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16 Cards in this Set

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Blood- a type of CT
- cells with greater volume of ECM (the fluid is the ECM)
- Function: transport, homeostasis (balance of fluids), immune response
Blood Composition
Cells:
- Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
- Leukocytes (white blood cells)
- Platelets (thrombocytes)

Extracellular Matrix: plasma

Hematocrit- how you measure the amount of RBC in your body
Plasma
- liquid extracellular matrix
- Composition:
water (91-92%)
proteins (7-8%)- including:
Albumin (maintains osmotic pressure (responsible for exerting the concentration gradient btwn blood and ECM), 50% of the proteins)
Globulins (family of proteins ex: immunoglobulins- antibodies)
Fibrinogen (involved in blood clotting process- it is transformed into fibrin)
Other solutes (1-2%)

Interstitial fluid of CT derived from blood plasma
Erythrocyte
- anucleate, biconcave disk
- function: oxygen delivery and CO2 removal
- flexible, cytoskeleton-dependent shape
- the unique cell shape helps with gas exchange
- distinct cytoskeleton maintains shape (maintains shape by membrane proteins)
- RBC lifespan = 120 days
Hemoglobin
- a protein with 4 polypeptide chains (alpha and beta chains) with Heme groups
- Iron in Heme group binds oxygen
- Main type of Hemoglobin: HbA (90-95% made of this; 2 alpha and two beta chains)
Diseases associated with Hemoglobin
- Anemia- low RBC count
-Hypochromic anemia (low amounts of hemoglobin)
-Polycythemia (erythrocytosis)- higher concentration of RBC; can happen in high altitudes)

- Sickle Cell Anemia- point mutation in one of the beta chains; aren't flexible so they tend to clot and also the cells don't live as long. Carriers of Sickle Cell Anemia do have benefits against malaria)
ABO Blood Group:
Blood Types:
- A
- B
- AB
- O
-A: Erythrocyte surface antigen= A antigen; Serum antibody= anti-B

-B: Erythrocyte surface antigen= B antigen; Serum antibody= Anti-A

-AB: Erythrocyte Surface antigen= A & B antigen; Serum antibody= no antibody (universal acceptor)

-O: Erythrocyte surface antigen= no antigen; Serum antibody= anti-A and B (universal donor)

Ex: A types have antibodies that are anti-B
Rh+
another antigen on the surface of blood (most people are +). Women who are Rh- and have a baby who is Rh-, if during the delivery or development the baby's blood could get back to mom and she makes antibodies. The problem: if the 2nd baby is Rh+, the antibodies could be harmful to the baby (erythroblastosis fetalis)
Neutrophils
- 10-12 um; most numerous WBCs
- multilobed nucleus (2-5)
bar body in females
- neutrophils contain 3 granule types:
1. Specific granules (small)- contain various enzymes
2. Azurophiles (target bacteria)
3. Tertiary granules (aid in migration)
- Bacteria Target
Neutrophil Migration
- travel along blood to infection sites and target pathogens
- they have surface adhesion molecules (selectin- on the surface of the circulating neutrophil, interacts with receptors on the surface of the endothelial cells)
Eosinophil
- 2-4% of leukocytes
- bilobed nucleus
- two granules: specific granules (contain a crystalloid body) and azurophilic granules
- worm killers- kill parasitic worms in the heart
- eosinophils are associated with allergic rxns, parasitic infections, and chronic inflammation
Basophil
-associated with lots of granules
- rare
- irregularly lobed nucleus
- two granules: specific granules (heparin containing granules- heparin is an anticoagulant); azurophilic granules
- supplement mast cells (basophils act like mast cells in helping take up antigens)
Lymphocyte
- 2 size groups
small (6-8 um)
med/lg (up to 18 um)
- small most abundant:
nucleus often indented
ring shaped cytoplasm
- lymphocytes are the main functional cells of the immune system
Monocyte
- 12-20 um (largest of the WBCs)
- oval nucleus- horse-shoe or kidney shaped
- numerous microvilli
- they transform macrophages in CT, which function as antigen-presenting cells in the immune system
- monocytes are the precursors of the cells of the mononuclear phagocytotic system
Platelets (Thrombocytes)
- fragments of cells- not actually cells
- nonnucleated disklike cell fragments (megakaryocytes in bone marrow are where platelets are derived from)
- open canalicular system
- marginal microtubule bundles
- function in blood clotting
- hemophilia (can't clot blood- more common in men)

- megakaryocytes- have karyokinesis but no cytokinesis (can get up to 64n- polyploidy)
- no nucleus in platelets
Hematopoiesis
- the formation of blood cells
- start with pluripotent cell--> lymphoid or myeloid cells
- Lymphoids: form lymphocytes and plasma cells
- Myeloids: form RBC, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, megakaryocytes
- all of this occurs in the bone marrow