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33 Cards in this Set

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Joules Michalet
Coined term "Renaissance" 1855-1858
Georgio Visari
Largely responsible for construction of Uffizi
Jacob Burckhardt
Father of cultural history approach
-"Point of departure for modern world."
Medicci family
Based in Florence, in charge of Papal banking
Cosimi de Medicci
Studied and collected Ancient writings. Promoted and preserved writing of antiquity.
Lorenzo
Grandson to Cosimi de Medecci. Spent 1/2 of Florence's money on cultural persuits.
Petrarch
Father of humanism
Leonardo Bruni
Humanist who promoted internal locust of control. Reflective of individualism.
Donatello
Constructed sculpture in 1460s that was 1st nude since antiquity.
Da Vinci
"Virtuoso." Paintings suggested gender ambiguity. Paintings sfumato (smoky).
Rafael
Unusually sensative. Loved by contemporaries. Best known for "School of Athens"
Michelangelo
Sculptor, architect, painter.
"David"- Began sculpting at age 26. Completed in 1504. Sistine chapel- 4 years
Designed dome of St Peters vasicila
Yohan Gutenberg
1450- Printing press
1456- Gutenberg Bible
1500- Printing press operated in at least 200 cities in Europe
Merandola
Read Greek, Hebrew, Latin,and Arabic
-focused on human spirit, psychology
-argues that it is futile to keep rulers of state virtuous
-though God should be kept out of politics
-saw state as a man made creation
Castiglione
"Book of the Courtier"
said men need broad education and to be virtuoso
Nicholas V
Obtained ~9,000 manuscripts for Vatican library
Sixtus IV
built Vatican library
John Wycliffe
England: Emphasized salvation through independent faith, translated Bible into English 1320-1384
Jan Hus
Bohemia- Wanted to separate from Catholic church. Wanted Bohemia to separate from Holy Roman Empire
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor crowned by Pope. Seen as a temporal leader.
Martin Luther
-Monk, Order of Hermits in St. Augestine, ordained in 1507
-1512: earned doctorate in theology
-1510: traveled to Rome and concerned???
-troubled by catholic teachings that perfection was required for salvation according to faith
-Believed in a loving God, Sola Scriptura, refuted idea of Papal infalability, believed Papacy was blocking reform
-Intended to reform Catholic Church from within, not to start a new sect
-excommunicated, followers start new sect
-1521: Charles V decides to try Luter for Heracy, Luther goes into hiding to avoid arrest
-Translates Bible to German while in hiding
-Supported by German princes as a way of resisting Charles V
-Supporters=protestants saved from taxes
-1524-1525: Peasant revolt against social & economic inequality, Luther encourages Princes not to have mercy on them, did not see motives by faith
Johann Tetzel
Angry reaction from Catholic Church
Ulrich Zwingly
- Said if not stated in Bible, not to be believed
- People's priest in Zurich "Zwinglism"
- Made Zurich a protestant center
- Disagreed w/ Luther in terms of transubstantiation
- Emphasized divine nature over human nature-bread and wine only symbolic
Catherine de Medecci
-becomes queen of France, married Henry II
-Not popular in France, not a member of aristocracy, not royalty
-introduced new ways of life in france (fork and knife, men and women eating together, corsett)
-Concerned with preservation of a strong Monarchy, extremely involved in children's marraige choices
-Daughter Margaret of Valois, C de M thought her marraige might be an opportunity to settle religious conflict.
-Marries daughter to Henry of Navarro, hugenot
- Establishes plot to murder hugenot leader in Coligny
-Wedding- many protestants in uprising, 20,000 deaths result, symbol of martyrdom
Henry of Navare
Becomes Henry IV king of France
-pressured to convert to Catholicism -converts
"Paris is worth a mass"
1598- issues edict of Nantes-granted religious freedom, full civil rights, set up duel judicial system, provided military defense of 200 towns
Louis XIII
established absolutism in France
Richelieu
advisor to Louis XIII
Louis XIV
comes to power at age 5. sees revolts as a child--increases absolutist gov't-works to give appearence of decentralization with Versailles system
Peter the Great
1682-1725- Wanted to turn Russia into a Major European power
-modernizes army by opposing standards compatible to Western Europe
-St. Petersberg "Window to the west"
-Peterhof "Russian Versailles"
-Wed aristocracy to absolute state, gave them titles, land, peasants
-Romanov dynasty maintains power until russian Revolution in 1917
James I
-1st of Stuarts
-not well respected by parliment because of porr judgement
-strengthened severity of laws against Catholics
"Jamestown"
-Believed he had a divine right to rule
Guy Faukes
-visioned religious toleration in England
Charles I
-Apex of absolutism in England
-Issues of religion and taxation
-collected forced lones
-formalized some practices in Church of England-book of common prayer-appoints bishops in Scotland
-Puritans believe he is trying to increase Catholic influence in Church of England
-1629- disbands parliment, parliment does not meet again until 1640
-War of Roundheads vs cavaleers-Captured by a group of scottish Presbyterians--had previously tried to put bishops and a book of common prayer in Scotland
-Scottish turn C I to Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
Leader of Roundheads (Roundheads want to limit king's power)
-Charles I turned to him in War of Roundheads vs. Cavaleers
-Keeps Charles I for 2 yrs and decides to behead him
-Names self lor protector of commonwealth
-Makes England a military dictatorship and divides it into 11 military districts.