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51 Cards in this Set

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arise from yolk sac?
RBC, germ cells
germ cells
cells destined to become gametes
gubernaculum
attaches to posterior pole to the superficial fascia, and as embryo develops, it pulls testis out to outside of body
tunica vaginalis
double lining of scrotum from an investing layer of peritoneum
tunica albuginia
thick tough dense CT , appears white, that is capsule of testis
seminiferous tubules
where sperm are made
why does vasectomy not decrease volume of ejaculate?
volume from accessory sex glands, not testis
maturation time of sperm
3 months
spermatogonia
stem cells
primary spermatocytes
in meiosis I., long half life, lots of growth, large cell, replication of DNA, has 4 times DNA present in other cells.
secondary spermatocytes
in Meiosis II. Short half life, divide quickly, so hard to find these in slide, chromosomes condense, beginning of haploid germ cell
Spermatids
1n, small round cell to elongated cell starts to develop long flagella
spermatozoa
final stage
sertoli cells
nurse cells, derived from mesotherm of genital ridge,they branch out and wrap around germ cells to protect them
myoid cells
associated with basement membrane, fibroblast like cells with actin and myosin filaments for fine contractile mvmt of cells
leydig cells
make testosterone
lamina propria
CT surrounding parenchyma of testis
blood testis barrier
protects self from antibodies in adluminal compartment
autoantigenic
self antigen- allergic to own sperm
FSH in male
main target is sertoli cell in male, binds to basal surface adn changes gene transcritpion in sertoli cell, assists in spermatogenesis
sertoli cell products
albumin, serum proteins, androgen binding protein (required to carry protein in blood and steroids in fluid of seminiferous to carry to ducts)
inhibin
negative feedback for FSH at pituitary level
process of spermiogenesis
development of male gamete into mitole spermatozoan, needs to be aerodynamic
microtubule arrangement in sperm flagellum midpiece
9+2 microtubules, 9 outer dense fibers, mitochondria
Sperm morphology
sperm morphology is poor in humans, 14% sperm are "normal"
Only from dad?
centrioles all from male, mito all from female
oogonia
primordial germ cell in yolk sac; migrate to genital ridge
primary oocytes
stuck in prophase I, 5-7 million by 5th month, diminish to 1 million at birth, reach puberty 300,000-400,000, only about 450 ovulated, all others die
atresia
death of oocytes (germ cells)
secondary oocyte
MI completed at ovulation, therefore oocyte exposed to all that woman is exposed to. Meiotic division is really lopsided- get one and 1st polar body.
polar body
at ovulation, MI split and half is polar body
ovum
when penetrated by sperm MII is completed and called ovum
synagamy
combining of male and female chromosomes
zygote
diploid results of egg and sperm chromosomes uniting
early embryo
thru about 128 cells or implantation
zona pellucida
hair like layer around oocyte
corona radiata
surrounds eggs
primary follicle
primary and in meiosis I until ovulated
zona pellosa
clear area outside
medulla
no clear line from cortex, lots of CT, more arteries and veins
cortex
follicle development happens here
serosa
germinal epithelium, lined with sq. ep.
tunica albugima
like in male
diff b/w oocytes in primordial follicles and growing follicles
accumulated yolk granules for energy and buildup of mRNA, no genetic change yet
when is it primary follicle
when squamous become cuboidal
secondary follicle
when granulosa starts dividing, but no changes in genetic material yet
mature folllicle
approaching time of ovulation, fills with fluid, has cells around it - corona radiata
which tissue is ovulated with ovulation
egg with corona radiata and ?? rest of granulosa stays
more progesterone when?
to sustain pregnancy
estrogen
made prior to menstrual cycle
antrum
appears in 2ndary follicle, the cavity in the epithelium that envelops the oocyte