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86 Cards in this Set

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Wrote essays advocating a new scientific method based on induction and empiricism.
Bacon
Scientist who mixed together portions of both geocentric and heliocentric methods.
Brahe
Scientist who formulated laws about the volume of gases.
Boyle
Catholic monarch who was restored to the throne in 1660, who tried to grant religious tolerance to Catholics and Dissenters
Charles II
Documents utilized by 2 English kings to benefit the religious liberties of their subjects
Declaration of Indulgence
Son of James I; proponent of royal prerogative and "High Church" ecclisiology and ritual, lost his head after losing the English civil war
Charles I
Englishmen who supported the king during the English Civil War
Cavaliers
Form of reasoning from a single general premise to many indivudal specific conclusions; favored by Descartes
Deduction
Generic name for English Congregationalists during the 17th century
Independents
After the death of England's Queen Elizabeth I, her cousin and successor, already king of scotland, inaugurated the rule of this dynastic family
Stuart
Form of reasoning from many indivudual specific premises to a single general conclusion; championed by Newton and Bacon
Induction
Polish-German scientist who first refuted the geocentric model of the cosmo and posited instead a heliocentric model
Copernicus
Charles I's archbishop of Canterbury; his championship of "High Church" theology and ritual eventually led to political crisis, war between England and Scotland, and ultimately his execution by a vengeful Parliament
Laud
German scientist who developed calculus, asserted that all existence was composed of tiny irreducible units called monads, and supported philosophical optimism
Leibniz
These "gifts" extorted by Jamies I from his English subjects were very unpopular and eventually declared illegal in St. John's case
benevolences
This tax was viewed as an abuse when assessed from inland landholders by an English king; a certain Hampden unsuccessfully litigated against it
Ship money
Calvinist protestants in England or Scotland who believed that the Church should be governed in partly decentralized manner by regional panels of elders
Presbyterians
The English royal financial policy designed by Thomas Wentworth for Charles I
Thorough
This royal son of Charles I was duke of York before his accession to the thone; an adult convert to Catholicism, he fell victim to the Glorious Revolution after his wife gave birth to a boy in 1688; deposed by his daughter and son in law, he failed at a comeback and died in exile
James II
English scientist refuted the centuries-old doctrine of two circulatory systems in the human body; he reasoned that the duller and richer colors of circulating blood result from differing levels of oxygenation within a single circulatory system
William Harvey
This English parliamentary enactment of 1673 prohibitied public service by Catholics and Dissenters as crown officials or military commanders; a target of his legislation was the king's own brother, who then held the rank of lord high admiral of England
Test Act
Louis XIV's most famous comptroller-general or finance minister; he followed mercantilist policies
Colbert
French aristocrats whose families had been ennobled for their bureaucratic/civil service to the crown
Nobility of the Robe
The northeastern German principality that became the nucleus of the later kingdom of Prussia
Brandenburg
This conflict was the last and greatest of Louis XIV's wars partly caused by the claim that the French king's grandson should become monarch of a neighboring kingdom
War of Spanish Succession
Habsburg general of north Italian origin often successful in battles against the French and the Turks during the late seventeenth century
Eugene of Savoy
He worked for Louis XIV and was the foremost military engineer of his day
Vauban
In this book of fiction Voltaire satirized his philosophical optimism and indicated instead how the world abounded in greed, lust, superstition, and bigotry
Candide
Italian born Cardinal who advised a Queen-regent of France and her son, young Louis XIV
Mazarin
The foundation of this was teh perjured testimony of the notorious liar Titus Oates regarding a supposed conspiracy against Charles II; the result of this was the unjust execution of several innocent English catholics
Popish Plot
This Holy Roman emperor and head of the Austrian Habsburgs faced two military challenges at the same time, namely the aggression of Louis XIV and an invasion by the Turks; in the first instance he achieved a stalemate, while in the second his armies secured large territories to the southeast
Leopold I
In this book Rousseau blamed much of the evil in the world on the institution of private property, which led to unequal distribution of goods
Discourse on the Origins of Inequality
Group of school of Englightened philosophes who advocated the dismantling of mercantilism and stressed the crucial importance of argicultural production as the best indicator of wealth; Quesnay was the most important thinker of the group
Physiocrats
The violent conflict started by Frederick II after the diplomatic revolution of 1756; it pitted Prussia and Britain against Austria, France, and russia; no significant territorial changes occurred in Europe, but Britain won significant territories in North America and India; known also as the French and Indian War in American History
Seven Years War
Italian author of a treatise that advocated a rational criminal justice system based on three "laws" of penology
Beccaria
Italian-born mother of Louis XIII who, while regent of France, occasionally had a stormy relationship with her son the king
Marie de Medici
A French king's grant of limited religious toleration to French Protestants
Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV repressed these adherents of a theological tendency or school within seventeenth-century Roman Catholicism in France that particularly stressed God's foreknowledge and also the exclusive importance of divine grace
Jansenists
Editor in Chief of the Encyclopedia
Diderot
Louis XIV's thirty-odd officers who supervise a wide range of royal business in the provinces; they were periodically moved from district to district
Intendants
Prussian royal composer of musical pieces and the greatest military genius of his dynasty
Frederick II
Named after the word for slingshot in French, this aristocratic revolt and regime seized power in 1648 and misruled France for the next half-decade
Fronde
Name of the dynastic family that ruled Prussia throughout the early-modern and modern periods
Hohenzollern
One result of the French Wars of Religion was the extinction of the Valois dynasty and the accession of this dynasty to the French crown
Bourbon
Rousseau felt that political society must be organized in comformance to this principle concept as both a political and moral imperative
General Will
Widow of Louis XIII, the Spanish-born Habsburg Queen of France served as regent to her son, the new boy-king; she and Mazarin could not prevent the initial success of the Fronde
Anne of Austria
Book of fiction written by Rousseau outlining a novel method to educate children according to the dictates of nature
Emile
Aristocratic French lawyer who advocated in the Spirit of the Laws the need in government for separation of powers and checks-and-balances
Montesquieu
A Prussian king created this institution specifically in order to aid land-owners in the scientific improvement of their argicultural properties
Land Mortgage Credit Association
Another name for French Protestants whose etymology is still uncertain
Huguenots
This influential Philosophe, arugable the great nonconformist of the Enlightenment, authored the Social Contract
Rousseau
These french aristocrats owed their own exalted social status to the fact that they were descending intially from the realm's warrior elite
Nobility of the Sword
Absolutist French kings had managed to supress this institution, the legislature of France, for 175 years before it was convened again in 1789
Estates General
This document established a limited constitutional monarchy in France that soon failed, leading to the proclamation of a republic and the king's death
Constitution of 1791
She was Napoleon Bonapart'es first wife and French empress; he divorced her because she could not bear him children
Josephine de Beauharnais
In Central Europe, the labor obligation owed by unfree peasants to their landlords; a Habsburg ruler decreed its conversion to a cash payment to the landlords and the government
robot
A form of paper money developed during the French revolution and baked by land confiscated by the Catholic Church; after a period of years this money was practically worthless
Assignat
During the Reign of Terror Robespierre even had this man, a fellow radical Mountain Jacobin, condemned and executed as a "traitor" to France
Danton
This American inventor developed the first navigable steamboat and sailed down the Hudson River
Fulton
Three-member executive committee established by the Constitution of the Year VIII after the end of the Directory; Napoleon was a prominent member of this group
Consulate
A scheme of succession was contrived in this document by an Austrian Habsburg ruler in order to assure the legal unity of his dynasty's territories and the possibility of female inheritance
Pragmatic Sanction
This Napoleonic lawbook provided for the model for legal practices on the rest of the European continent, in Latin America, and in Louisiana; it also mirrored inconsitently both enlightened and autocratic tendencies
Civil Code
French revolutionary legislation forbidding both the creation of labor unions and workers' right to strike
Le Chapellier Law
This wave of peasant violent in several rural regions of France during summer 1789 was an expression of mass hysteria and led to the burning of aristocratic property, destruction of records, refusal to pay seigneural dues, and occasional lynching of nobles
Great Fear
This British inventor developed the first practical steam railway locomotive during the 1820's
Stephenson
Holy Roman Emperor and enlightened absolutist whose inability to delegate authority and build poltical concensus led to his own early death and the partial failure of his reforms; his name became a byword for the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the subordination of the Catholic clergy to the state
Joseph II
One of the new governmental districts created in France by the revolutionary government
Departement
Inventor of the device which enabled a more rapid separation of seed from cotton fiber and thus made the continuance of slavery possible in the southern United States
Eli Whitney
Inventor of the flying shuttle in 1733
Kay
Inventor of the spinning Jenny
Hargreaves
This agreement between Bonaparte's Consulate and the Papacy represented a compromise peace between the French state and the Catholic Church in France
Concordat of 1801
Five-member executive committee established by the Constitution of Year III after the end of the Reign of Terror
Directory
In France before 1789, the labor obligation owed by unfree peasants to work on roads, bridges, and canals
Corvee
In France before 1789, this societal group contained the lay aristocracy
Second Estate
Upon her accession to power in 1740, this Habsburg ruler was attacked without provocation by the new king of Prussia; she subsequently surrounded herself with clerical advisors and fostered a policy in favor of German language and culture
Maria Theresa
Without any prior consultation with the pope and French bishops, the National Assembly promulgated this document and thereby transformed the Catholic Church in France into a brance of the secular state
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
This German inventor developed in the late 1860's the open-hearth process for increased and more inexpensive production of steel
Siemens
This eighteenth-century French king was lazy, willful, and during his nearly 60 year old reign, was generally incapable of mastering his government's financial problems
Louis XV
This inventor developed a process for manufacturing steel more rapidly and in larger quantities than before; his converter injected air into moltern iron
Bessemer
This French political assembly proclaimed France a republic, condemned the king to death, authored two constitutions, and survived both the Terror and the failed Vendemiaire coup
Convention
The most extreme faction of the Jacobins; in sessions of the Convention they sat highest in the hall
Mountain Jacobins
The French revolutionary month wherein the deposition and execution of Robespierre took place; hence the regime responsible for the end of hte Reign of Terror is named according to it
Thermidor
This businessman's improvement of iron production methods led to his firm's construction of the first all-iron bridge
Darby
The French lawyer and leader of the mountain Jacobins who was the prime architect and final victim of the Reign of Terror
Robespierre
This chief minister of Louis XVI was a Physiocrat who attempted unseccessfully to inhibit royal monopolies, remove internal tariffs on the grain trade, and convert the corvee into a general land tax
Turgot
Napoleon Bonaparte was born on this Mediterranean island
Corsica