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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tissues and organs of the immune system
epithelial barrier, innate immunity, adaptive immunity
adaptive immunity
specific response of lymphocytes to pathogens or tumors
innate immunity
activity of macrophages and neutrophils
Lymphocyetes: B
B (bone marrow derived) secrete antibodies can differenitate to become plasma cells
Lymphocytes: T
Thymmus derived, help regulate CD4+, cytotoxic CD8+
Dedritic cells
process and present antigen to cells
Phagocytic, activity regulated by antigen stimulated lymphocytes
Secondary / Peripheral lymphatic tissue
immune responses. Diffuse, lymph node, spleen
Diffuse secondary tissue
non-keratinized epithelial surfaces with little CT capsule, lymphocytes accum in CT, variability in cellularity and organization. Examples, strat sq. ep. of vagina/esophagus, BALT (resp ep.,Bronchus Associated Lymphatic Tissue, MALT (mucosal associatedlymphatic tissue in tonsils or gut)
lymph nodes
encapsulated receive lymph, filters lymph borne antigens
responds to blood borne antigens
Primary / central lymphatic tissue
lymphocyte production and differentiation includes bone marrow and thymus
dense collection of lymphocytes
elements of diffuse lymphatic tissue
nodules, follicles
dynamic collection of B cells, reflects B cell response to antigen stimulation
Primary Follicle response to antigen stimulation
accumulation of B cells resulting from antigen driven B cell proliferation
Secondary follicle response to antigen stimulation
actively producing B cells- region with mitotic lymphocytes in center= germinal center
Germinal center
acculumation of B cells that are reproducing and expanding making same antibody only in secondary follicle
Role of Lymph node
filter of lymph, site for response to lymph borne antigen
Efferent lymphatic
going away from lymph node toward body
Afferent lymphatic
coming in and breaks into channels in lymph node
Framework of lymph node
Lymphatic channels (sinuses) that are studded with macrophages. Stromal (framework) cells make reticular (III) fibers
dense CT for support
Cortex of lymph node
rich in b cells
paracortex of lymph node
rich in T cells and dendritic cells, site of first entry into node
mix of B cells, plasma cells and macrophages, T cells
lymphocyte traffic into lymph node
enter via blood high endothelial venules and via afferent lymph from tisse or through afferent lymphatic
What makes post cap venuoles in lymph special?
the enothelium is high almost cuboidal or columnar
lymphocyte traffic thru lymph node
enter lymph node via blood (HEV) and afferent lymph from tissues. Lymph leaves via efferent lymphatics. Lymph drains back into venous blood (thoracic duct)
lymph recirculation purpose and description
immune surveillance. if antigen encountered they proliferate and differentiate. If not encounter, continue to recirc for max surveillance.
functions of spleen
immune response to blood borne antigens, RBC filtration and removal.
Spleen compartments
red and white pulp
red pulp
site of blood filtration, system of venous sinuses, no lymph vessels, no lymphatic sinuses
White pulp
aggregates of lymphocytes, site of immune response to blood borne antigens
framework cells of spleen
mesenchymal stromal cells make reticular fibers (III)
Spleen organization
big vessel going into spleen called trabecular arteries/veins, tributaries go into
Where does white pulp set itself up?
Around central artery in spleen
Structure of red pulp
repeating cords of reticular CT separating venous sinuses, cords with formed elements of blood and macrophages,
removal of sensecent ery. from circ
Structure of the vascular sinus
facilitates removal of senescent erythrocytes from the circulation within the splenic red pulp.
Junction type in sinus of lymph
spot junctions (macula inherens)
Ratio of T to B cells in spleen
follicle location lymph node, follicle location spleen
outer edge, more interior
site of T cell development. has epi framework (stromal cell), has cortex and medulla
Differentiation of CLP
occurs with least mature outside, most mature in center
cortex of thymus
high density of lymphocytes responsible for darker staining
thymus medulla
low density of lymphocytes, and lots of epi cells responsible for lighter staining
hassalis body
purpose? in medulla, looks like whirl
origin of thymic epithelial stromal cells
from 3rd Pharyngeal pouch (endoderm), some from neural crest, pharyngeal ectoderm contribution optional
factors in thymic maturation of T cells
needs constant supply of progenitor cells from marrow, maturation of T cells begins before birth and into sexual maturity, production of thymocytes is sensitive to irradiation and/or chemotherapeutic agents, many T cells made but few are chosen.
Self reactive thymocytes
autoimmune disease can occur when there is a failure to eliminate self reactive thymocytes
transcription factor regulating activity of self antigens in developing T cells