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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a particular or distinctive form of artistic expression characteristic of a person, people or period
a style of architecture exemplifying the commonest building techniques based on the forms and materials of a particular historical period, region, or group of people
What are the 5 styles of columns?
based on diameter--Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian (Greek orders adopted by Romans), and Tuscan and Composite (Roman in origin)
the uppermost member of a classical entablature, consisting typically of a cymatium, corona, and bed molding
the horizontal part of a classical entablature between the cornice and architrave, often decorated with sculpture in low relief
the lowermost division of a classical entablature, resting directly on the column capitals and supporting the frieze
the distinctively treated upper end of a column, pillar, or pier, crowning the shaft and taking the weight of the entablature or architrave
horizontal section of classical order that rests on the columns, usually composed of a cornice, frieze, and architrave
oldest (7th century B.C.)
Simplest- no base, fluted column, plain cushion shaped capital, square abacus, plain architrave, and a frieze with triglyphs and metotope
Greek origin in Asia Minor colonies in 6th century
 Spiral volutes, curls of hair or rams’ horns, on the capital and elaborate entablatures including egg-and-dart molding and dentils
Greek origin in 4th century but used most by Romans
 Most ornate and complex with a deep bell-shaped capital or acanthus leaves
simplified Roman Doric
 Unfluted column shaft, plain base, no decoration in the entablature
Roman combination of Corinthian bell with Ionic volutes
 Especially in the United States and other colonial architecture, the orders are modified further
Archeaologists v. Preservationists
o A- seek to answer questions about the nature of human culture and society
o P- engage in or support the action of preserving; to maintain or keep alive, such as a memory or quality
How do we figure out method of construction
• Experimental Archaeology: a branch of archaeology that studies ancient technology by reproducing it or by recreating a type of site to study the processes of site formation
How do we identify original decoration?
• Survey and “excavation”
• Refer to historical record
How do we determine a building’s age?
• Materials: local vs. machine vs. mass produced
• Construction techniques: from post-and-girt to balloon frames
• Styles: Classical (Ancient and Renaissance), Medieval, or Modern
Wood Framing
• 1st: logs
• 2nd: post-and-girt
• 3rd: braced frame
• 4th: balloon frame
• 5th: platform frame
load bearing walls
the forces are distributed in a triangle throughout the material of the wall
a brick or other masonry unit laid horizontally in a wall with the longer edge exposed or parallel to the surface
a brick or other masonry unit laid horizontally in a wall with the longer end exposed or parallel to the surface
brick laid horizontally on the longer edge with the shorter end exposed (mollock)
a brick laid vertically with the longer face edge exposed
a brick laid vertically with the broad face exposed
brick laid horizontally on the longer edge with the broad face exposed (bull stretcher)
stretcher and header courses alternate
3, 5, or 7 courses of stretchers between single courses of headers
stretchers and headers alternate within the same courses (varying patterns)
Ancient Classical (timeline)
Medieval (timeline)
architecture of the European Middle Ages: Byzantine, pre-Romanesque, Romanesque, and Gothic (476-c1500)
Renaissance Classical (timeline)
inspired by Ancient Classicism and occuring in the 15th and 16th centuries
Modern (timeline)
20th century architecture styles - some uniquely American, American in origin, or international in influence
main reasons for alterations
update appearance of building, add living space, and minimize maintenance
why aren't historic records enough?
not everything gets recorded and second records get lost. the archaeological record can substantiate, supplement, and refine the written record. physical analysis gets us info and a level of detail not otherwise available.
techniques above and below ground
dating: absolute dating like dendochronology or radiometeric dating (can be expensive!), or relative dating like geochronology or stratigraphic sequencing. Surveying: field walking, sonar/radar, and sampling
from the dirt down..
Ex/ Drayton Hall Field School 2005--looking for slave quarters. Found what they believe was a stable. Used techniques like ground-penetrating radar and shovel tests
from the dirt up...
trying to figure out age of buildings and structures. use, design or decoration of buildings and structures originally or during its period of significance. traditional construction techniques, and original location
how do we determine original use?
artifacts, ecofacts, features, and historical record if available
19th century foundations
pier foundations-wood or masonry piers. basement wall foundations-load bearing walls (i.e. stone, masonry, or concrete). perimeter wall foundations-shallow basement wall foundations
issues with wood?
fungus-varies with humidity (e.g. dry rot and wet rot)
insects-varies geographically (e.g. termites and beetles)
Stressed- e.g. bending and sheer
solid masonry
a wall constructed with brick or other solid masonry units laid continuously
types of masonry
sod, adobe (unfired) brick, fired brick, clay tile, uncut stone, cut stone, concrete block, composite masonry
post and girt
heavy timber fram with hewn joints
braced frame
combination of heavy timber frame with hewn joints and two-by-fours for floor support
platform frame
built of two-by-fours with nailed joints
balloon frame
built of two by fours with nailed joints