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112 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Histone proteins are made up of what amino acids?
Arginine
Lysine

NOTE: Remember HAL = Histones are Arginine and Lysine
What is a non histone protein?
Enzymes involved in nuclear functions
What are the 2 forms of chromatin?
Hetero and Euch
What type of chromatin is high condensed and therefore inactive?
Heterochromatin
Active chromatin makes up 90% of chromatins and is called
Euchromatin
Lypolysis begins in what part of a cell?
SER: releases fatty acid from triglyceride
Skeletal abnormalities, coarse features, and restricted joint movement is characteristic of what disease?
I-cell Disease
I -cell Disease is caused by a deficiency of what enzyme?
N-acetylglucosamine-phosphotransferase
Name the 3 major functions of peroxisomes:
1. Synthesis and degradation of hydrogen peroxide
2. B-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids
3. Bile acid synthesis
What is contained in the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
Numerous cristae containing enzymes for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
The mother always hands down what type of DNA to her children?
Mitochondrial DNA (Therefore there is maternal passage of diseases of energy metabolism)
Tau is what type of protein?
Tubulin (Microtubule). Seen in alzheimer's patients brains
Defects in microtubule polymerizations are characteristic of what syndrome?
Chediak Higashi
Cytochalasin B is a drug taht binds to what ?
Actin
Anterograde movement of intracellular vesicles and organelle is done by? Retrograde?
Antero = kinesin
Retro - Dynein
Zonular occludens have what purpose?
Tight junctions: seals off cell to outside world
Function of desmosomes is..
Hold cells together
Zonula adherens function to...
Attach cells to adjacent cells
Passage of ions and small molecules between cells conducting electrical impulses is done by what type of junction
Gap junction
Stereocilia is characteristically found where?
Epididymis, ductus deferens, and inner ear cells
2 central microtubules surrounded by a circle of nine peripheral microtubule doublets is seen in what structure?
Cilia
What is a Nissl body?
RER in a cell body of a neuron
Unmyelinated pain fibers are called
C-fibers
Saltatory conduction is what
Action potentials skipping from node to node down an axon
Schwann cells developed from what germ layer?
Neural Crest Cells

sChwann = Crest
S = Single axon
Astrocytes derived from what germ layer?
Neuroectoderm
Oligos derived from what germ layer?
Neuroectoderm
Ependymal cells derived from what germ layer?
Neuroectoderm
Pseudounipolar neurons are found where?
In the Dorsal root ganglia
Bipolar neurons found where?
1. Retina
2. Olfactory mucosa
3. Cochlear and vestibular ganglia
Microglia from what germ layer?
MESODERM! Only one

Micro = Meso
What cell functions to maintain the Blood Brain Barrier?
Astrocytes
Macrophages of the CNS are
Microglia
Ciliated cells in the CNS are:
Ependymal Cells
The dark band refers to:
A-band
The light band refers to:
I-band
The thick band refers to:
Myosin and H-band
The thin filaments are in what band:
I-band and Actin
The 3 thin filaments are:
Actin
Troponin
Tropomysin
The thick filament is:
Myosin
Name the 3 types of Troponin and what each do
1. TnC - Binds Calcium
2. TnI - Inhibits cycling of the actin and myosin
3. TnT - Binds tropomyosin
Where is the actin binding site located?
On the Myosin Head
What type of muscle have gap junctions?
Cardiac
Smooth Muscle
Smooth muscle troponin is called:
Calmodulin
What type of muscle lacks T-tubules
Smooth muscle (slow, don't need it)
What lymphoid organ lacks a germinal center?
Thymus
What is the purpose of the thymus?
To protect developing T-cells
The paracortex of lymph node is made up of what kind of cells?
T-cells
The cortex is made up of what kind of cells?
B-cells
APC's of lymph nodes are:
Dendritic cells
What part of the spleen contains cords of Billroth?
Red pulp. Serves to delay passage of defected RBC's until macros get them
The white pulp of the spleen contains:
Lymphatics: T and B cells
Increase in the number of proliferating cells in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum of the integument is represented by what disease?
Psoriasis
IgG directed against the lamina lucida of the integument is seen in what?
Bullous pemphigoid
Melanocytes are from what germ layer?
Neural crest ectoderm
The inability of albinos to synthesize melanin is due to deficiency of what?
Tyrosinase
APC's of the integument are called:
Langerhans cells
Odor producing sweat glands are called:
Apocrine glands
Apocrine glands have what kind of innervation?
Adrenergic
Sweat glands found everywhere on the skin are called:
Eccrine

NOTE: Eccrine = Everywhere!
Eccrine glands have what kind of innervation?
Cholinergic (heat sweating)
Sebaceous glands are absent where on the body
Hands and feet
The only neurons replaced in an adult are:
Olfactory neurons
Hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsil is called:
Adenoiditis
Cells in the bronchioles that produce lipoprotein to prevent the bronchioles from collapsing are:
Clara cells
Function of Type I pneumocytes:
To maintain the blood air barrier and provide GAS EXCHANGE
Type II pneumocytes:
Produce surfactant
Alveolar macros are called:
Dust cells
What kind of epithelium does the esophagus have?
Upper 1/3 - skeletal
Middle 1/3 - Both
Lower 1/3 - Smooth muscle
Chief cells in stomach secrete:
Pepsinogen and lipase precursors
Parietal cells in the stomach secrete:
HCL and Intrinsic Factor
Enteroendocrine (EE) cells in the stomach secrete
Gastrin
Brunner's glands are found in what part of the small intestine?
Duodenum
Brunner's glands function to?
Secrete alkaline secretions to balance out acidity of stomach content entering small intestine
EE cells in duodenum secrete:
Cholecystokinin and secretin
Paneth cells are located where?
Duodenum
What do Paneth cells do?
Eat bacteria
What part of the small intestine has long villi?
Jejunum
Peyer's Patches found where?
Ileum
Peyer's Patches are what?
Lymphatic nodules, Ileum protects from Illness
APC's in the ilium are called:
M-cells
List the acinar type and innervation:
Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual
Serous and 9
Serous and 7
Mucous and 7
Phagocytes of the liver reside in the sinusoids and are called:
Kupffer cells
Contraction of gallbladder is stimulated by:
Cholecystokinin from EE cells
67% of Na is absorbed in what part of kidney?
Proximal convoluted tubule
Distal convoluted tubule absorbs?
NaCl
Anterior Pituitary is also known as the:
Adenohypophysis

NOTE: A = A
Post pit is also known as:
Neurohypophysis
What cell in the kidney makes epo?
Mesangial cells
What cell in kidney makes renin?
JG cells
The Macula Dense of the kidney functions to:
Na transport
Where is the site of spermatogenesis?
Seminiferous tubules
Blood testis barrier provided by what cell?
Sertoli
What is the function of sertoli cells?
To synthesize testicular anddrogen binding protein
Mature sperm is called:
Spermatozoa
What 3 things are needed in a steroid making cell?
1. Abundant SER
2. Mitochondria (with cristae)
3. Lipid droplets (with cholesterol esters)
Leydig cells synthesize and secrete:
Testosterone
Leydig cells are stimulated by what hormone?
LH
Sperm mature and develop increased motility in the:
Epididymis
Sperm is stored in the:
Epididymis
What is used as a source of energy by sperm?
Fructose
After ovulation, the corpus luteum is formed and theca interna cells turn into:
Theca lutein cells
Theca lutein cells secrete
Estrogen
Granulosa lutein cells secrete:
progesterone
How long does the corpus luteum persist?
12th week
Up to week 12, the corpus luteum is maintained by:
HCG from the developing embryo
After week 12, the corpus luteum is maintained by:
Placenta
Fertilization takes place in the
Ampulla of the fallopian tubes
MCSite for ectopic pregnancy:
Ampulla of the fallopian tube
What layer of the endometrium is lost during the menstrual cycle?
Superficial functional layer

NOTE: Basal layer stays
What structures form the placental barrier?
1. Cytotrophoblast
2. Synctiotrophoblast
3. Basement Membrane
During a muscle contraction of skeletal muscle, what band does not change in length?
H-band cuz it has the myosin heavy chains, just slide, don't shortern