Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Glia functions
-Physical support
-Metabolic support
-Electric insulation
By shape neurons are divided into
-Unipolar (pseudounipolar) - one process - axon
-Bipolar - one axon, one dendrite
-Multipolar - one axon, many dendrites
You characterize cell by 5 things. What are they
-Shape of cell
-Shape of nucleus
-Staining of nucleus
-Position of nucleus
-Staining of cytoplasm
Describe nucleus
Centered, lightly stained - euchromatic with prominent nucleolus
Motor neurons are _ by shape
Sensory neurons are _ by shape
True bipolar neurons are limited to _
Retina of eye and ganglia of vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
What serves as landmark to distinguish between axon and dendrite and why
Axon hillock - free of organelles
Nissl bodies stain with _
Hematoxylin (basic dyes), high metabolism
Describe dendrites
Receptor processes that receive information and transfer it to cell body, so located near cell body. Unmyelinated, form dendritic trees.
Dendrites have all organelles except
Golgi apparatus
Axons have organelles except
rER + GOlgi
AP rises from
Initial segment - between axon hillock and beginning of myelin sheath
Two types of axons - name them
Golgi type I - long axons, motor neurons
Golgi type II - short axons, interneurons
Axonal transport brings proteins from _ to _
Cell body
Dendrites and axons
Types of synapses
Functional types of synapses
Electrical - snails
Presynaptic knob contains ATP binding protein called _ which is used for _
targeting and fusion with presynaptic membrane
Postsynaptic membrane contains _
Receptors for NT + postsynaptic density
Mammalian equivalent of electrical synapse in invertebrates is _
Gap junctions
Anterograde transport occurs from _ to _
soma, periphery
Anterograde transport is mediated by protein called _
Retrograde transport mediated by protein called _
Retrograde transport occurs from _ to _
Axon terminal and dendrites, soma
Anterograde transport occurs at two speeds : _ and _, while retrograde only at one - _
Slow and Fast
Fast only
Slow anterograde transport carries _
Structural protein
Fast anterograde transport carries _
NT's, mitochondria, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, Ca
Fast retrograde transport carries _
Reglatory proteins
Fast transport in both directions requires _
Glia in PNS are _
Schwann cells and Satellite cells
Glia in CNS are
Schwann cells make _
What happens to cytoplasm during myelination
It is squeezed out and membranes fuse, cytoplasm remains in inner and outer lamellae and small islands of membrane
Describe layers of myelination
Myelin - neurilemma (Schwann sheath) - external basal lamina
Myelin between two nodes of Ranvier is called
Internodal segment
Schmidt - Lanterman cleft contains _
Cell bodies of ganglion cells are surrounded by layer of _
Satellite cells - electrical and metabolic insulation
Largest neuroglial cells in CNS
Two types of astrocytes
Protoplasmic - gray matter - many short branching processes
Fibrous astrocyte - white matter, not as many processes, straight processes
Protein contained in astrocytes (mostly fibrous)
GFAP - glial fibrillary acidic protein
End of processes of astrocytes form _ that cover _
end feet
vessels (blood- brain barrier), myelin sheath, inner surface of pia mater (glia limitans)
Function of microglial cells
Debris removal - phagocytotic cells, migrate to sites of injury
Ependymal cells form _
epithelial lining of cavities filled with CNS
Ependymal cells have two surfaces - name them
Apical - cilia + microvili
Basal - interdigitation with astrocytes
Cover choroid plexi - CSF
Oligodendrocytes differ from Schwann cells in that they
dont have external lamina and fewer Schmidt Lanterman cells, also larger nodes of Ranvier
Unmyelinated axons in PNS vs CNS
PNS - embedded in cytoplasm
CNS - absolutely bare
Envelopes of peripheral nerve
Endoneurium - surrounds each nerve fiber (myelin sheath)
Perineurium - around nerve bundles, gap jumctions form BBB
Epineurium - dense irregular CT, surrounds fascicles - contains blood vessels