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64 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 events involved in respiration? Which involve the respiratory system and which involve the circulatory system?
1) ventilation - air moving in/out
2) external respiration - alveoli/blood exchange of gases
3) Transport of gases by the blood
4) Internal respiration - tissue/RBC exchage of gases

The first 2 involve the respiratory system and the second 2 involve the circulatory system.
What are the primary functional requirements for gas exchange between the atmosphere and the blood? (4)
1)Large surface area
2)Thin, gas permeable barrier between blood and air
3)Abundant capillary supply
4)Both air/blood volumes cycled rapidly past blood-gas barirer.
What are the secondary functional requirements for gas exchange between the atmosphere and the blood? (3)
A. Conditioning - warm, humidify, clean air
B. Olfaction - smell
C. Phonation - Ability to make sounds
What are the two major divisions of the respiratory system?
The conducting portion and the respiratory portion.
What happens at the conducting portion (5) and what are its components (7)?
The conducting portion cleans, humidifies and adjusts the temperature of the air. It also contains the sites of olefaction and phonation.
Its components are the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.
What happens at the respiratory portion (1) and what are its components (3)?
The respiratory portion is the site where gas exchange occurs.
Components include respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs.
Where are elastic fibers located in the respiratory tract?
Everywhere!
Where in smooth muscle not located in the respiratory tract?
Not located in the alveoli.
Where do goblet cells cease appearing in the respiratory tract?
Not in the terminal bronchioles and below.
Where do ciliated cells cease appearing in the respiratory tract?
Not in alveola ducts and below.
Where do glands cease appearing in the respiratory tract?
Not in terminal bronchioles and below.
Where does hyaline cartilage cease appearing in the respiratory tract?
Not in the terminal bronchioles and below.
What are the components of mucosa respiratory epithelium (6) (cell types)?
Cilliated Columnar, Goblet cells, basal cells, small granule cells (DNES cells), Brush cells, serous cells.
Describe mucosa respiratory epithelium.
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (PCCE) with goblet cells, joined apically by tight junctions.
Describe ciliated columnar cells. How many cilia per cell? What do they serve as? Where are their nuclei?
300 cilia/cell, motor for mucociliary escalator, basal nuclei.
Describe goblet cells. What do they make? What percentage of the mucosa epithelium are they?
Goblet cells produce mucinogen (makes mucin) 30% of epithelium.
Describe basal cells. What do they make? What percentage of the mucosa epithelium are they?
Basal cells are stem cells for goblet, ciliated and brush cells, 30% of epithelium and they do not reach the surface.
Describe Small granule cells or DNES (diffuse neuroendocrine system or amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells. What do they make? What percentage of the mucosa epithelium are they?
The secrete hormones and biogenic amines (serotonin, histamine) they are 3% of the epithelium.
Describe brush cells. What do they make? What percentage of the mucosa epithelium are they?
Brush cells are narrow columnar and have a microvillus border, they serve as a replacement cell or serve a sensory function. They are 3% of the epithelium.
Describe serous cells. What do they make? What percentage of the mucosa epithelium are they?
Serous cells are columnar and have a microvillus border and electron dense apical granules, they secrete a watery substance.
What is the lamina propria, what does it contain, what type of tissue is it? What seperates it from the submucosa?
The lamina propria is a layer of loose fibroelastic connective tissue interconnected but is predominantly longitudinal. It contains lymphatic tissue, and nodes (abundant lymphoid cells including mast and plasma cells). Ig and IgE as well as IgG producers. The elastic lamina seperates the lamina propria from the submucosa.
Describe the submucosa. What does it contain? What type of tissue is it? What does it blend with?
The submucosa contains mucus and seromucous glands and ducts that go all the way to the surface. It is composed of dense, irregular fibroelastic tissue. (fewer elastic fibers than mucosa). It has a rich vascular supply with some lymph vessels that reach to the lamina propria. It also blends to the periosteum or perichondrium (transitional layer of bone/cartilage).
What is the adventitia? What type of tissue is it? What does it contain? What does it do?
The adventitia is composed of fibroelastic connective tissue. It contains hyaine cartilage rings. It attaches the respiratory tract to adjacent structures and stabilizes those structures.
What are the external nares?
They are the enterance to the nasal cavity (choanae).
What is the vestibula? Where is it located? What type of tissue/glands does it contain? What 2 other important structures are in this area?
The vestibule is immediately posterior to external nares. It contains keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, sweat and sebaceous glands. 2 important structures it contains are hair follicles which serve as an air filiter and the nasal plexus which helps to warm the air.
What types of cells are in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and the nasopharynx? What is the purpose of this grouping?
The nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx warms, cleans, and humidifies air. It also creates turbulence in the air. Its primary tissue type is PCCE and all cell types are represented (including olefactory epithelia).
What does the lamina propria of respiratory epithelium contain? (3)
It contains large arterial plexus and venous sinuses (Swell bodies).
It also contains the pharyngeal tonsils or adenoids which contain lymphoid tissue nodules. Finally it connects to the periosteum or pericondrium.
What are Swell bodies?
Venous sinuses
Where is the olefactory epithelium located? What is the major type of epithelium?
The olefactory epithelium is in the roof of the nasal cavity. It has thick pseudostratified columnar epithelium WITHOUT goblet cells.
What are the cell components of olefactory epithelium (4)?
Olefactory cells, sustentacular cells, baasal cells and brush cells.
Describe olefactory cells. Where are their odor receptors located? Where does their axon go?
Olefactory cells are bipolar neurons with olefactory vesicle at the dendritic end. They have 6-8 very long non-motile cilia which are attached to the olefactory vesicle. Odor receptors are located on the cilia. The axon passes through the cribform plate to synapse on glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (10,000 odors)
Describe sustentacular cells. What do they contain/do?
Sustentacular cells are support cells with microvillus border and yellow secretory granules (lipfuscin), they have a large number of vesicles.
What do basal cells do in the olefactory epithelium?
Basal cells replace both olfactory and sustentacular cells.
What do brush cells do in olfactory epithelium?
They aere sensory cells that synapse with cranial nerve V (trigeminal) in the lamina propria.
What does the lamina propria of the olfactory epithelium contain?
It contains Bowman's glands, and similar components as teh rest of the nasal cavity plus unmyelinated fibers of CN I and myelinated fibers and CN V.
What do bowman's glands do?
They are serous glands that produce a watery secretion that continually wash the olfactory cilia.
What type of tissue is in the oral pharynx, nasopharynx and laryngeal pharynx?
Stratified squamous epithilium with a limina propria similar to the olefactory epithelium.
Describe what makes up the larynx. What is the majority of the mucosa of the larynx? What 4 important structures are in it?
The larynx is a framework of hyaline (thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids) and elastic cartilage (epiglottis, corrniculate). THe majority is PCCE with thick LP and seromucus glands in the submucosa (except for structures specialized for sound generation, cough) The larynx contains the vestibular fold, the ventricle, the vocal fold and the epiglottis.
What is the vestibular fold?
False vocal ford, superior to the true vocal fold.
Describe the vocal fold's mucosa and lamina propria.
Its mucosa is made of stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium. The LP contains an elastic vocal ligament acted on by the vocalis muscle wich changes tension and produces sound. The seromucus glands are absend from the vocal ligament but present at the base of the vocal fold.
What is the anterior surface of the epiglottis covered by?
Stratified squamous epithelia
What is smoker's cough?
When you inhale tobacco smoke, the respiratory system tries to protect itself by producing mucus and coughing. Normally, the cilia (tiny hairlike structures) beat outward to sweep harmful substances out of the lungs. Smoking retards this sweeping action, so some of the toxins remain in the lungs and mucus remains in the airways. When you sleep, some cilia recover and start functioning again. On waking, you cough because your lungs are trying to get rid of the toxins from the previous day’s smoking. Eventually, after long-term exposure to tobacco smoke, the cilia stop functioning completely.
What type of epithelium is in the trachea?
PCCE
What are the 3 layers of the trachea?
The mucosa, the submucosa, and the adventitia.
Describe the mucosa of the trachea.
Respiratory epithelium and lamina propria including longitudinally oriented elastic fibbers at peripheral border.
Describe the submucosa of the trachea. What does it contain?
Contains mucous and seromucous glands.
Describe the adventitia of the trachea. What important muscle does it contain? What does this muscle do?
The adventitia is a dense fibroelastic CT and 16-20 C shaped hyaline cartilage rings. The trachealis muscle is a band of smooth muscle that connects the 2 free ends of each cartilage ring and regulates the diameter of the tracheal lumen (contracts during coughing to increase the velocity of the air going through)
What type of epithelium is found in the bronchi?
PCCE which transitions to stratified squamous epithelium as you go deeper.
What are the 3 types of bronchi? WHat is the histology and accompaning structures of each?
Primary (extrapulmonary)
-supply each lung
Histology: similar to trachea
It is accompanied by pulmonary arteries, veins and lymph vessels.

Secondary (lobar intrapulmonary)
- supply each bronchus
Histology: irregular shaped cartilage plates with bands of smooth muscle spirals located between the lamina propria and submucosa.

Tertiary (segmental, intrapulmonary)
Histology: Similar to secondary bronchi.
Describe the general histology of bronchioles.
They have no cartilage adn no glands. The goblet cells become less frequent in smaller bronchioles and the epithelium becomes shorter as bronchioles become smaller. It also has a thick smooth muscle layer and elastic fibers in lamina propria.
What are the 3 types of bronchioles?
Primary, Terminal, and respiratory.
What is the main purpose of the primary bronchioles? What is their histology? WHat important cells arrise here?
THe primary brionchioles (preterminal) are a conducting airway with simple columnar ciliated epithelium with or without goblet cells. They also contain clara cells.
What do clara cells do? What do they contain? Describe them.
Clara cells are non-ciliated columnar cells with microvilli. They are dome shaped cells with abundant mitochondria and secretory vesicles that contain glycoproteins. Their functions include: Reduce surface tension of the airway, degrade toxins, and proliferate and replace ciliated columnar cells.
What are terminal bronchioles? What is their histology?
Terminal bronchioles are the final conducting airway/portion. THey are ciliated cubiodal cells and have clara cells w/o goblet.
What are respiratory bronchioles? What is their function? Describe their histology.
Respiration begins at respiratory bronchioles. Their histology is cuboidal epithelium interrupted by an occasional alveolus, they are low columnar and have clara cells.
What are alveolar ducts? What do they terminate as? What type of epithelium do they have?
Alveolar ducts are a linear airway lined by alveoli. They terminate as alveolar sacs and are simple squamous with some elastic fibers and smooth muscle in knobs.
What are alveolar cacs? What is the atrium?
Alveolar sacs are cul-de-sacs lined with alveoli. The atrium are a common space which the lining alveoli open into. There is NO smooth muscle here!
What are alveoli? What are they the site of?
Alveoli are outpocketing in the airway wall. They are the functional unit of the respiratory system and are the site of external respiration.
What are alveolar pores (of Kohn)?
They are pores that allow air pressure equalization between adjacent alveoli (communication between adjacent alveoli)
Describe Type I pneoumocytes.
AKA type I alveolar cells, squamous alveolar cells, they cover 95% of the alveolar surface and their basal lamina often fuse with that of adjacent capillaries (alviolar capillary membrane).
Describe type II pneumocytes. What do they do/contain?
AKA type II alveolar cells, septal cells, great alveolar cells. These cover 5% of the alveolar surface and are more numerous than type I. They replace both type I and type II. They are cuboidal in shape and produce surfactant (a phospholipid protein mixture that is secreted onto the surface of the alveoli to reduce surface tension). They also contain lamellar bodies - secretory granules.
What are alveolar macrophages? Describe their life cycle.
These are the final scavenger for the respiratory system. They begin as blood borne moncytes which enter the lung interstitium. They roam across the alveolar surface and phagocytize debris. They then move into a conducting bronchiole and ride the mucociliary escalator to the oropharynx.
What is the interalveolar septum? What does it contain? What is it supported by?
The interalveolar septum forms the region between adjacent alveoli. It contains an extensive continuous capillary bed. It is supported by reticular fibers, elastic fibers and a basal lamina of capillaries and alveolar cells.
Describe the 3 layers of the blood gas barrier.
1) surfactant and type I pneumocyte.
2) Fused basal lamina of type I pneumocyte and capillary endothelial cell.
3) Capillary endothelial cell.