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38 Cards in this Set

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Track of Sperm (Part 1)
The testis are arranged in a series of hair-pin-like tubules, called seminiferous tubules.
These empty into the rete testis.
From here, the sperm goes to the ductus efferens.
This turns into a high coiled tube called the epididymis.
This turns into a highly muscularized tube called the vas deferens.
This tube will go to the ejaculatory duct.
Track of Sperm (Part 2)
The other tube of the vas deferens coming from the other tests plus this tube will combine to form the urethra.
The prostate gland secretes fluids into the ejaculatory duct. (There are other secretions besides sperm)
Paraurethral Glands
They secrete fluids into the urethra, unlike the prostate gland, which secretes fluid into the ejaculatory duct.
Spermatogenesis - Spermatogonium
it is the stem cell
which are found on the basement membrane
divide mitotically, and as they divide, one cell goes further away from the basement membrane and becomes committed to meiosis, then it is called a primary speratocyte
have a round nucleus, some cytoplasm
Spermatogenesis - Primary Spermatocyte
-It is the largest cell we find in the male reproductive system (will have to ID on lab)
-With the first meiotic division, also known as reduction division, it turns into a secondary spermatocyte
Spermatogenesis - Secondary Spermatocyte
With the 2nd meiotic division, it turns into a spermatid
Spermatids to next phase (3)
-Early spermatid are found next to primary spermatocyte, there are a lot of them and are round cells
-Later Spermatids are more arrow shaped and a bit more condensed. Found next to early spermatids
-Mature Spermatozoon is what the spermatid turns into. It is black on slide b/c it is very condensed.
Other Cells found (4)
-Sertoli Nuclei w/ big nucleolus = active cell, they touch the basement membrane, are arrow shaped.
-Myoepithelial Cells lining the basement membrane.
-Capillaries found in between seminiferous tubules.
-Leydig cells found in between seminiferous tubules.
Tunica Albuginea
the testis seminiferous is ensheathed in this dense regular connective tissue
Germ Cells (examples)
are involved with reproduction. all other cells are called somatic cells. examples of these invlude spermatogonia to spermatozoa in the male and the oogonia to the ovum in female.
1)Sertoli Cells
2) Leydig Cells
Sertoli Cell Functions (5)
1) involved in testis development
2) engulfs excess cytoplasm as sperm cells mature, recycles it for energy purposes
3) forms the blood-testis barrier
4) secretes androgen-binding protein (ADP)
5) secretes inhibin, which inhibits FSH
Leydig Cell Functions
1) responsible for producing and releasing testosterone (steroid hormone)
2) causes growth of primary and secondary sex characters
Sertoli Cell Structure and involvement with spermatogenesis
The sertoli cells are bound by tight junctions, which serve as barriers so that lymphocytes cannot attack the later stage spermatids and mature spermatozoons, which are above the tight junction. Below this tight junction are spermatogonia.
Epididymis Epithelial Type
non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar - all the cells touch the basement membrane.
the rete testis though is (simple) cuboidal epithelium
Epididymis Structure
-In the lumen are sterecilia, which are not cilia, but are long microvilli
-The lumen is filled with sperm cells
-There are principal cell nuclei in between the lumen and basement membrane, which are elongated
-On the basement membrane are basal cell nuclei, which are small and round
Track of Sperm (Part 1)
The testis are arranged in a series of hair-pin-like tubules, called seminiferous tubules.
These empty into the rete testis.
From here, the sperm goes to the ductus efferens.
This turns into a high coiled tube called the epididymis.
This turns into a highly muscularized tube called the vas deferens.
This tube will go to the ejaculatory duct.
Track of Sperm (Part 2)
The other tube of the vas deferens coming from the other tests plus this tube will combine to form the urethra.
The prostate gland secretes fluids into the ejaculatory duct. (There are other secretions besides sperm)
Paraurethral Glands
They secrete fluids into the urethra, unlike the prostate gland, which secretes fluid into the ejaculatory duct.
Spermatogenesis - Spermatogonium
it is the stem cell
which are found on the basement membrane
divide mitotically, and as they divide, one cell goes further away from the basement membrane and becomes committed to meiosis, then it is called a primary speratocyte
have a round nucleus, some cytoplasm
Spermatogenesis - Primary Spermatocyte
-It is the largest cell we find in the male reproductive system (will have to ID on lab)
-With the first meiotic division, also known as reduction division, it turns into a secondary spermatocyte
Spermatogenesis - Secondary Spermatocyte
With the 2nd meiotic division, it turns into a spermatid
Spermatids to next phase (3)
-Early spermatid are found next to primary spermatocyte, there are a lot of them and are round cells
-Later Spermatids are more arrow shaped and a bit more condensed. Found next to early spermatids
-Mature Spermatozoon is what the spermatid turns into. It is black on slide b/c it is very condensed.
Other Cells found (4)
-Sertoli Nuclei w/ big nucleolus = active cell, they touch the basement membrane, are arrow shaped.
-Myoepithelial Cells lining the basement membrane.
-Capillaries found in between seminiferous tubules.
-Leydig cells found in between seminiferous tubules.
Tunica Albuginea
the testis seminiferous is ensheathed in this dense regular connective tissue
Germ Cells (examples)
are involved with reproduction. all other cells are called somatic cells. examples of these invlude spermatogonia to spermatozoa in the male and the oogonia to the ovum in female.
1)Sertoli Cells
2) Leydig Cells
Sertoli Cell Functions (5)
1) involved in testis development
2) engulfs excess cytoplasm as sperm cells mature, recycles it for energy purposes
3) forms the blood-testis barrier
4) secretes androgen-binding protein (ADP)
5) secretes inhibin, which inhibits FSH
Leydig Cell Functions
1) responsible for producing and releasing testosterone (steroid hormone)
2) causes growth of primary and secondary sex characters
Sertoli Cell Structure and involvement with spermatogenesis
The sertoli cells are bound by tight junctions, which serve as barriers so that lymphocytes cannot attack the later stage spermatids and mature spermatozoons, which are above the tight junction. Below this tight junction are spermatogonia.
Epididymis Epithelial Type
non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar - all the cells touch the basement membrane.
the rete testis though is (simple) cuboidal epithelium
Epididymis Structure (5)
-In the lumen are sterecilia, which are not cilia, but are long microvilli
-The lumen is filled with sperm cells
-There are principal cell nuclei in between the lumen and basement membrane, which are elongated
-On the basement membrane are basal cell nuclei, which are small and round and touch the basement membrane
-Surrounding the basement membrane is smooth muscles, which squeezes the sperm out of the tube
Epididymis Functions
-Storage in between ejaculations of sperm
-Concentrate sperm
-It is here that sperm develop ability to move the flagellum (motility)
Vas Deferens
Extension of epididymis, so you'll see pseudostratified epithelium.
Might see some arteries
Is the most muscular tube in the body for its size.
Outside the cell and in between them is all smooth muscle, which is the dead giveaway for the vas deferens
Prostate Epithelium
Epithelium can vary from squamous to pseudostratified columnar.
The higher the epithelium, the most active
*The slide is stained with E and H.
Secretions of Prostate
Its secretions contain citric acid and proteolytic enzymes, the latter of which liquifies the coagulated semen if it impregnates the woman.
The secretion tends to form a precipitate, which adds new layers to the granules in the lumen. This precipitate is a dead giveaway for the prostate.
There is also smooth muscle surrounding the cells that help squeeze the secretions out and some cytoplasm
Penis
Epidermis is the outer most layer (not on slide)
Then there is the Tunica Albuginea
Inside that is the corpora cavernosa penis and the urethra, which is surrounded be the corpus cavernosum urethrae
Corpora Cavernosa Penis
Larger block of erectile tissue
Corpus Cavernosum Urethrae
Erectile tissue around the urethra
Urethra
Is a rare example of true stratified columnar epithelium.
Surrounding it at paraurethral glands, which secrete mucus, and vascular sinuses. Both of these are lined by epithelial cells.

*All of the epithelial cells on here stain dark b/c of the elastin