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48 Cards in this Set

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What are the three steps involved in preparing a specimen for microscopic analysis?
- Fixation
- Embedding
- Staining
What is the purpose of fixation?
- preserves the sample
- kills bacteria and other infective agents
- increases hardness of tissue
What fixative agent is most commonly used for light microscopy and immunocytochemistry?
4-10% formaldehyde
What fixative agent is most commonly used for electron microscopy?
2% glutaraldehyde
What is the purpose of embedding a tissue?
Need to embed tissues to allow cuts to be made - infiltrate the tissue with a solidifying material
Paraffin – wax-like embedding medium – allows tissues
to be cut in:

a) 4-15 nm thickness
b) 4-15 um thickness
c) 5-8 nm thickness
d) 5-8 um thickness
b
The best way to avoid a large amount of artifact in your tissue sample during embedding is:

a) Use an epoxy based resin (plastic embedding medium)
b) Use cryosections of the tissue
c) Use a paraffin based resin
d) Can't avoid this
b
Which of the following is true regarding acidic dyes?

a) Carry a net positive charge on the coloured portion
b) Specific in regard to reaction
c) basophilia refers to the cationic groups with the acidic dye
d) Orange G is an example of an acidic dye
d
All of the following are examples of basic dyes except:

a) Methylene Blue
b) Aniline Blue
c) Toluidine Blue
d) Methyl Green
b
T of F:

Haematoxylin & Eosin stain areas of high DNA/RNA content red, and cytoplasm bue.
F - opposite
Regarding the trichrome stain:

Nuclei are stained ______
Cytoplasm is stained _______
and collagen is stained _______
blue
red
green
A schiff stain will stain _______ red.
carbohydrates
ex - cartilage and mucin in goblet cells, basement membranes
Which statement is false?

a) Alcian blue is a mucin stain used in conjunction with H&E.
b) Aniline Blue demonstrates great detail especially in regard to epithelium.
c) Alcian Blue is a mucin stain used in conjunction with a Schiff stain.
d) Pyronin G is a basic dye.
c
In regard to immunocytochemistry:

a) direct immunofluorescence corresponds with low intensity signal emission
b) indirect immunofluorescence corresponds with low intensity signal emission
c) direct immunofluorescence is time consuming and expensive
d) none of the above are true
e) only A and C are true
a
What are some limitations in regard to light microscopy?
- specimen must be stained
- specimen must be thin enough to allow light to pass through
- methodology, equipment, chemicals used and carelessness can all cause artifacts in the specimen
Electron Microscopy:

a) allows for a three dimensional representation of the specimen
b) requires a light source
c) increases resolution by a factor of 1000
d) areas which have absorbed or scattered electrons appear white
c
Which type of microscope allows three dimensional view of specimen?
confocal
What is the purpose of a pinhole? Which type of microscope is it used in?
purpose - only allows parallel light rays to pass through
used in confocal microscope
T or F:

A confocal microscope can be used to image a live or fixed specimen.
T
Which type of microscope uses changes in refractive index to image unstained specimens?
phase contrast
T or F:

a denser area = higher refractive index
T
What two types of microscopes can be used to image live cells?
CONFOCAL
Phase Contrat
Which type of microscope has a FOV of a black background with bright reflective particles scattered throughout?
Dark field
How are organelles classified?
Membraneous or Non-Membraneous
What are some examples of non-membraneous organelles?
microtubules, actin filaments, intermediate filaments, ribosomes, basal bodies, centrioles
What are some examples of membraneous organelles?
lysosome, Golgi, RER, SER, mitochondrion, peroxisome, plasma membrane
Which statemnt is false regarding membrane proteins?
a) There are six types
b) Pumps often form junctions with other cells
c) Linkers anchor the intracellular cytoskeleton to the ECM
d) Receptors, channels and enzymes are all examples of membrane proteins
b
T or F:

Carrier Proteins allow both active and passive transport via conformational change
T
The Na+/K+ pump uses what type of membrane protein
carrier proteins
Which statement is false regarding channel proteins?

a) create hydrophobic channels
b) can transport small H2O molecules
c) Voltage-gated ion channels are an example
d) They are ion selective
a
they create hydrophilic channels
Endocytosis is a type of __________ transport for _________ molecules.

a) active; small
b) vesicular; small
c) active; large
d) vesicular; large
d
What are the three mechanisms for endocytosis?
receptor mediated
phagocytosis
pinocytosis
What are the two pathways for exocytosis?
Constituted and regulated secretory
What are endosomes?
Diffeer in theeir loca a o , ocalization,
morphology, state of
acidification and function
Package Package and and sort sort proteins proteins
for late endosomes or
recycling
Late (internal) endosomes: lysosome
Which organelle is involved in the degradation of internal and external macromolecules?
a) RER
b) Golgi
c) lysozyme
d) lysosome
d
The protein synthesis system is comprised by the _____ and the _______.

a) SER; tRNA
b) RER; tRNA
c) RER; ribosome
d) SER; Golgi
c
SER is known as ___________ in skeletal and cardiac muscle.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
In what organ would you expect to find a very well developed SER?
liver
Post translational modification occurs by what organelle
golgi
Which organelle is related to the symbiotic theory of a prokaryote being engulfed by a eukaryotic cell?
mitochondrion
Mitochondria are present in all cells except?
RBSc
keratinocytes
Where is ATP produced in the mitochondrion?
intermembrane space
Mitochondrial matrix is the site of the
Kreb's Cycle
Peroxisomes produce
H2O2
Microtubules are:

a)made of α‐ and β‐tubulin
anchored to a central γ‐tubulin in the MTOC
b) Branch out from the nucleolus
c) Hollow tubes that are soft and non‐branching branching
d) assemble and disassemble slowly
a
Actin filaments are:

a) Dense and thick
b) Thin and short
c) Associate with melanin to generate contractions
d) Assemble slowly
b
Intermediate filaments:

a) are larger than actin filaments
b) have a helical structure/backbone
c) are thin and short
d) have a central rod‐shaped domain with globular end domains
d
Basal bodies are derived from ________.

a) lysosomes
b) mitochondria
c) centrioles
d) centromeres
c