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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of Liver (7)
1) Maintain blood glucose level (insulin from the pancreas creates glycogen from abundant glucose; glucagon does the opposite)
2) Metabolism and transport of lipids via lipoprotein
3) Synthesis of cholesterol & bile salts, which emulsify fats and aids in absorption of fats by enterocyte. Emulsifying fats/breaking them down into smaller fats causes an increase in surface area
4) Synthesis of plasma proteins, such as albumin, globulins, and inactive clotting proteins
5) Metabolism of lipid soluble drugs
6) Metabolism of steroid hormones (derived from cholesterol)
7) Uptake and excretion of bilirubin (breakdown product of old RBC's)
Sinusoid-lining cells (2)
1) Endothelial Cells
2) Kupffer Cells - macrophages
Flow of Bile
-Bile canaliculus forms a cavity, which squeezes bile along through contraction
-Then pumped into bile ducts (follows same path as lymph)
Gall Bladder Function and General Info
-To store and concentrate bile by removing water.
-Made up of tall simple columnar epithelium.
-Is hydrophobic and has 3-D folding
-It's sphincter can shut different areas to store bile
-Has a different orientation of smooth muscle on the bottom
Exocrine Pancreas - ducts, darker surrounding tissue, produces enzymes that break down digestible foods
Endocrine Pancreas - ductless
- use blood vessels as duct system
-Islets of Langerhans (light staining circles) located in endocrine pancreas, they secretes hormones that regulate blood glucose levels, most of the pancreas is exocrine tissue = makes digestive enzymes
Serous Cell
-centroacinar cell secrete liquid high in bicarbonate ion, which serves as a neutralizer
-acinar cell secretes digestive enzymes
-2-toned stain
Role of Food in Stomach
causes acid to get into the duodenum, which causes the release of hormones into the blood, namely secretin and CCK
causes centroacinar cell to release bicarbonate ion to neutralize it (buffers stomach acid)
-causes acinar cell to secrete digestive enzymes
-contraction of gall bladder
-smooth muscle cell, acinar cell = target cell
Islet of Langerhans and the three main types cell types found in the islets
-lightly stained cells in patches (tiny)
- alpha cells - secrete glucagon (increase blood sugar)
- beta cells - secrete insulin (decrease blood sugar)
- delta cells - secrete other, inhibit endocrine pancreas
Insulin & Glucagon
Insulin picks up glucose, protein, fatty acids, etc. for storage.
Glucagon causes liver to break down and release glucose, fatty acids, proteins, etc.