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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the 4 layers of the esophagus
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, adventitia
Name the 3 layers of the mucosa of the esophagus
Epithelium, Lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
Characterize the epithelia of the epithelium of the esophagus
stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium
Compare the lamina propria of the esophagus to the lamina propria of the intestine and stomach
denser and less cellular
Describe the muscularis mucosae of the esophagus
arranged in bundles of thick, longitudinal muscle fibers, separated by connective tissue.
What layers of the esophagus are glands located?
mucosa and submucosa
Where are mucosal glands of the esophagus typically located?
Proximally or distally
Characterize mucosal glands of the esophagus
coiled mucous glands which resemble gastric cardiac glands
Where are submucosal glands of the esophagus typically located?
Scattered throughout the esophagus
Characterize submucosal glands of the esophagus
small, mucousal glands
Characterize the submucosa of the esophagus
dense connective tissue scattered with glands
Describe the nerve plexus within the submucosa of the esophagus
sparse, ganglia not typically seen
Describe the muscularis externa of the esophagus
contains two layers, inner circular and outer longitudinal
Characterize the upper 1/3 of the muscularis externa in the esophagues
contains only skeletal muscle
Characterize the middle 1/3 of the muscularis externa of the esophagus
both skeletal muscle and smooth muscle
Characterize the distal 1/3 of the muscularis externa of the esophagus
Contains only smooth muscle
Describe the location of Auerbach's (myenteric) nerve plexus in the esophagus
Between the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis externa
Describe the outermost layer of the esophagus
Except for the abdominal portion, comnposed of adventitia (loose connective tissue)
Compare the oral cavity to the rest of the GI tract
Layers have the same names, but histological aspects are completely different
What is the oral epithelium derived from?
ectoderm
Name 3 differences between the oral cavity and the rest of the GI tract
1) muscularis mucosa isn't present in the oral cavity
2) muscularis externa is composed of extrinsic muscles rather than intrinsic
3) nerve plexuses do not extend into the oral cavity
Describe the muscularis mucosa in the oral cavity
Absent, no clear demarcation between the lamina propria and the submucosa
Describe the muscularis externa of the oral cavity
Extrinsic muscles (muscles of the face, lingual muscles, etc) as opposed to intrinsic muscles
Describe the innervation of the oral cavity
Nerve plexuses do not extend into oral cavity, innervation is more of that of the skin
Describe the mucosal epithelium of the oral cavity
For the most part, stratified squamous, although some areas of keratinization do occur
Where is the epithelium in the oral cavity keratinized?
Hard palate, gingiva, superior surface of the tongue
Describe the lamina propria and submucosa of the oral cavity
consist of intermediate connective tissue, not easily distinguishable between the two layers
What are the minor salivary glands?
submucosal glands that are located in the deep part of the lamina propria and submucosa
Describe the minor salivary glands
mucous-secreting, with or without serous demilunes
Name submucosal glands that produce a serous excretion
vonEbner's glands
Where are serous-secreting glands (von Ebner's) located?
in association with the circumvallate and foliate papillae of the tongue
Describe the structure of the tongue
Mass of skeletal tissue surrounded by a layer of connnective tissue and epithelium
Describe the organization of the tongue muscle
skeletal muscle organized in 3 different directions
What are papillae?
projections on the superior surface of the tongue
Name the 4 types of lingual papillae
Filiform papillae,
Fungiform papillae
Vallate papillae
Foliate papillae
Describe the location of filiform papillae
anterior 2/3 of the tongue
Describe the shape of Filiform papillae
conical
What is the covering of the filiform papillae
keratinized epithelium
Describe the taste buds on the filiform papillae
no taste buds present
Function of the filiform papillae
manipulate food
Describe the location of the fungiform papillae
scattered among the filiform papillae on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
Describe the shape of the fungiform papillae
mushroom shaped, bulbous cap with a narrow stalk
Describe the appearance of fungiform papillae on gross inspection of the tongue
little red spots
Describe the taste buds on the fungiform papillae
few taste buds on the apical surface
Describe the appearance of filiform papillae of the tongue on gross inspection
fuzzy gray spots
Describe the location of the vallate papillae
arranged in a V just anterior to the sulcus terminalis
Describe the epithelial covering of the fungiform papillae
Very thin
Describe the structure of the vallate papillae
large, with a "moat" encircling the base of the papillae
Describe the epithelial covering of the vallate papillae
very thick, but tapers off to be very thin in the "moat"
Describe the taste buds of the vallate papillae
numerous taste buds in the "moat" around the papillae
Describe the relationship between serous (von Ebner's) glands and vallate papillae
Secrete serous fluid into the "groove" around the papillae presumably to prevent materials from accumulating
Describe foliate papillae
Not well developed in humans, lateral ridges on the tongue
Describe the taste buds on foliate papillae
Similar to the vallate papillae, located in groove around base, serous fluid drains into it
Location of taste buds
Principally on the papillae of the tongue, but also on the epiglottis and the palate
Describe the microstructure of taste buds
Several ovoid clusters extending from basal lamina to a small taste pore at the lumen
Name 3 types of cells located in the taste bud
Columnar, basal, progenitor
Subdivide the two types of columnar cells within the taste buds
Taste receptors and sustentacular cells