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64 Cards in this Set

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What is glycocalyx? What does it look like? What are its main functions?
Glycoprotein cell coat covering many membranes associated with the GI tract. A PINK FUZZY HAT for the cells to wear.
Functions-
Cellular attachment to extracellular matrix parts.
Binding of antigens and enzymes to cell surface.
Cell-Cell recognition and interaction.
Absorption of molecules to the cell surface.
Inclusions
Products of metabolism or other material that accumulates in the cytoplasm of the cell.
What are the two types of chromatin?
Heterochromatin and Euchromatic
Heterochromatin-
Staining?
Activity?
Location?
Dark staining (Clumped up)
Limited transcription.
Binds to inside of nuclear membrane.
Euchromatin-
Staining?
Activity?
Location?
Lighter staining.
Transcriptionally active.
Dispersed in region of nucleus.
Nucleolus-
Made of?
Function?
Number in a cell?
Made of rRNA and protein.
Production of ribosomes.
1 or 2 per cell. Neurons often have 2.
What is glycocalyx? What does it look like? What are its main functions?
Glycoprotein cell coat covering many membranes associated with the GI tract. A PINK FUZZY HAT for the cells to wear.
Functions-
Cellular attachment to extracellular matrix parts.
Binding of antigens and enzymes to cell surface.
Cell-Cell recognition and interaction.
Absorption of molecules to the cell surface.
Inclusions
Products of metabolism or other material that accumulates in the cytoplasm of the cell.
What are the two types of chromatin?
Heterochromatin and Euchromatic
Heterochromatin-
Staining?
Activity?
Location?
Dark staining (Clumped up)
Limited transcription.
Binds to inside of nuclear membrane.
Euchromatin-
Staining?
Activity?
Location?
Lighter staining.
Transcriptionally active.
Dispersed in region of nucleus.
Nucleolus-
Made of?
Function?
Number in a cell?
Made of rRNA and protein.
Production of ribosomes.
1 or 2 per cell. Neurons often have 2.
The site of noncytosolic protein synthesis.
RER
Makes proteins that will be shipped out in vesicles to the extracellular world.
RER
What is RER called in neurons? Is it prevalent?
Nissl bodies in neurons. Neurons are very active so there are lots of Nissl bodies.
What does cytoplasm with abundant RER look like in an H & E prep?
purple fuzzy flame stuff
Anastomising tubules not associated with ribosomes.
SER
Found primarily in steroid synthesizing cells
SER
Found in abundance in Leydig cells of the testis and zona fasciculata cells of adrenal gland cortex
SER
This organelle plays a critical role in drug detoxification.
SER
Lots of this organelle is found in cells involved in the synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol. (such as hepatocytes)
SER
The major functions of this organelle are carbohydrate synthesis, processing of noncytosolic proteins synthesized in the rER, membrane retrieval, recycling and redistribution.
Golgi apparatus
These organelles can be stable or transient and are formed as a result of endocytosis.
Endosomes
Aka microbodies. This organelle contains catalase and peroxidase for oxidative digestion of things like fatty acids.
Peroxisomes
Are the mitochondria generally seen in LM?
Not usually but you can sometimes see them in the liver hepatocytes or neurons.
Membrane bound vacuoles that contain hydrolytic enzymes and digest old junk.
Lysosomes
What diseases can result from the hydrolytic breakdown of the contents of lysosomes? Why?
Creates residual bodies.
Tay-Sachs Disease
Alzheimers
Parkinsons
What are residual bodies?
Vacuoles containing indigestible compounds.
What happens to the contents of residual bodies?
They can be expelled from the cell by exocytosis or they may accumulate in the cell as lipofuscin pigment.
What is Lipofuscin Pigment?
accumulated residual bodies in the cell
What are Lewy bodies?
specialized name for residual bodies in the CNS
What are the nonmembranous organelles?
Centrioles and Ribosomes
What are the three types of cytoskeleton?
Microfilaments, Microtubules, Intermediate Filaments.
Carbohydrates (melanosomes and melanin), lipids, crystalline structures and pigments are all examples of what?
Inclusions
What are Inclusions?
They are conglomerations of STUFF gunking up cells.
Where would you see the most accumulation of Lipofuscin and why?
Neurons and cardiac muscle especially. It accumulates with time and these are long-lived cells.
What is another example of a pigment that might build up as a cell inclusion? (besides Lipofuscin)
Hemoglobin breakdown pigments. Contain iron or bilirubin which is a yellowish green pigment that causes jaundice in newborns.
Tight Junction aka ?
Zonula Occludens
In this type of junction the outer layers of the cell membranes of the two cells are fused around their entire circumferences.
Tight Junction (Zonula Occludens)
This junction is typically found at the apex of cells
Tight Junction
Cell adhesions must provide sufficient force to overcome what?
They must overcome the repulsion force between cells. Sugars are negatively charged so this causes a proximity of negative charges.
Tight junctions are mediated by?
Occludin
This type of cell junction also attaches cells around their entire circumference but with a slight gap between them.
Zonula adherens
What is the mechanism of Zonula adheren junctions?
Actine fibers in adjacent cells are linked by actin-binding proteins to a transmembrane protein that mediates cell adhesion.
What is the strongest type of cell to cell adhesion?
Zonula adherens
This type of junction is stabilized by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton into adhesion belts.
Zonula adherens
Zonula adherens junctions are mediated by?
Cadherins
Desmosomes aka ?
Macula adherens
This type of cell attachment is found at numerous spots around the cell membrane.
Desmosomes/ Macula adherens
In this type of junction, transmembrane linkers span the gap between cells. They anchor into tonofilaments within an attachment plaque just under the cell membrane of each cell.
Desmosomes
Although not the strongest cell to cell junction, these junctions are also very strong and difficult to break.
Desmosomes
Transmembrane linkers with attachment plaque.
Desmosomes
What are desmosomes mediated by?
Desmoglein, Desmoplakin
This type of cell junction doesnt really hold the cells together.
Gap Junction
How does a gap junction work?
In a gap junction, there is a small gap between the cells. There are channels through this gap (connexons) which allow a connection of the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
This type of cell junction allows small ions to flow between the cells.
Gap Junctions
Cardiac muscles have lots of what type of junction?
Gap Junctions
Where are hemidesmosomes found?
At the base of cells.
What is the function of hemidesmosomes?
They anchor cells to the underlying connective tissue.
A lack of functional _________ would result in severe blistering of the epithelium of the skin.
Hemidesmosomes
Hemidesmosomes are mediate by?
Integrins
What is the mechanism of Focal Adhesions?
They anchor actin filaments to the basement membrane below.
These play an important role in epithelial cell migration and would repair.
Focal Adhesions
These adhesions are dynamic and constantly undergoing change by linking and releasing actin from the extracellular matrix proteins.
Focal Adhesions.