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236 Cards in this Set

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Layers of the digestive tract
mucosa
epithelium + lamina propria + muscularis mucosae
lamina propria
loose CT rich in blood and lymph vessels and smooth muscle cells, sometimes glands and lymphoid tissue
muscularis mucosae
consists of a thin inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells
submucosa
dense CT with many blood and lymph vessels and a submucosal (Meissner's) nerve plexus, may contain glands and lymphoid tissue
meissner's submucosal plexus
located in the submucosa of the duodenum and stimulates the glands to secrete
muscularis
contains smooth muscle cells that are spirally oriented and divided into two sublayers : circular and longitudinal, contains myenteric (Aurbach's) nerve plexus
auerbach's plexus
located between the inner circular smooth muscle layer and outer longitudinal smooth muscle layer and stimulate peristaltic contractions
adventitia
outer layer of digestive tract, CT without mesothelium, connects digestive organ to other organs or structures
serosa
loose CT + mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium)
esophagus
esophageal glands are classified as
compound tubuloalveolar
mucosal epithelium of the esophagus
stratified squamous non-keratinized
esophageal glands
small mucus secreting glands in the submucosa, secretion facilitates the transport of foodstuffs and protects the mucosa
cardiac glands
glands in the lamina propria of the cardiac stomach, secrete mucus and lysozyme
stomach
epithelium of the cardiac stomach
simple columnar, mucous secreting cells, protect stomach from acids
cardiac portion
portion of the stomach closest to the esophagus
fundic portion
same as body portion of the stomach
pyloric portion
portion of the stomach closest to the duodenum
rugae
longitudinal folds of the mucosa and submucosa found on the inner surface of the stomach, accommodate expansion
mucosal gastric pits
invaginations of the simple columnar epithelium of the fundic region of the stomach
mucosal fundics (gastric) glands
simple or branched tubular glands extending into the lamina propria - contain neck and base portions
parietal cells of fundic gland
stain brightly acidophilic, secrete HCL which activates pepsinogen
chief cells of fundic gland
produces the inactive enzyme pepsinogen which turns to pepsin in acid environment, stain basophilic,
mucosal fundic gland - neck
consists of stem cells, parietal cells, and mucous cells
mucosal fundic gland - base
contains chief cells, parietal cells, and enteroendocrine cells
chyme
pulpy fluid produced by the mixing action and partial digestion of food in the stomach
argentaffin cells
cells that take up silver stain
APUD cells
type of cell in the mucosa, Amine Precursor Uptake Decarboxylase
Gastrin (G) cells
enteroendocrine cells that produce gastrin which stimulates the release of HCl, release secretions in the capillaries of the lamina propria
mucosal pyloric glands
branched tubular glands located in the lamina propria and secrete mucus and lysozyme
intrinsic factor
assists in the absorption of B12
surface mucous cells
secrete an alkaline mucous, form a hydrophobic gel, protects, maijtains intracellular pH and bicarbonate production
small intestine
duodenum
segment of the small intestine closest to the stomach
jejunum
middle segment of the small intestine
ilium
segment of the small intestine closest to the large intestine
plicae circulares
permanent transverse folds of the small intestine that contain a core of the submucosal layer
villi
outerward growths of the mucosa that project into the lumen of the small intestine, duodenum: leaf shaped, ileum: finger shaped
crypts of Leiberkuhns (intestinal glands)
simple tubular glands between the villi in the duodenum and jejunum
intestinal absorptive cells (enterocytes)
tall columnar cells in the small intestine, oval nucleus in the basal half of the cell, contain brush border of microvilli
goblet cells
interspersed between the absorptive cells, increase in # as approach ileum, produce acid glycoproteins used to form mucus
Argentaffin cells
cells that take up silver stain
Paneth cells
located in the basal portion of the musosal layer of the small intestine, contain secretory granules in the apex of the cell that contain lysozyme and destroy bacteria
APUD cells
type of cell in the mucosa, Amine Precursor Uptake Decarboxylase
Duodenal (Brunner's) glands
located in the submucosa of the duodenum, coiled tubular glands that open into the intestinal glands, mucous secreting cells that produce alkaline secretions, neutralize acidic chymes
Peyer's patches
aggregates of lymphoid nodules located in the lamina propria and submucosa of the small intestine, most in the ileum, covering consists of M cells
m-cell
modified columnar cell found in the mucosa of the ileum, transfer foreign materials to lymphocytes in Peyer's patches
mucosa of the duodenum
epithelium and lamina propria form outgrowths = villi
submucosa of the duodenum
dense CT + Brunner's glands
lacteals
blind ending lymphatic capillaries located in the lamina propria of the villi of the duodenum
large intestine
cecum
a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum
appendix
envagination of the cecum, characterized by small, narrow, irregular lumen, has abundant lymphoid follicles, no teniae coli
colon
the biggest part of the large intestine. function of the colon is extraction of water from feces
rectum
the final straight portion of the large intestine
goblet cells
glandular simple columnar epithelial cells whose sole function is to secrete mucus.
crypts of Leiberkuhns (intestinal glands)
simple tubular glands between the villi in the duodenum and jejunum
teniae coli
thick longitudinal bands in the muscularis, composed of fibers in the outer longitudinal layer
Classical live lobule
Polygons of cells. Central vein (CV) lies in center, and portal triads line the periphery.
Portal Lobule
Exocrine model. Triad in the middle, and bile secretion collected into ductules in the triad
hepatic acinus (functional unit of Rappaport)
Blood perfusion of lobules. 3 Zones which the periphery will be the most sensitive to stimuli from triads. (I.e. Oxygen, alcohol)
Glisson's capsule
dense CT capsule surrounds the four lobes of the liver
hepatocytes
Parenchyma of the liver. Line in cords in lobule. Secrets bile, albumin, coagulation factor, cholesterol, glucose. Large. (Also look space of disse, and bile canaliculus)
mono- and binucleate cells
– 25% of the Parenchyma. Nuclei are round and centrally located. Some can be polyploidy.
endoplasmic reticulum
A lot of smooth and rough. RER aggregate to form basophilic bodies. Important for detoxificatio
portal triad
Portal venule, bile duct, and hepatic arteriole, size decreasing respectively. Around the periphery of the liver lobule.
portal venule
– Part of hepatic portal system. Nutrients from gut blood.
bile duct
Opposite flow of blood. Collects bile to transport into gallbladder. Cuboidal to columnar.
hepatic arteriole
Relatively thick walled. Coming from aorta, and oxygenates the liver.
Sinusoids
space of disse
Separates the endothelial cells from hepatocytes.
kupffer cells
macrophages lying on the lumina surface of the endothelium
Fat-storing cells
Lipids from liver are stored in the form of lipid droplets in hepatocyte.
Bile canaliculus
Specialization of the plasma membranes between adjacent hepatocytes for transporting bile.
bile ductules
Carries bile opposite the blood towards the periphery. Runs along the cords of hepatocytes, towards the bile duct in portal triad.
Pancreas
exocrine portion
centroacinar cells
o   Intercalated ducts penetrating lumen of acini. Makes sure that no pancreatic enzymes are leaked out.
acinar (exocrine) cells
o   Exocrine cells which secrete proteases, nucleases, lipases, amylases, and alkaline fluid. Stimulated by CCK of enteroendocrine or vagus nerve.
endocrine portion
Islets of langerhan section, secreting glucagon (alpha), insulin (beta), somatostatin (delta), and PP (F cell).
islets of langerhans
Endocrine portion of the pancreas. Light staining.
gall bladder
Cystic duct of gall bladder joins the hepatic duct to form common bile duct. Removes water from bile and concentrates to secrete into the duodenum.
salivary glands
Functional unit as acinus.
parotid
– found below and in front of the ear. Mostly serous, high in amylase activity. (Starch -> glucose)
submandibular
submaxillary, at the floor of the mouth. Mixed glad, favoring the serous acini.
sublingual
Also at the floor of the mouth, mostly mucous glands. Lacks intercalated ducts.
acinus
serous demilune
– Half moon serous cells capping the ends of MUCOUS acini. Secretes lysozyme.
ducts
intercalated
come from within the cluster of acini, and connects of striated duct.
striated (intralobular)
A lot of mitochondria and basal infoldings. Regulates ion levels/ transport. Mostly in parotid and submaxilla.
extraloblar (interlobular)
Excretory ducts. Convergence of striated ducts. Stratified columnar with few mucous secreting cells.
Testis
tunica albuginea
thick dense CT; appears white; capsule of the organ
mediastinum testis
: the thickened tunica albuginea located on the posterior portion of the testis
lobules
tunica vaginalis
surrounds the male testis; remnants of the peritoneal cavity
interstitium
interstitial cells (of Leydig)
: principal cell type found in the interstitial supporting tissue between the seminiferous tubules; important site for the production of androgens.
-         Synthesize and secrete male sex hormone Testosterone
-         Stimulated by LH from the adenohypophysis
Seminiferous tubules
: a web of loose CT that is rich in blood and lympathic vessesls, nerves, and Leydig cells. These tubules produce male reproductive cells, spermatozoa
seminiferous epithelium
tunica propria
myoid cells
fibroblast like cells that contain actin/myosin filaments (contractile)
intercelullar bridges
spermatogenesis
process by which spermatozoids are formed
1. Spermatogonia – primitive germ cell produces Type A Spermatogonia (stem cell) and Type B Spermatogonia
2. Type B spermatogonia – progenitor cells that differentiate into primary spermatocytes
3. Primary Spermatocyte – 1st meiotic division (22 day prophase); largest cells of spermatogenia; 46 chromosomes (44 + XY)
4. Secondary Spermatocyte – 2nd meiotic division; 23 chromosomes (22 + X/Y)
5. Spermatids- haploid cell; 23 chromosomes
6. Spermiogenesis: final stage, spermatids are transformed into spermatozoa (cell highly specialized to deliver male DNA to the ovum)
a.Formation of acrosome
b.Condensation & elongation of the nucleus
c. Development of flagellum
d. Loss of cytoplasm
spermatozoa
acrosome
spread over the condensed nucleus; contains several hydrolytic enzymes, such as hyaluronidase, neuroaminidase, acid phophatase and protease. This is a specialized type of lysosome. These enzymes
head
contain the nucleus with condensed chromatin and the acrosome cap
flagellum
middle piece
contain mitochondria, axoneme, and dense fibers forming the thickened region.
principal piece
most of the tail length; consists of a central core (axoneme)
end piece
axoneme only; very short tapering portion
dense fibers
strengthening rods, sine wave like pattern
axoneme
9 +2 arrangement of microtubules; generation of energy for flagellum.
residual bodies
droplet of cytoplasm engulfed by Sertoli cells
sertoli cells
elongated pyramidal supporting cells; rests on the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule
a. bound together by occluding juctions “blood-testis barrier”
basal compartment
b. Functions
-         mediate all metablic exchange with the systemic compartment
-         support, protection, and nutritional regulation of the developing spermatozoa
-         Secretion – seminiferous tubule fluid
-         Production of anti-mullerian hormone
-         Blood-testis barrier
-         Production of inhibin B
-         phagocytosis of discarded spermatid cytoplasm
* stimulated by FSH from the adenohypophysis
adluminal compartment
-- Hormonal Influence
Testosterone – stimulates spermatogenesis
Estrogens & Progestogens – inhibit spermatogenesis
LH acts on interstitial cells (Leydig)
FSH acts on sertoli cells
Ovary
medullary region
most internal part of the ovary; contains a rich vascular bed within a loose connective tissue
cortical region
underneath the tunica albuginea it is the place where ovarian follicles dominate
tunica albuginea
under the germinal epithelium a layer of dense connective tissue which is responsible for the whitish color of the ovary/ functions :- produce female gametes (oocytes),hold a fertilized oocyte during its complete development through embryonic and fetal stages until birth.,produces secxual hormones that control organs of the reproductive system and influence other organs of the body
germinal epithelium
ovarian follicles
primordial
1. a single layer of flattened cells surround the primary oocyte during the 7th month of fetal development. Meiosis remains at this stage (prophase) until the female reaches sexual maturity./ all female germ cells are present at birth
primary
: follicular cells form a stratified follicular epithelium (granulosa layer) whose cell communicate through gap junctions
secondary
1. : follicles grow and move deeper into the cortical region.
mature (Graafian)
1. the dominant follicle of a group of growing follicles enters the most developed stages of follicular growth and undergo ??
zona pellucida
a thick amorphous layer surrounds the oocyte and is secreted by several glycoproteins
granulosa cells
a. stratified columnar epithelium; cell communicate through gap junction.
theca interna
a. outer layer of the oocyte; produce the androstenedione steroid that is transported to the granulose layer.
theca externa
consists mainly of organized layers of fibroblasts that surround the theca interna
antrum
a. a cavity small spaces of coalesced liquor fluid and surrounding granulose cells.
follicular fluid
a. a liquid that begins to accumulate between the follicular cells; hormones and signaling occurs here.
cumulus oophorus
a. small hillock of cells that concentrate on the follicular wall layer and contains the oocyte.
corpus luteum
temporay endocrine gland containing the granulose cells and the cells of the theca interna of the ovulated follicle.
granulosa lutein cells
: under the influence of LH granulose cells increase greatly in size and begin secretion of progesterone
theca lutein cells
: secrete estrogen which are necessary to maintain the thickened uterine mucosa
corpus albicans
“white bodies” a scar of dense connective tissue (collagen) produced by fibroblasts invading the area. Corpus albican represents the fate of the corpus luteum after pregnancy does not occur. It causes by the decrease of progesterone secretion.
interstitial cells
active steroid secretors stimulated by LH; remnants of theca interna cells after atresia
meiosis
oogenesis
follicular atresia
the degeneration of female germ cells at any stage of follicular maturation. The oocytes are disposed by phagocytic cells.
ovulation
consists of the rupture of part of the wall of the mature follicle and liberation of the oocyte.
endocrine function
follicle
: The theca interna secrete progesterone and estrogen precursors. They promote proliferation of the endometrium in readiness for the implantation of a fertilized ovum.
corpus luteum
after ovulation the granulose cells and cells of the theca interna of the ovulated follicle reorganize to form a temporary endocrine gland, which is embedded with the cortical region. Secrete progesterone and estrogen.
-         LH: stimulates ovulation; in response to high circulating estrogen levels. Occurs within minutes after the increase in blood LH.
-         1st meiotic division is completed just before ovulation (until this moment the oocyte was in prophase I of meiosis)
Follicular Development
1. Oogonia: during early fetal development these primordial germ cells migrate into the ovarian cortex where they multiply by mitosis.
2. Primary Oocytes: by the 4th or 5th month of hum fetal development some oogonia enlarge and assume the potential for development into mature gametes. Commence the 1st stage of meiosis
3. Primordial Follicles: a single layer of flattened cells surround the primary oocyte during the 7th month of fetal development. Meiosis remains at this stage (prophase) until the female reaches sexual maturity.
Note: all female germ cells are present at birth.
uterine tube (aka oviduct, fallopian tube)
lined by a ciliated epithelium in which the cilia beat towards the uterus, ovulated cell mass is picked up by fimbrias which move over ovary surface, egg mass is transported down the highly convoluted tube by cilia and by peristalsis, sperm meets egg in tube.
intramural portion
inside the wall of uterus, small simple lumen, lots of muscle
isthmus
longest part of oviduct (connection b/w 2 parts), highly folded, but actually only one tube like semineferous
ampulla
fertilization usually happens here
infundibulum
stalk of uterus with fimbraie
fimbriae
a fringe of fingerlike extensions on one extremity of the infundibulum leading to the fallopian tubes.
uterus
huge amount of smooth muscle capable of division , lining (endothelium) grows in depth under the influence of estrogen and progesterone (proliferative phase), progesterone withdrawal due to cessation of function of corpus luteum leads to shedding of superficial part of endometrium (secretory phase)
uterus body
corpus of uterus that lies above a narrowing of the uterine cavity. Site of embryo gestation
uterus fundus
dome shaped portion of the body of the uterus.
uterus cervix
structure of the uterus which lies beneath the uterine body
uterus endometrium
thickened mucosal lining of uterus that regresses and sheds during menses. Consists of ep., and a lamina propria with simple tubular glands that may branch in deeper portions. Eps are mix of ciliated and secretory and are all simple columnar.
uterus myometrium coiled (spiral) arteries
rich network of arteries supported by CT in the myometria
uterus functional layer
above the basal layer I the endometrium contains upper portions of glands, lamina propria, and surface epithelium. Undgeoes extensive change in menses.
uterus basal layer
deepest layer of endometrium, adjacent to myometrium. It contains a lamina propria and the closed tips of uterine glands.
vagina
expansile muscular tube specialized for the passage of the fetus to the external environment and the reception of the penis during coitus. External folds are called labia. Strat, non-corn., sq.
vaginal epithelium
stratified, non-cornified (non-keratinizing) squamous epthelial lining
breast lactiferous duct
duct that drains each mammary lobe via a separate opening on the surface of the nipple. Basically structures which take milk to nipple in lactation
breast mammary lobules
within each lobe of breasts, the main duct branches repeatedly to form terminal ducts, each which leads to a lobule consisting of multiple acini
menstrual cycle
a new cycle of endometrial proliferation
breast
made up of acina of glandular epithelium and lactiferous ducts; embedded in unilocular adipose tissue. Glandular epithelium expands and alters activity depending on hormones, substantial lymphatic drainage, site of high # of malignancies
testes
: each testis is surrounded by a thick capsule of dense CT, the tunica albuginea. This tunica thickens at the posterior to form the mediastinum testis, from which septa penetrate the gland to form the testicular lobules, each of which contains one to four seminiferous tubules.
rete testis
: network of flattened channels in the mediastinum testis
seminiferous tubule
produce male reproductive cells (spermatozoa) via spermatogenesis.
tubuli recti
each loop of seminiferous tubule ends in a straight section that connect them to the rete testis. Simple Cuboidal epithelium, proximal cells probably modified sertoli cells.
ductuli efferentes
AKA efferent ducts. Excurrent duct portion connecting the rete testis to the cephalic (caput) portion of the epididymis. Tall columnar epithelial cells have cilia that beat in the direction of the epididymis. Cuboidal cells of unknown function. Together they give a “scalloped” look in section.
epididymis
: Highly coiled tubule that transports spermatozoa to the ductus deferens. It’s here that the spermatozoa mature, becoming fertile (egg recognition) and gaining motility (though they won’t be using their motility until after ejaculation). Also, H2O is extracted by the epididymis. Lined by a psuedostratified columnar epithelium to increase surface area. Uptake and digestion of residual bodies.
caput
AKA head. A swelling at the head of the epididymis, most of it is actually part of the efferent ductules.
corpus
AKA body. The main portion of the epididymis
cauda
AKA tail. The final portion of the epididymis. Here the lumen become wider and the sperm more closely packed together as much H2O has been absorbed. Fairly insignificant in humans, merges into the proximal portion of the vas deferens.
principal cells
the tall columnar cells of the psuedostratified epithelium, comprising most of the cells of the epididymis.
sterocilia
: long microvilli that cover the open surface of the epididymis. These extensions increase the surface area of the cell allowing for greater absorption and secretion. The stereocilia have no internal structure and, unlike true cilia, are non-motile.
seminal vesicle
paired glands that synthesize the main component of semen (60% by volume). Although each has a single lumen, the epithelium is so highly folded that the gland appears to consist of many ducts. Surrounded by a thick capsule and a relatively thick muscular layer.
fructose
most abundant carbohydrate produced by the seminal vesicle, used by sperm as a source of energy under some conditions.
ejaculatory duct
begin at the vas deferens, pass through the prostate, and empty into the urethra at the Colliculus seminalis. During ejaculation, semen passes through the ducts and exits the body via the penis.
prostate
: a collection of 30 – 50 branched tubuloalveolar exocrine glands, whose ducts empty into the prostatic urethra. The secretory components of the gland are divided into three concentric layers.
PSA
AKA serine protease. Breaks down seminal fluid into a liquid solution out of which sperm can swim.
mucosal gland
The innermost area is comprised of mucosal glands which are concentrated around and secrete into the upper region of the prostatic urethra.
submucosal gland
The middle or internal area contains submucosal glands which secrete via short ducts into the urethral sinuses.
main prostatic gland
The outer or peripheral area constitutes the majority of the gland and secretes via long ducts into the urethral sinuses.
prostatic concretions
AKA corpora amylacea. Small spherical bodies of calcified glycoproteins occupying the lumen of some prostatic glands.
bulbourethral glands
AKA Cowper’s glands. Tubuloalveolar glands lined with mucous-secreting simple cuboidal epithelium. Skeletal and smooth muscle divide it into lobes. Secreted mucous is a lubricant for coitus.
sperm transport
Seminiferous tubules, tubuli recti, rete testis, ductuli efferentes, ductus epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
sperm maturation
occurs in the epididymis (see above).
ductus deferens
AKA vas deferens. A straight tube with a thick muscular wall; continuous witht eh epididymis. Narrow lumen, crenellated in appearance like the lumen of a ureter. Psuedostratified epithelium.