Memphis, Tennessee.
Little Rock Nine
one of the first challenges to segregation after the Montgomery bus boycott. In this case, it was said that schools needed to take steps to desegregate. Eisenhower had to step in on matters of civil rights
Greensboro sit ins
in 1960s a group of African Americans were denied lunch and took to 6 mo of protesting.
Student non-violent coordinating committee (SNCC)
was founded by participants of the sit in mvmts with the suppor of sclc. It was non violent, though it would later grow more radical. Pres of sncc would eventually coin the term black pwr.
freedom rides (1961)
one of the first things that sncc does. The freedom rides were in support of the 1960 law to desegreagete buses. They encounter protests in:
rockhill SC and Birmingham Alabama, where their bus was firebombed.
James Meredith
In 1961, JM became the first black student to enroll at University of Missisippi (JFK needed to bring lots of troops to get him there).
Gerald Ford
caretaker pres
had lots of challenges, like how to restore trust and how to deal with the reeling economy.
Ford's foreign policy was continued detente (cooling off). He didn't achieve SALT and allowed USSR to keep its borders.
Caretaker president
gerald ford
Ford's challenges
1. Probs with legitimacy
-Pardon of Nixion
-clumsiness
2. Economic difficulties
-facing weakest economy since WWII
-rising inflation
-unemployment
-energy use
-ford & congress disagreed on how to solve the probs.
Jimmy Carter
the outsider as pres
his foreign policy centered around human rights.
Camp David accords
carter won nobel peace prize for this.
He got the people involved in the Yom Kippur war to agree to a cease fire.
SALT II (1979)
designed to further reduce the arms race by limiting strategic launchers. occured during Carter admin. Because the USSR invaded Afgainistan it was never ratified.
Olympic boycott of 1980
US refused to participate in moscow Olympics as long as the ussr remained in afganistan
stagflation
occured during carter admin. Stagflation was persistent inflation combined with stagnant consumer demand and relatively high unemployment.
misery index
was highest during depression and during carter admin. Inflation/Unemployment
energy crisis of 1979
-in '73 opec announced that they would no longer ship petrol to anyone who had supported israel in yom kippur war. lasted 6 mo
-department of energy created in '77
-carter called for a reduction in us dependence on foreign oil. This was passed by congress as the national energy act of 1978
-In 1979 oil production decr be/c of iranian revolution
3 mile island incident (1979)
partial meltdown of one of the nuclear reactors occured. Carters rxn was the crisis of confidence speech, in which he tried to get people to understand what was going on and to trust US leadership
Iran Hostage situation (1979)
last straw in public's opinion of carter. In the hostage situation, Iran's shah gets overthrown by a fundamentalist leader. Carter lets the overthrown leader seek med treatment in US. In response, iranian students seize the US embassy and take hostages. Carter tries to rescue the hostages with operation eagle claw, which was a dismal failure.
Roe vs. Wade (1973)
legalized abortion. Occured during nixion presidency
AIM
American Indian power Movement occupied alcatraz, led to the development of bureau of indian affairs, at wounded knee FBI agents ended up dying.
Watergate
Nixion was paranoid about the public opinion of him. He tried to investigate his opponents by creating the "plumbers" (to fix admin leaks) and the "creeps" (commitee to re-elect the pres)
Plumers broke into the office of someone that they thought leaked to pentagon papers. Wiretaps were placed in the hotel Watergate room of democratic-convention organizers.
Pentagon Papers
secret papers that were leaked to the public. They revealed that:
1. Nixion had no plan to get out of vietnam
2. LBJ had previously increased the ware effort while he was telling the public otherwise. Led to increased oposition to vietnam and to a credibility gap in which the public was suspcicous of gov't
SALT (soviet arms limit treaty)
Nixion achieved SALT, which limits the production and deployment of nuclear weapons in soviet union.
March on Washington (1963)
JFK came out in support of Af Amer leaders at this time. We begin to see a split between MLK who wanted to get support from the supreme court and others who wanted to get it done faster. Discord between King's SCLC and the more radical SNCC intensifies.
Freedom Summer (1964)
-A joint effort by CORE, SNCC, NAACP to register Missisipi voters is made. They operate under the council of federal organizations, COFO.
-In june, three workers dissapear and are found dead later
- In aug, the dem nat'l convention refused to seat a protest slate of delegates elected thru COFOs Mississsippi Freedom Dem party.
Civil Rights act (1964)
result of freedom summer. CRA outlawed discrimination in public accomodations, education, and employment It did not address disenfranchisement and thus did not go far enough
March on Selma
A 1965 march to Selma, Alabama, by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights supporters to demand voting rights led to police violence and the murder of several marchers. The Selma violence galvanized voting rights supporters in Congress. President Lyndon B. Johnson responded by introducing the Voting Rights Act.
Voting Rights Act (1965)
An enactment by Congress in 1965 that prohibits the states and their political subdivisions from imposing voting qualifications or prerequisites to voting, or standards, practices, or procedures that deny or curtail the right of a U.S. citizen to vote because of race, color, or membership in a language minority group.
George Wallace
George Wallace was one of America's most outspoken supporters of racial segregation. As Governor of Alabama he fought integration and opposed MLK
Bloody Sunday
The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. They were the culmination of the movement in Selma for voting rights, launched by Amelia Boynton Robinson and her husband, who brought many prominent leaders of the American Civil Rights Movement to Selma, including Martin Luther King Jr., Jim Bevel, and Hosea Williams.

The first march occurred on "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965, when 600 civil rights marchers were attacked by state and local police with billy clubs and tear gas. Only the third, and last, march successfully made it into Montgomery. The route is memorialized as the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail.
Race in the North
embodied by Malcolm X
Malcolm X
was born in 1925, around Arc of Justice time. Eventually became member of nation of islam, supported separatism initially but after parting ways with the nation of islam he made a pilgramage to mecca and retracted his sepratist beliefs. Malcolm X believed in the use of violence if necessary.
Nation of Islam
Group that wanted to be seen as derived from asia so they took the biggest religion of that area which was islam. They thought that the "original man" was black and that they should be completely separate from whites.
Elijah Muhammad
prevented malc x from speaking on nation of islam's behalf after malc's jfk remark. Was seen as a hypocrite by malc x be/c he had affairs.
Black power
came after civil rights movement and the voting rights act. At this time, little had actually been changed. The term "black pwr" was coined by Stokeley carmichel
*Black pwr meant pride in Af. Amer culture, separatism, black autonomy and enterprise, and self defense.
Urban unrest
occured as a result of af amer frustration. Desegregation and voting rights had occured in the south but there had been resistance to demands for civil rights in the north: jobs, housing schools.
Watts Riot
in LA in 1965. More than 30 dead in 6 days and millions of dollars worth of damage.
Watts Riot
-August 1965 in LA, caused lots damage
-A product of the Watts riot was the Watts Labor community action committee. This committee did a study and found that there was high unemployment, poverty, poor schools and poor housing in the area, but it did little to enact change.
-As a result of the watts riots and subsequent inaction, black power gains popularity and the Black pwr party is founded.
Black Power
comes into being because of the Watts riots and subsequent inactivity.
1960s women's movement
First Wave - focused on women's suffrage
Second Wave - is focused on equality, which means diff things to diff people & is related to the civil rts mvmt
-third wave is the present, although this is still under debate
Origins of the Women's movement
1. Rosie the Riveter & WWII tried to get women into the workforce.
2. The labor movement
3. The cold war emphasis on nuclear families as a protection against communism
4. demographic changes - more were women
5. the civil rights movement
President's commission on the Status of Women
Was originally started by E. Roosevelt. It examined how current employment policies affected women. It documented widespread discrimination in wages, opportunities for advancement, and federal tax laws. It recommends fairer highering practices, childcare, and maternity leave.
Equal Pay Act (1963)
Prohibited the practice of paying women less money then men for the same job. It was signed by JFK and was difficult to enact
Feminine Mystique
-authored by Betty Friedan in 1963
-"problem that has no name" - women weren't able to reach their full human potential because of the pressure to be moms and wives.
Title VII
part of the civil rights act of 1964 that banned sex discrimination in the workplace and established equal opportunity employment commission to evaluate claims
EEOC
Equal opportunity employment commission. Evaluates any claims that women have regarding the Title 7 part of 1964's Civil Rights Act
The pill
Put on market in 1963. Nation's leading form of reversible contraception by 2 yrs later.
NOW
national organization of women; founded in 1966 by B. Friedan
Title IX
-bans sex discrimination in schools. has gone on to be the most important in sports
ERA
equal rts amendment, originally drafted by A. Paul. passed by congress in 72 but died be/c not ratified by states.
the New Left- What was it?
The generation of Americans who came of age in the 1960s and were radicalized by social injustices, the civil rts movement, and the war in vietnam. The new left was made up largely of college students be/c universities were such great places to organize.
the new left- roots of student activism
many of the first students involved were inspired by the civil rights movement
-they were reacting against what they saw as artificial, materialistic, conformist, and non-democratic society.
-Thought everyone should do meaningful work and be well paid for it.
the new left-philosophical roots
-like the civil rights movement, most students believed in non-violence.
-many were children of radical (socialist, communist, or social dems) parents, known as "red-diaper babies.
-others were inspired by christain existentialism - they were morally required to improve earthly conditions for all.
the new left-political beliefs
-liberalism held that the structure of america was fine, it just needed periodic reform
-old left believed that change would come thru organized labor
-new left: radical change would come thru students and the poor. Those left out of the system could create new structures
red diaper babies
-part of the philisophical roots of new left activism
-many were children of radical (socialist, communist, or social democratic) parents.
SDS
Formed in 1960 with the Port Huron Statement. Many of the students for a dem society (SDS) were active with SNCC.
They wanted a PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY. SDS eventually turned its focus to Vietnam.
Port Huron Statement
marked the formation of the Student democratic Society (SDS). SDS wanted a PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY.
Berkely Free Speech movement
students block a police car, many students arrested
John F Kenedy's first presidential debate
was televised, people who saw it on TV thought that kennedy had won.
Military Industrial Complex
In his farewell address, Eisenhower stated that the gov't had become too tied to military and not domestic issues. "Only knowledgeable citizenry can compel the meshing of industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods."
New frontier
-New frontier refered to Kenedy's domestic policy. It included:
1. Government intervention to halt the recession
2. Tax reform
3. Medical care for the elderly under social security
4. Federal aid to education
5. Federal support of civil rights
6. Space program
*Even w/ dem congress, Kenedy experienced opposition to some of his domestic policy be/c of the Roosevelt coalition: middle class liberals, southern whites, Af amer, and labor.
New economics
Kennedy's economic program, which emphasized liberal tendencies:
1. a moderate incr in fed spending
2. trade expansion act that authorized tarrif cuts
-major tax cuts
*Kenedy's ideas were not that much diff from Keysian economics.
JFK's domestic successes
-The peace corps, 1961
-equal pay act, 1963
-federal protection for J. Meredith and the freedom riders
-increase of min wage
-Johnson later passed much of kenedy's legislation, like civil rts act, medicare, and a package of tax cuts and reforms.
Four Key events
1. U2 incident 1960
2. Bay of Pigs invasion, 1961
3. Erection of the Berlin Wall
4. The Cuban Missle Crisis 1962
U2 spy plane incident
soviet citizens were viewing the U2 wreckage before the US was willing to admit spying
Eisenhower refused to apologize, so the hostility between the US and the USSR intensified.
Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)
Train cuban nationals to revel and then overthrow Castro
-planned by eis, executed by kennedy. Became a huge embarasment
Fidel Castro
-was critical of the inequity of wealth in Cuba
-he rebelled against Batista, who he had ran against in congress
missle gap
The US favored bombs, but the USSR favored rocketry
sputnick crisis
Russians launched their first satelite into orbit in '57, thus beating the US to the job.
The heyday of liberalism is the legacy of....
Johnson and Kennedy
1960s liberalism
-social causes of poverty
-quality of life, not just material well being
-collective responsibility for the disadvantaged through active government
-equal rts for everyone
Where do we see the 1960s liberalism?
In PRESIDENTS, LEGISLATION, AND MOVEMENTS
PRESIDENTS: Kennedy's New Frontier, Johnson's New Society, Nixions environmental protection act and family assistance program, occupational health and safety administration
LEGISLATION
equal pay act, civil rts act, voting rts act, economic opportunity act, elementary and secondary education act.
MOVEMENTS
black freedom's struggle, women's movement, the new left and especially SDS, black pwr movement, American Indian Movement, Chicano movement.
Lyndon B. Johnson
-Johnson was big and boorish, he used body language to convince people of his ideas.
Johnson was really into domestic issues, and his platform becomes the Great Society
The Great Society
Was evident in CIVIL RIGHTS, WAR ON POVERTY, MEDICARE AND MEDICAID, IMMIGRATION, EDUCATION, HOUSING and other programs
Economic opportunity act (1964)
Was part of Johnson's Great Society and its associated war on poverty. The economic opportunity act established operation head start, job corps, work-study program for university students, volunteers in Service America, basic education,and adult job training, and community action agencies (CAA)
Medicare and Medicaid
Were part of Johnson's great society
ESEA, 1965
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.
Part of Johnson's great society education policy
Federal funding of k-12 education as well as aid to schools in disadvantaged neighborhoods.
Higher education Act of 1965
-Part of Johnson's great society set of programs. The higher ed act allows for scholarships and loans
Limitations of the Great Society
***The Pace of legislation was a major limitation. The programs depended upon economic growth: a larger pie, no redistribution, no new taxes
the impact of vietnam caused major mistrust of gov't
-lack of funding
-concentration on providing training and skills, not assuring jobs.
-the flight of jobs paying adequate wages
1964 Presidential Campaign
marks the turning point between conservatism and liberalism (it was unusual that the south voted for the conservative republican B. Goldwater, who opposed great society programs be/c he said that they went too far)
Vietnam
-from Anti-colonial war to part of the cold war
-escalation under LBJ
-the anti-war movement
-vietnamization under richard nixion
-costs and legacy
Ho chi minh
Ho Chi Minh and the Vietnamese force the french to withdrawl in 1954
The Cold War and Vietnam
Late 1990s. US supports French in Indochina , as part of its concern for the security of western europe
-in the 50s, after communists gain control of china, vietnam is seen as crucial to containment
-US military pays for most of french military costs
Kennedy and Vietnam
-# of Us military advisors incr dramatically
-no amt of american millitary forces can conquer the enemy
Johnson's War
-Vietnam largely designed by his secretary of defense McNamara
-Gulf of Tonkin resolution - Following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, Lyndon Johnson, who was up for election that year, launched retaliatory strikes and went on national television on August 4, 1964. Although the USS Maddox (DD-731) had been involved in providing intelligence support for South Vietnamese attacks at Hon Me and Hon Ngu, Johnson's Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, went before Congress and denied that the United States Navy was supporting South Vietnamese military operations. He thus characterized the attack as "unprovoked." He also claimed before Congress that there was "unequivocable proof" of an "unprovoked" second attack against the Maddox.

As a result of McNamara's testimony, on August 7 Congress passed a joint resolution (Wikisource: H.J. RES 1145), known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, that facilitated increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

American troops enter Vietnam in 1965
R. McNamara
Johnson's sec of defense
Robert McNamara, went before Congress and denied that the United States Navy was supporting South Vietnamese military operations. He thus characterized the attack as "unprovoked." He also claimed before Congress that there was "unequivocable proof" of an "unprovoked" second attack against the Maddox.
Why did circumstances in Vietnam escalate?
-the president's advisors
-the domino theory: save the rest of asia from communism
-the need to appear strong and credible: the US needed to meet their commitments
-politics: avoid the charge of being soft on communism and losing another nation
-the arrogance of pwr
Gulf of Tonkin resolution
-Johnson could do whatever he wanted w/out congressional approval
-congress supports pres to take any means necessary to prevent armed attacks against the US
Tet offensive
Tet offensive, 1968, a series of crucial battles in the Vietnam War. On Jan. 31, 1968, the first day of the celebration of the lunar new year, Vietnam's most important holiday, the Vietnamese Communists launched a major offensive throughout South Vietnam. It took weeks for U.S. and South Vietnamese troops to retake all of the captured cities, including the former imperial capital of Hue. Although the offensive was not militarily successful for the Vietnamese Communists, it was a political and psychological victory for them. It dramatically contradicted optimistic claims by the U.S. government that the war had already been won.
1968: The turning point in Vietnam
-Tet offensive
-north K siezes us intelligence ship
-british financial collapse and withdrawl from the suez
-Johnson puts an end to US escalation of war and negotiations in Paris
-Johnson says he won't seek re-election
-R. Kennedy and MLK assasinated
-black neigh riot at the Chicago dem convention
Nixon in Vietnam
He wanted "Peace with Honor"
-did secret bombings of cambodia and laos
Vietnamization-wanted to train vietnamese to take care of themselves
-get out gradually
Vietnamization
During the Vietnam War, the U.S. program of turning over to the South Vietnamese government responsibility for waging the conflict, in order to implement withdrawal of U.S. military personnel.
Deescalization
Nixion and nat'l security advisor Kissinger focus on disengagement in vietnam in order to deal with the soviet union and china
-gradual withdrawl from vietnam accompanied by soviet bombings and invasions of Cambodia and Laos.
Anti war protests intensify
What made vietnam war hard to win
-guerilla warfare
-limitation of south vietnamese government and army
-determination of the north vietnamese and nat'l liberation front
-desire to avoid wider war
peace without victory
-US troops withdrawl, but N. Vietnamese troops could remain in the south.
-there was a mechanism for a political settlement of S. Vietnam's future..but it was settled on in the battlefield.
-Vietnam unified in May 1975 with capture of Saigon
Impact of Vietnam
-distrust of gov't
-end of great society and liberal ascendency
-economic instability
-social upheaval and a bitterly divided nation
-lots of vietnamese refugees
Kent State
bombings in Cambodia led to protesting where 4 std killed. opposition to war increased.
Nixion
-becane prominent during the red scare, during which he was a member of HUAC.
-was VP under eisenhower, had slush fund probs until checkers speech
-initially lost to jfk in close pres race
1968 Election
Nixion won over a non-unified dem party (split over death of RFK) as the "law and order" candidate
silent majority
people tired of the hippie counterculture who voted for nixion in the '68 election
Nixion's progressive policies
-passes affirmative action in gov't jobs
-increases the funds of the equal opportunities commission
-opposed bussing (civil rts)
-social security
-EPA
-family assistance program
-creates ocupat safety and health organiz
1968 dem convention
black neighborhoods break out in riot. There was violence at the dem convention.
Nixion's Detente
-part of Nixion's foreign policy
-means "period of cooling off"
-attempts to end viet war quickly & improve relations in China and Russia
Rise of conservatism
-roosevelt coalition allowed for new deal and liberal programs after that to exist.
-consisted of middle class liberals southern whites Af Amer and labor
Challenges to the New Deal Coalition
-Vietnam
-Certain Great society programs, which fell apart on account of poor funding
-racial issues- Af amer start to vote dem be/c they did the voting rts act?
-law and order
-economic crises
-oilshortages
-stagflation=Sluggish economic growth coupled with a high rate of inflation and unemployment.
Types of Conservatism
1. the traditional right= economic conservatism
2. the new right = social conservatism
Economic conservatism
The traditional right. Involved limited government, anti-communism, strong military deferse.
Social conservatism
-the politicalization of evangelicals and fundamentalists
-more religion (christianity) in public life
-return to family values.
New right issues
social conservatism
-anti-abortion
-anti-era equal rights amendment (ERA would make sexes completely equal)
-school prayer
-homosexuality
Policy continuity going into conservatism
1. liberal initiatives in the nixion administration
2. social security and medicare
3. environmental protection
Policy changes in conservatism
-tax cuts with greater reductions for corporations and the wealthy
-deregulation of business
regan revolution
1. cut gov't programs
2. end cold war
republican coalition
-traditional midwest
-white south
-portions of white working class
-the new right
-corporate america
"Reganomics"
economic and tax policies based on supply-side economic theory (trickle down). Instead of cutting taxes fo the poor, cut taxes for the wealthy which would boost the economy and trickle down to help everyone.
"Trickle down theory"
Instead of cutting taxes fo the poor, cut taxes for the wealthy which would boost the economy and trickle down to help everyone.
Economic Recovery Act (1981)
The economic recovery act was the first act of reganomics. It reduced income tax rates by 25% over three years
Professional Air traffic controllers Strike
-regan sides with businesses
-PATCO workers go on strike and Regan fires the ones that don't go back to work
Deregulation during REGAN
regan reduced or cut federal regulation in the workplace, healthcare, and consmer protection and the environment BUT government spending actually went up
Star WArs
-occured during regan administration; indicated that gov't spending was going up; SW involved a shield of missles and was highly controversial.
Iran-Contra affair
This negatively impacted the Regan presidency.
-Army sold arms illegally and funded a group to overthrow the government.
-How much did Regan know? This teflon president said that none of it stuck to him (he denied responsibility) but acknowledge that he wasn't aware of all of the activities of his administration.
End of the Cold War
The berlin wall falls in 89
the soviet union falls apart in 1991
When the cold war ends, it's the termination of "bloodless" revolutions in eastern europe.
AIDS epidemic
fist IDed in 81, not acknowledged rt away
part of social politics in regan admin
War on Drugs
part of social politics in regan admin
What was regans policy on affirmative action and bussing (civil rts)?
He opposed them. This opposition to them was part of his deregulation plan.
A new economic order
shift to a service industry
Trade deficit
when a coutry sends out for more products than it is making.