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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 main tissue types
group of cells with the same function
smallest structural and functional units
what do all cells consist of EXCEPT RBCs?
nucleus and cytoplasm and carry out basic metabolic activities
groups of cells performing specialized functions
associations of several different tissues that together perform a specialized function

usually one type of tissue dominates the organ according to function
organ systems
higher level organizations of several organs that together perform more complex functions of the body
tissue prep for light microscopy
use formaldehyde to fix the specimen then dehydrate so that all lipids are extracted and place in paraffin

it is then placed on microtome in sections, slides are prepared, paraffin is removed

(remember that lipids and small molecules look like spaces bc they were removed during dehydration?
light microscopy
photons pass through the lens then through the specimen to form an image
electron microscopy
electrons pass through electromagnetic beams onto specimen

the image is passed to a viewing screen

the specimen is stained with hvy metals so some parts of cell is darker than others
what is electron dense
dense areas where that are heavily coated in metal so the electrons cannot pass through so they are seen as dark areas on TEM
scanning electron microscopy
electrons hit the 3D image coated in gold so the e- bounce off and give a 3D image
what does appearance of structures depend on?
orientation within the plane of the section
what are tissue fixed with in electron microscopy?
osmium tetroxide
prep for e- microscopy
fix with formaldehyde,gluteraldehyde, or osmium tetroxide

dehydrate with ethanol

section block on ultramicrotome

section put on Cu grid and stained with hvy metal

grids are put on electron microscope and e- beams are sent through tissue secctions
what has higher resolution light or e- microscopy?
what hvy metals are used to stain specimens in e- microscopy?
uranyl acetate and lead citrate
e- dense areas
areas which stain heavily w/metal salt. these areas scatter e- well and produce black areas on screen below specimen
e- lucent areas
areas where little scattering of e- occurs bc less staining by hvy metals. areas appear lt gray or white
what is important factor in staining for lt microscopy?
postive and negative charges

positive charge of amino groups in muslce

neg charge on phosphate like in nucleus due to DNA/RNA
what are most tissues stained with?
hematoxylin and eosin

known as H & E staining
a basic die

hematoxylin has a positive charge so it binds to negatively charged tissue through electrostatic interactions. Hematoxylin is blue so the nucleus with DNA/RNA is blue
acidic substances are basophillic bc the like to bind to the basic dye hematoxylin. Nucleic acids and cartilage matrix are negative so they bind to hematoxylin.
what substances are basophillic?
acidic cell components
is a red acidic dye with a negative charge so it binds to positively charged tissue like amino groups in protiens
basic cell components that will bind to the acidic dye eosin like amino groups on proteins
describe epthelial tissue
it lines tubes and covers SURFACES

specialized for absorption,secretion, transporation, and protection

forms barriers that control passage of substances
what tissue makes up most surfaces?
describe connective tissue
mostly in ECM with few cells

they support, compartmentalize, and provide protection of tissues
how is connective tissue categorized?
based on morphology
what tissue provides structural and metabolic support for other tissue?
connective tissue
describe muscular tissue
its cells are structurally and functionally specialized for contraction to produce movemnt of body wi body
categories of muscular tissue
describe nervous tissue
its cells are specialized to respond to internal and external stimuli and conduct signas from one pt to another

the cells integrate singals and determine reponse and stimulate muscle and glands to effet responses
what tissue coordinates the activity of other tissues?
nervous tissue
what determines the boundaries of the cell?
the plasma membrane
what composes the plasma membrane?

membrane proteins
integral protein
peripheral proteins

the plasma membrane mass is 50% proteins and 50% lipids
2 types of integral membrane proteins
transmembraine proteins

membrane surface proteins
role of cholesterol is bilayer
determine rigidity of membrane

the more cholesterol the more rigid the bilayer
types of cell junctions
zonula occludens
zonula adherens
macula adherens
gap junctions
apical surface of cel
in contact with lumen

top of cell
basal layer of cell
bottom of cell which is in contact with the basement membrane
what forms a barrier between cytoplasm of cell and ECM?
plasma membrane
how thick is plasma membrane?
5 nm thick
role of integral proteins in plasma membrane
receptors for external signal

act as structural links that connect plasma membrane to cytoskeleton or to ECM
most abundant type of proteins in plasma membrane

they have hydrophillic end and hydrphobic ends
glycoproteins in plasma membrane
sugar contain lipids whre carbs are on the non cytoplasmic surface of the membrane. the function of the carbs on the surface of the plasma membrane:

1.insulation (myelin)
2.cell recognition (receptor) from lo pH and
enzymes (glycolcalyx)
4.binding to ECM
region of highly exaggerated glycolsylation found in intestinal lining

serves as protective barrier

provides region for metabolic

functions as receptor
what provides structural component of plasma membrane? how about specfic function?
lipid bilayer provides basic structure and the membrane proteins carry out specific functions
transmembrane proteins
covalently anchored to bilayer via lipid side chain and have portions of proteins which pass through the lipid bilayer. these proteins form channels or pores and can act as receptors
membrane surface proteins
not imbedded wi bilayer like the transmembrane proteins but are still covalently bound via lipid side chains

these proteins are only associatedwith the internal or external surface of the plasma membrane
peripheral membrane proteins
bound non covalently to lipid bliayer by interaction with integral membrane proteins
cell junctions in plasma membrane
plasma membrane contains proteins that provide adhesion to other cells orto connective tissues (ECM)
how are most epithelial cells joined?
by combination of junctions called junctional complex
components of junctional complex
zonula occludens
zonula adherens
macula adherens
zonula occludens (tight junctions)
forms tight seal between lateral membranes of epithelial cells

prevents materials from passing between 2 epithelial cells
where are zonula occludens located?
most abundant in epithelium

located just basolateral to apical membrane
zonula adherens
(adhesion belts or belt desmosome)
provies mechanical adhesion between cells

a web of actin all the way around the cell. provides mechanical attachment between adjacent cells. Strands of actin filaments comlex w/proteins just below the plams membrane called cadherin allowing structural attachement between cells
cadherins vs integrins
cadherins attach cell to cell

integrins attact cell to matrix

both are transmembrane linkers and depend on extracellular cations to function
where are zonula adherens generally found?
as part of junctional complex of polarized epithelial cells

located basolateral to tight junction
macula adherens (desmosome)
plaque like adhersions restricted to epithelial cells

provides mechanical attachement between cells but dont go all the way aroundthe cell like adhesion belts

desmosomes are spots of proteins wi plasma membrane w/cadherins projecting out to join other cells. cytoplasmic plaques attach to the cadherin. on the opposite side of the plaques are intermediate filaments called keratin filaments which project out of plaque and attach to plaques on other cells
have asymmetric morphology like desmosomes but attaches basal membrane of epithelial
cell to underlying ECM

half of desmosome at basal surface. no cadherins here. has intefrin molecules that allow attachment of basal surface of ep cell to ECM
Gap junction
hexagonal arrays of 6 integral membrane proteins called connexins that come together to form connexons. connexons line up to form channels to allow small molecules to pass through. the opening of the pores are regulated by Ca and phosphorylation of the connexins
where are gap junctions mainly found?
epithelium, smooth, and cardiac muscle, nerve cells and osteocytes
network of filamentous proteins in the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells which interatcs w/oraganelles and membrane to allow movement and compartmentalization
what does cytoskelton depend on?
netwok of protein filament to provide structural integrity and carry out intracellur movemnt
what is cytoskelton composed of?
1. intermediate filaments- ropelike and provide structure

2. microtubules-hollow cylinders of tubulin for intracellular trasport. larger that int. filaments. have + and - end so can change lenghth

3. microfilaments-"actin" double stranded helix of actin monomers. maintinas cell structure and shape and provides movement of cells especially near cell surface
four main groups of intermediate filaments based on protein compostion and cellular localization
2. neurofilaments
3.heterogenous filaments (vimentin)
4.nuclear lamins
where is vimentin found?
type of intermediate filament found in conncecitve tissue, muscle cells, and neural glial cells
where are neurofilament found?
type of intermedeate filament found in nerve cells
what component of cytoskelton is important in diagnosis for cell types?
intermediate filaments
four main groups of intermediate filaments
1.cytokeratin filaments
3.heterogenous filament
4.nuclear lamins
what are the four main groups of intermediate filaments based on?
protein composition and cellular localization
where is keratin found?
in epithelial cells only
where is vimentin found?
in connective tissue, muscle cells, and neural glial cells
where are neurofilaments found?
in nerve cells
types of intermediate heterogenous filaments
what type of protein filament is specific for cell types and diagnostic?
intermediate filaments is diagnostic for cancers bc they are specific to certain cell types and provide clues to tissue orgin of tumor
2 categories of intermediate filaments

nuclear lamins
hollow cylinder composed of tubulin that assembles and disassembles

at + and - end
where does - end of microtube attach?
to microtubule organizing center aka centrosome
what is centrosome
where - end of microtubule attaches in center of cell near the nucleus

contains pair of cylindrical centrioles with a 9+0 triplet
what type of protein filament are cilia and flagella?
where are + and - end of microtubule?
+ end at periphery

- end in center
point of attachment of microtubules and spindle fibers. also where chromosomes attach during cell division
microtubules function
provides structural rigidity to cell

control movement of transport vesicles and other organelles wi cell

framework of miotic spindle during cell division

provide forces needed for ceiliary and flagellar beating
microtubule motor proteins
bind to microtubule and vessicles/organelles

2 kinds
microtubule motor protein that moves molecules from plus to minus end moving transport vesicles toward the centrosome in prescence of ATP
type of microtubule motor proteins that move carbon molecules toward the plus end at the periphery

effects vesicular and organelle transport toward plus end
what are cilia made of?
basal body with similiar structure to centrioles except that cilia has 9+2 arrangement: 9 doublets and 2 single microtubules in the center surrounded by plasma membrane.
what allow movement of cilia?
interaction of dyenin arms w/adjacent microtubules in sliding motion of cilia
difference in size of cillia and microvilli
cillia are 10-12 microns, same size as nucleus

microvilli are like 1 micron
Kartageners syndrome (immotile cilia)
rare congenital disorder where dynein arms (common),spokes,nexin links or other ciliar components are absent. this causes male and femal infertility,chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis
flexible DS helical polymers of actin
how are microfilaments aka actin attached to plasma membrane and other cytoskelton cmpds?
via accessory proteins
function of microfilaments
maintain cell sape

form core of micro villi




growth of axons

what does cell locomotion require?
actin-myosin motor protein system and actin binding protein
where are actin filaments located?
within the cytoplasm below the plasma membrane through proteins that bind w/membrane proteins,such as integrins, which then interact w/proteins in EXM like fibronectin and aminin

this helps make supporting framework
what bridges cytoskeleton to Extracellular support framework?
non motile

comrprised of actin microfilaments


increase SA/absorptive
basically long microvilli
with absorptive function seen in epididymis of male repro tract