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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Rule of society by the people.
democracy
Rule of society by one person.
monarchy
Society is governed by small, elite group whose status was inherited at birth.
aristocracy
Rule by elite, but status is determined by wealth.
oligarchy
What Greeks called all other peoples.
Barbaros
Greek independent city-states
polis
These people were ruled by a "mother goddess," women took part in recreational activities, great traders, highly sanitary, quality roads.
Minoans
A people of warrior society, ruled by a king. Worshiped a sky god who used a thunderbolt weapon.
Myceneans
This group enslaved people, turned into a military society, first totalitarian society in history, defective children were killed.
Spartans
State has total, unquestioned control over society.
totalitarian
Group ruled by an aristocracy, classes were unequal, their ruler was Draco.
Athens
Name of Draco's harsh law code.
"Code Written in Blood"
Appointed dictator of Athens for 1 year, he freed enslaved people, limited land one person could own, and encouraged trade.
Solon
He was the 2nd dictator of Athens for 1 year. He created the first participatory democracy, a legislature called "ecclesia," and a "Council of 500."
Cleisthenes
Greek colonies, ruled by Persia. They revolted, and asked Athens to help them.
Ionia
Persians attacked Athens. Athens won, and said this proved that free men fight better than slaves.
Battle of Marathon
Persia surrounded Spartans. Spartans groomed themselves for death, and fought until the last Spartan died.
Battle of Thermopylae
Athens defeated the Persians. This battle was a turning point in history, because if Persia had one, Greeks self-rule, citizenship, and scientific views of world would have been lost.
Battle of Salamis
Athenians founded this group of cities to ward against further Persian threat.
Delian League
This war is an example of fear causing a war. Fighting was between Athens and Sparta and lasted 30 years.
Pelopponnesian War
One who is too ambitious and proud. He tries to be equal to gods.
hubris
One who behaved overly ambitious sufers retribution.
nemesis
Word meaning "love for wisdom."
philosophy
Considered the Father of Philosophy, he said everything, at a basic level, was made of water.
Thales
Had an atomic theory--said everything was composed of atoms.
Democritus
He believed all in nature could be explained through mathematical relationships.
Pythagoras
He went down in history as a "mortar for the cause of truth." He questioned, "What is a good life?" and "What is justice?"
Socrates
Famous for his theory of "ideal forms," he said the soul could make contact with true beauty and goodness. He wrote "The Republic," which described his idea of a perfect government.
Plato
He rejected Plato's ideal forms. He said that if you wanted to understand something, you must study it. He founded all modern academic subjects, such as Biology, etc.
Aristotle
Macedonian king who reunited the Greeks.
Phillip II
Son of Phillip II, who was military genius. He led the Greeks in conquering all of the ancient world, and wanted "divine honors."
Alexander the Great
During this period, after Alexander's death, Greek ideas and thinking spread beyond just Greece.
Hellenistic Period
What Romans believed every man should aspire to, which means "grave, serious, and devoted to duty."
"gravitas"
Language of the Roman people, which is still used today by the Catholic church and in legal terms.
Latin
Cruel, war-like people who conquered and ruled Romans for 100 years. Romans absorbed their culture, which consisted of chariot racing, gladiatorial activities, Trojan dress, etc.
Etruscans
Savage, war-like people who burned down Rome and threatened their existense. Rome had to pay them to leave. This traumatic experience caused Romans to become obsessed by strength.
Gauls
Roman government cosisting of aristocratic Patricians and commoners called Plebians.
The "Republic"
Rome's executive, "presidential" figure
The Consul
Was composed of aristocrats who made laws and decisions.
The Senate
Productive people of Rome, who farmed and fought in armies.
Plebeans
Patrians, realizing how much they needed the Plebeans, were forced to create this office, which put in place someone who looked out for the common people's interests.
Office of Tribune
The one word the Tribune could walk in and say during unfair lawmaking, which means, "I forbid."
Veto
Wars between Carthage and Rome.
Punic Wars
Located in North America, very strong and expanding much as Rome was, war between Rome and this place was inevitable.
Carthage
Carthogenian commander.
Hannibal
2 brothers who made a last effort to revive the old Republic of Rome.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
A soldier who devotes most of his lifetime fighting in the army.
Professional soldier
An army commander who became very powerful and named himself dictator of Rome for life.
Julius Caesar
He wrote about the very famous assassination of Julius Caesar in the Senate.
Shakespeare
A new emperor of Rome who claimed he had restored the Republic, although he had complete control of army and everything else.
Octavian
Means "Roman peace," this was the stable government Rome brought throughout the empire.
"Pax Romana"