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64 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the parts of the uterus?
fundus
body
isthmus
cervix
where is the isthmus of the uterus?
is narrower portion just before cervix
what are the three layers of the uterus?
perimetrium
myometrium
endometrium
what is the perimetrium of the uterus and where on uterus is it?
is external serous layer or visceral peritoneal covering of uterus
found over posterior and part of anterior surface
rest of surface of uterus covered with connective tissue
what's another name for the myometrium of the uterus?
is also the muscularis layer of that organ
what are the sublayers of the myometrium?
3 irregular layers
1. outer muscular layer - oblique
2. middle muscular layer - circular
3. inner muscular layer - oblique again
where in the uterus is the area vaculosa?
is in myometrium
what is in the area vaculosa?
contains major vessels entering from broad ligaments, branching under outer layer of uterus
what are branches of uterine artery in uterine wall?
outermost - still uterine artery
middle - branched uterine become arcuate arteries
endometrium - radial branches of arcuate arteries
what makes up the endometrium of uterus?
uterine surface epithelium, tubular glands, connective tissue stroma
which part of endometrium is sloughed off in menstruation - the whole thing?
no; just superficial 2/3rds also called stratum functionale or funtionalis
what causes the sloughing of the superficial part of the endometrium?
absence of estrogen and progesterone
what part of the endometrium of uterus remains during menstruation and why?
stratum basale or basalis remains to regenerate stratum functionale or functionalis
what are the cycles of the endometrium?
1. menstruation
2. proliferative phase
3. secretory phase
what cascade of local events in uterus cause menstruation?
1. irregular contractions from spiral arteries, branches of radial branches
2. periodic blanchind and ischemia results
3. without estrogen or progesterone matrix metalloproteases released to degrade extracellular matrix
4. cascade of lytic events
5. tissue breaks up, released into lumen
6. myometrium contracts, expelling debris from lumen
what arteries supply the basalis?
straight arteries
when does the proliferative phase of menstrual cycle happen?
day 4-14
what is proliferating in the proliferation stage of menstrual cycle?
cells that build endometrial functionalis
how do cells in endometrium of uterus start to proliferate in proliferative phase of menstruation?
glandular epithelial cells at end of menstrual cycle migrate to torn edges of connective tissue between glands in endometrium
what happens in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, besides obvious proliferation of endometrium?
glands elongate
simple tubular glands start straight, but by late proliferative phase have become curved
glandular epithelium more pseudostratified
when is the late proliferative phase?
just before ovulation
when in the menstrual cycle is the secretory phase?
days 15-28
why is the secretory phase of menstrual cycle called secretory phase?
because endometrium now begins glandular secretion
what happens in the secretory phase of menstruation?
1. mitosis of stomal and gland cells slow
2. see basal vacuolation in cells that are extracted - basically this just means that cells are building up glycogen stores
3. glands become more coiled
4. basal glycogen diminishes
5. secretion appears in lumina of glands
6. coiled arteries reach far into functionalis
7. mild stromal edema begins
8. stromal cells differentiate into decidual cells with help from estrogen and progesterone
what is the secretory product that uterine glands begin to produce in secretory phase to prepare for possible pregnancy?
is mucoid fluid
rich in glycogen
needed for embryo development
what do coiiled arteries of uterus in secretory phase of menstrual cycle supply?
in functionalis, give off small branches to individual subepithelial capillaries and to larger lacunae of anastomosed capillaries
when would decidual cells, derived from stromal cells of uterus be produced and necessary?
in case of fertilization
would be needed for implantation of blastocyst
decidual cells contribute to favorable environment for embryo development
what is the cervix in relation to the uterus?
is longitudinal distal portion of uterus
how is cervical mucosa different than uterine mucosa?
does not become thicker throughout menstrual cycle, is not sloughed off
how is cervical muscle different than uterine muscle?
cervix does not have inner longitudinal layer
responds differently in childbirth than uterine muscle - hope so
what kinds of mucosal structures are there in the cervix?
cervix mucosa has elaborate clefts and folds
what kinds of cells are in cervical mucosa?
mucous cells - live in clefts and folds of cervix
branched glands
what's different about cervical mucous than mucous in other parts of body?
mucous properties of cervix change with menstrual cycle
how does cervical mucous change with the menstrual cycle?
mid-cycle: lots of watery mucous with micro-passages to help sperm navigate uterus
other times: less, thicker mucus impassable to sperm
what kinds of cells make up cervical epithelium?
simple columnar
what are nabothian cysts?
are enlarged pockets of mucosal folds in cervix
how many lobes are in each boob?
15-20
what is a lobe in the boob made up of?
is compound of tubulo-alveolar glands with separte lobar ducts each opening onto apex of nipple
what constitute the mammary parenchymal layer?
epithelial structures of lobes and fine connective tissue
where is the mammary parenchymal layer in relation to fat in the boob?
mammary parenchymal layer is suspended tween superficial and deep fat
what are the different kinds of fat of the boob?
have two types;
1. superficial fat
2. deep retromammary fat
what is a ductal-lobular unit in relation to the boob?
is smallest functional unit with terminal duct and associated alveoli
is end of branches of ducts
what kind of cells are in both alveoli and ducts?
myoepithelial cells
what kind of epithelium do larger ducts have compared to smaller ones in the boob?
have columnar epithelium
what's a lactiferous sinus in the boob?
is an enlargement of each lobar duct in nipple
what sits in lobar ducts when they're not being used?
keratinized cells
describe the important histological characteristics of the nipple
is pigmented, wrinkled
tall connective tissue papillae under stratified squamous epithelium
sebaceous glands in epithelium
no sweat glands or hairs
what are glands of montgomery and where are they?
are in areola
are small modified mammary glands
what is the areola histologically speaking?
is pigmented area around nipple
connective tissue within it has circularly arranged smooth muscle cells that allow nipple to become erectile
in the inactive boob gland, what do the cells typically look like?
are few alveoli
few cells taller than cuboidal
in the preggers boob gland, what do the cells typically look like?
pregnancy - tubules form buds that enlarge into alveoli
in lactating boob gland, what's going on in the cell - what are the organelles doing? what's in there?
cells look like any other cell making protein - RER
have lipid droplets budding into lumen covered with thin layer of cytoplasm and cell membrane
apocrine secretion
lactose in secretion granules
casein = milk protein also in secretion granules
secretion granules released via exocytosis
some immunoglobulins in secretion especially right after birth
what the hell is apocrine secretion in the context of lactating boob glands?
when cell commits suicide, releasing self with contents
what is colostrum?
is boob milk first few days after giving birth when milk is especially high in immunoglobulins
what hormones help lactation?
estrogen, progesteron
prolactin, oxytocin
insulin, growth hormone, thyroid hormone
what does estrogen do to help boob lactate?
promotes growth of ducts
what does progesterone do to help boob lactate?
promotoes alveolar develoment
what does prolactin do to help boob lactate?
necessary to make milk proteins
what do insulin, growth hormone and thyroid hormone do to help boob lactate?
don't really help, but could seriously mess up
if levels of these hormones not appropriate, milk will not be made
what does oxytocin do to help boob lactate?
is necessary for milk let-down and
under appropriate conditions, causes myoepithelial cell contraction
describe the functionalis of the endometrium in the premenstrual stage
this is one of the study queestions from the syllabus - hope i can answer this later on
what is the role of the spiral arteries in menstruation?
don't know - fill this in when that becomes clear
how does the cervix differ from the fundus, body and isthmus of the uterus?
mucosa doesn't thicken with change in menstrual cycle
describe changes related to cycle found in cervix
mucus stuff - thicker or thinner, more or less and harder or easier for sperm to travel through - best time is right after ovulation