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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
characteristic epithelial cells in urinary tract
function of kidney
removal of organic wastes, urea, uric acid, creatinine. regulate blood pressure and volume, conserve water, ion regulation, stabilize pH, conserve nutrients, eliminate waste, detox proteins, stimulate red blood cells production
amount blood thru kidney in ea minute
amount filtrate produced ea minute by kidney
amount urine produced ea minute
1 ml, or 1.5 L per 24 hours
how many nephrons
1-3 million per kidney
functional unit of kidney
how much tubule per kidney
40 miles
interlobar artery
artery b/w lobes of kidney
finer arteries that branch b/w lobules, unique in that they branch and then re-connect
arteries that arc and define boundaries b/w medulla and ?
hormone made by kidney to increase RBC
proximal tubule
water resorbed to blood (diffusion), Amino acids, Na+, glucose, bicarbonate, tranported to blood
distal tubule
pH adjustment (H+ secreted into tubules), Na+ reabsorbed, aldosterone
cortex parts
proximal tubule, distal tubule
urine pH
medulla parts
henle's loop (de and ascending), collecting tubule and duct.High osmolality so counter current exchange system
Descending loop of henle
more water into blood results in increased osmolality in tubule
Ascending loop of henle
water impermeable, Na+ pumped into blood against gradient
Collecting tubule and duct
water permeable (ADH): then water retention, H+ secreted, urea reabsorbed
vascular pole
where artery comes in and out from renal corpuscle
urinary pole
where urine leaves from renal corpuscle
renal corpuscle
glomerulus and bowmans capsule
bowmans capsule
visceral and parietal layers
podocytes (visceral layer)
basement membrane fuses with capillary basement membrane
afferent / efferent arterioles, glomerular caps fenestrated, mesangial cells between caps.
mesangeal cells
cells b/w capillaries
juxtaglomerular cells
modified arterial smooth muscle around afferent arterioles
juxtaglomerular apparatus
2 parts: macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells, function together to regulate blood pressure
macula densa
specialization where distal con tub contacts afferent arteriole. Nuclei are close together, monitors ion strength of filtrate, signals JG cells to release renin.
enzyme of kidney
juxtaglomerular cells
modified smooth muscle of affernet arteriole. contains renin: released into blood when stimulated by macula densa or by nerve
proximal convoluted tubule
simple cuboidal, microvilli brush border, lots of basolateral interdigitations, lots mitochondria, facilitate diffusion glucos, AA, Na+ out pump, energy for active transport
pars recta of prox tube
simple cuboidal, microvilli,, no interdigitations, organic acids inNa
thin descending/ascending limbs
simple squamous, no interdigitations or microvilli, few mitochondria, no active transport, low E required
thick ascending limb
simple cuboidal, no microvilli, lots interdigitations, no facilitated diffusion, Na+ out
Distal convoluted tubule
simple cuboidal, lots interdigitations, lots mito, Na+ out, E for active transport
collecting tubule
simple cuboidal, principal cells, intercalated cells, DCT cells, collecting tubule cells
cortical collecting duct
simple columnar, principal cells, intercalated cells
medullary collecting duct
simple columnar, principal cells, ADH dependent water resorption