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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the general structure and function of the respiratory system?
•Lungs and a series of Airways leading to the external environment
•Provides O2 and removes CO2 from cells
What are the four discrete events of respiration?
•Respiration: Four discrete events
–Movement of air: Breathing
–Exchange of O2 in air for CO2 in blood
–Conveyance of gases to and from cells
–Exchange of CO2 for O2 near cells
What are the two divisions of the respiratory system?
•Conducting Portion
–Conveys air from external milieu to the lungs
–Outside and inside the lungs
•Respiratory Portion
–Functions in actual gas exchange
•External Respiration
–Only in the lungsW
What structures make up the conducting portion and what do they do?
•Nasal Cavity, Mouth, Nasopharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, and Bronchioles
•Functions
–Conducts, Warms, Filters, and Moistens air
•Patency maintained by combination of bone, cartilage, and fibrous elements
What is the structure of the nasal cavity?
•Divided by bony and cartilaginous septum
•Nasal Conchae: Scroll-like shelves of bone (Turbinates)
•Vestibule: Anterior portion
–Lined with thin skin
–Vibrissae: Short stiff hairs
•Respiratory Epithelium
–Pseudostratified, Ciliated Columnar Epithelium with Goblet Cells
•Highly vascularized lamina propria
What does this image show?
Respiratory Epithelium
Study the different regions of the olfactory region in this picture
Olfactory Region
What does this image show?
Olfactory Mucosa
What are the cells of the olfactory region?
•Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
–>60 m thick
–3 different cells

•Olfactory Cells
–Bipolar neurons
–Nuclei in center of cell
–Expanded apical Olfactory Vesicle
•Olfactory Cilia
–Lifespan of ≈1 month
•Only neurons readily replaced postnatally

•Sustentacular Cells
–50–60 m tall
–Prominent apical striated border
–Nucleus is in apical 1/3
–Provide physical support, nourishment, and electrical insulation for olfactory cells

•Basal Cells
–Short, basophilic cells
–Cells do not reach the epithelial surface
–Basal nuclei
–Reserve population

•Lamina Propria
–Richly vascularized
–Loose to moderately dense connective tissue
–Numerous lymphoid elements
–Bundles of unmyelinated axons
–Bowman’s Glands
•Serous glands
•Duct of simple cuboidal epithelium
•Solvent for odoriferous substances
What are the regions of the pharynx?
Nasopharynx

Oropharynx

Laryngopharynx
What are the properties of the nasopharynx?
•Subdivided into three continuous spaces
–Superior, Middle, and Inferior
•Lined with respiratory epithelium
•Typical lamina propria
–Fused with Epimysium of the pharynx
•Posterior aspect houses Pharyngeal Tonsil
What does this image show?
The Larynx
What is the larynx and what does it do?
•Between Pharynx and Trachea
–Short (4 cm × 4 cm)
•Rigid cylindrical tube
•Functions
–Phonation
–Keeps swallowed material out of the lower respiratory system
•Reinforced wall of cartilage
–Movements controlled by several intrinsic and extrinsic skeletal muscles
What are the two folds that make up the lumen of the larynx?
•Lumen characterized by two pairs of shelf-like folds
–Superior: Vestibular Folds
•False vocal cords
•Immovable
•Lamina propria contains adipose tissue, seromucous glands, and lymphoid elements
–Inferior: Vocal Folds
•Free edge reinforced with dense elastic connective tissue: Vocal Ligament
•Vocalis Muscle alters tension and regulates opening
What does this image show?
The larynx

What is squared is what vibrates back and forth and makes a sound
Where does the trachea extend from and connect to?
•Extends from Cricoid Cartilage to the bifurcation (the Bronchi)
•15–20 cm × 2 cm
•10–12 C-shaped cartilage rings
•Ends connected to Trachealis Muscle
What are the 6 cell types found in the trachea?
•Respiratory Epithelium: 6 cell types
–Ciliated Columnar Cells: 30% of total
–Goblet Cells: 30% of total
–Basal (Short) Cells: 30% of total
–Brush Cells (Small Granule Mucous Cells): 3% of total
•Sensory cells
–Small Granule Cells (Serous Cells): 3–5% of total
•DNES Cells
What does this image show?
Tracheal epithelium
What are the components found in the trachea?
•Lamina Propria
–Loose, fibroelastic connective tissue
•Elastic Fibers
–Layer separates lamina propria from submucosa
•Submucosa
–Dense, fibroelastic connective tissue
–Seromucous glands
•Adventitia
–Cartilage rings and connective tissue
–Binds trachea to esophagus and wall of neck
What does this image show?
Tracheal Wall
Describe the components of the bronchial tree
•Begins with bifurcation of the trachea
•Airways outside the lung = Extra-pulmonary Bronchi
•Airways inside the lung = Intrapulmonary Bronchi
As air moves through the airways what are the trends?
•Decrease in diameter
•Decrease in amount of cartilage
•Decrease in number of goblet cells
•Decrease in number of glands
•Decrease in height of epithelium
•Increase in amount of smooth muscle
•Increase in amount of elastic tissue
How many lobes make up the right and left lung?
•Same histology as trachea
•Right branch trifurcates: 3 lobes
•Left branch bifurcates: 2 lobes
•Lobar bronchi
What is the structure of the intrapulmonary bronchi?
•Each intrapulmonary bronchus leads to a single lobe
•Airway structure similar to primary bronchi except:
–C-shaped cartilage rings become irregular plates
–Smooth muscle present in two layers spiraling in opposite directions
•Lymphoid nodules prominent at branch points
What does this image show?
Structure of the bronchus
What does this image show?
Bronchus!
What does each bronchiole supple and how does it components change?
•Each primary bronchiole supplies a Lobule
–Diameter generally <1 mm
–Epithelium changes
•Simple ciliated columnar with goblet cells
•Simple cuboidal with cilia, Clara Cells, and no goblet cells
–No Cartilage
–No Glands
What does this image show?
Bronchioles
What are Clara cells?
•Columnar cells with dome-like apex
–Many secretory granules
–May detoxify inhaled substances
What are terminal bronchioles?
•Diameter <0.5 mm
•Terminus of conducting portion of respiratory system
•Supplies air to Alveoli
•Simple cuboidal ciliated cells with clara cells
•Lamina propria: Fibroelastic tissue surrounded by 1 or 2 thin layers of smooth muscle
What does this image show?
Terminal bronchiole
Where does gas exchange take place?
•Where gas is exchanged
–Respiratory Bronchioles
–Alveolar Ducts
–Alveolar Sacs
–Alveoli
What is the respiratory bronchiole?
•Identical to terminal bronchiole, except wall periodically interrupted by presence of pouch-like Alveoli
–Gas is exchanged across alveolar walls
What are alveolar ducts?
•No walls to speak of
•Linear arrangements of alveoli
•Slender interalveolar connective tissue septa reinforce alveolar ducts
•Opening of each alveolus controlled by contraction of single smooth muscle cell embedded in type III collagen fibers
•Elastic fibers maintain patency of openings
What does this image show?
Terminus of the respiratory tree
What are alveolar sacs?
•Blind outpocketings of alveolar duct
•Composed of small cluster of alveoli
•Usually two or more alveolar sacs per alveolar duct
What is an alveoli
•Primary structural and functional unit of respiratory system
–≈200 m in diameter
–Very thin walls permit gas exchange
–Septa occupied by extensive network of continuous capillaries
–300 × 106; 140 m3 of surface area
–No smooth muscle; only elastic fibers
•Two cell types
What is a type I penumocyte?
•Covers 95% of alveolar surface
•Simple squamous epithelium
•Cells attached via occluding junctions
–Prevent seepage of fluids
•Nonmitotic
What is a type II pneumocyte?
•Covers 5% of alveolar surface
–More numerous than type I cells
•Simple cuboidal epithelium
•Associated with type I cells via occluding junctions
•Mitotic
–Replace themselves and type I cells
•Synthesizes and secretes Surfactant
What does this image show?
Detail of alveolar wall
What is pulmonary surfactant?
•Phospholipids and proteins
•Formed into vesicles containing layers of material
–Lamellar Bodies
•Released by exocytosis
•Forms a lattice over alveolar surface
–Tubular Myelin
•Function is to reduce Surface Tension
What is the blood-gas barrier?
•Region between lumen of capillary and air space
•3–5 layers
–Surfactant and cytoplasm of type I pneumocyte
–Fused basal laminae of type I cell and endothelial cell
–Endothelial cell cytoplasm
•0.1–0.5 m
What does this image show?
Interalveolar Sepum
What does this image show?
Blood circulation in the lung