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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 2 parts of respiratory system.
Conducting and Respiratory
Describe conducting portion of RS.
Regulates airflow to allow phonations. INcludes larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
Describe respiratory portion of RS.
Site of gas exchange, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and sacs, alveoli
What is meant by conditioning air?
Warming and humidifying it and then draws air over vascularized mucousal epithelium (warm and wet)
What is meant by cleansing air?
Mucous and serous secretion of resp epithelium makes a sticky sheet like carpet. Cilia on sheet beat in a direction which moves sheet up to pharynx to be swallowed or expectorated.
How is carpet of mucous moved?
By action of ciliated epithelial cells.
What are the unique features of a conducting airway?
larynx, epiglottis, plate of elastic cartilage.
What is larynx?
Several cartilagenous plates, some hyaline, some elastic.
What is epiglottis?
Flapper valve of trachea that protects larynx. Covered with non keratinized wet stratified epithelium
What is plate of elastic cartilage?
Upper surface- stratified squamous, lower surface- strat squamous transitions to resp epithelium with mixed serous and mucous glands.
What are two folds of larynx?
true (vocal) cord fold, false (vestibular) cord fold.
Better to have growth on true or false cord of larynx?
True because not vascular.
What does false cord look like in slide?
Loose ct, fat cells, dk staining basal layer, stratified.
What does true cord look like in slide?
Epithelium strat squamous, dense regular CT, eosinophilic bundles of skeletal muscle fibers to control vocal cord.
Describe trachea
Series of horseshoe shaped hoops joined by slip of smooth muscle. Lined by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epis that has submucousal glands.
What is wet vs dry epithelial tissue?
Wet is not cornified and is covered with mucous.
What are submucosal tubes?
Glandular tubes located in CT deep to epi that connect to surface through duct to keep surface moist.
Describe trachea basement layer.
Thickest in entire body.
Describe bronchi.
Cartilagenous plates replace rings, has resp. epithelium, less goblet cells and glands than trachea, abundant elastic fiber, spiral bundles of smooth muscle.
Do bronchi have goblet cells and glands?
Yes, but rare in small bronchi.
How does the bronchi slide look different from the trachea?
Large visible areas of alveoli for gas exchange in lungs.
Describe bronchiole.
Regular- similar to small bronchi but no cartilage, resp epithelium, no glands, abundant elastic and smooth muscle fibers
Describe terminal bronchiole.
Ciliated simple columnar transitions to ciliated cuboidal. No goblets, clara cells
What are clara cells?
Plump cuboidal cells that make surfactant (bacteriocide and reduction of surface tension) that helps keep bronchiole open. No glands, no cartilage, abundant elastic and smooth muscle fibers
What are respiratory bronchiole?
Like terminal but wall has sac like alveoli for gas exchange, epi is ciliated simple cuboidal w/out goblet, clara cells present, walls of resp bronchioles are progressively replaced by alveoli.
Describe alveolar sac.
walls of resp bronchioles are largely replaced by alveoli with squamous lining cells, knobs of smooth muscle, rest of supporting tissue made of reticular and elastic fiber.
Describe alveoli.
cup shaped structure made by complex cap bed held together by reticular, elastic fiber and some fibroblast. Cap network draped by a delicate sheet of epis, 2 types of epi in alveoli.
Describe type I epis in alveoli.
Squamous, predominant type.
Describe type II epis in alveoli.
give rise to type I, make surfactant, reduce surface tension to keep alveoli open, bacteriocidal
Why are there pores b/w alveoli?
If clogged region, can still get diffusion and also equalized pressure in lungs. Also allows bacteris to spread through out lung.
Why are alveoli thin?
For gas exchange
What is blood air barrier?
Series of obstacles for something to get thru before it can get to RBS. Lumen of alveoli, surfactant, type I epis, basement membrane, cap endothelium, lumen of capillary, RBC
What is outside surface of lung called?
Pleural surface (actual 2 surfaces- visceral and
What if problem with cilia?
Can't move mucous.
What if problem of viscous mucous?
Hard to clear from lungs, causes lung infection.
What happens in asthma?
Hyper reactive smooth muscle closes airway, epinepherine inhalant opens.
What happens from smoke inhalation?
leads to loss of elastin and elastic recoil (hard to exhale). Emphasema.
What happens in edema?
Accumulation of fluid in intercellular space impairs gas exchange.
What is bowmans gland?
Olfactory gland that makes oderant binding protein (OBP), release it, OBP then binds oderant.
What kind of cells line the upper resp system?
pseudostratified columnar epis.
What are the vocal cords line with?
stratified squamous to withstand friction.
Give the progressive order of branching in the lower resp system.
larynx, trachea, primary (main) bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs.
Describe the smoothe muscle progression in the lower respiratory system.
It lies in teh submucosa and gradually becomes more prominent as airway diameter decreases. SM tone controls diameter of conducting passageways.
Describe the progession of secretory glands in the lower respiratory system.
Submucosal layer lies beneath SM and contains serous and mucous glands that become less numerous in narrow airways. They are not present beyond tertiary bronchi.
Describe progression of cartilage in lower resp sys.
supporting skeleton for larynx, trachea and bronchi. prevents collapse of airways. lies outside mucosa, completely absent beyond tertiary bronchi.